When Tesla was determining the resonant frequencies of the earth to potentially transmit unlimited electric power, he also recognized frequencies that acted as a damping field to nullify electric power. With the advent of the wireless and Tesla's unique investigations into broadcasting electricity, a dozen or more inventors thereafter announced their own means for transmitting electrical energy without wires. One British inventor, H. Grindell-Matthews, actually demonstrated his "mystery ray" apparatus in 1924 to a Popular Science Monthly writer in London (See: Pop. Sci. Monthly, Aug. 1924, P. 33).
When his beam was directed toward the magneto system of a gasoline engine, it stopped the system. Afterwards, it ignited gun powder, lit an electric lamp bulb from a distance and killed a mouse in seconds! Grindell-Matthews said the secret was involved with the "carrier beam" he used to conduct a high-voltage, low-frequency electrical current. During 1936, Guglielmo Marconi experimented with extremely low frequency (ELF) waves and displayed their exceptional ability to penetrate metallic shielding. These waves could affect electrical devices, overload circuits and cause machines like generators, electric motors and automobiles to stall. Diesel engines, which do not rely on electrical ignition, were not affected. Mysteriously, Marconi's research on the subject was never found after the war.
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF POWER
Resonating Planet Earth
by Toby Grotz
Theoretical Electromagnetic Studies and Learning Association, Inc.
522 West Third Street
Leadville, CO 80461
Many researchers have speculated on the meaning of the phrase "non-
Hertzian waves" as used by Dr. Nikola Tesla. Dr. Tesla first began to
use this term in the mid 1890's in order to explain his proposed system
for the wireless transmission of electrical power. In fact, it was not
until the distinction between the method that Heinrich Hertz was using
and the system Dr. Tesla had designed, that Dr. Tesla was able to
receive the endorsement of the renowned physicist, Lord Kelvin.1
To this day, however, there exists a confusion amongs researchers,
experimentalists, popular authors and laymen as to the meaning of non-
Hertzian waves and the method Dr. Tesla was promoting for the wireless
transmission of power. In this paper, the terms pertinent to wireless
transmission of power will be explained and the methods being used by
present researchers in a recreation of the Tesla's 1899 Colorado
Springs experiments will be defined.
Early Theories of Electromagnetic Propagation
In pre-World War I physics, scientists postulated a number of
theories to explain the propagation of electromagnetic energy through
the ether. There were three popular theories present in the literature
of the late 1800's and early 1900's. They were:
1. Transmission through or along the Earth,
2. Propagation as a result of terrestrial resonances,
3. Coupling to the ionosphere using propagation through
We shall concern our examination at this time to the latter two
theories as they were both used by Dr. Tesla at various times to
explain his system of wireless transmission of power. It should be
noted, however, that the first theory was supported by Fritz
Lowenstein, the first vice-president of the Institute of Radio
Engineers, a man who had the enviable experience of assisting Dr. Tesla
during the Colorado Springs experiments of 1899. Lowenstein presented
what came to be known as the "gliding wave" theory of electromagnetic
radiation and propagation during a lecture before the IRE in 1915.
Dr. Tesla delivered lectures to the Franklin Institute at
Philadelphia, in February, 1983, and to the National Electric Light
Association in St. Louis, in March, 1983, concerning electromagnetic
wave propagation. The theory presented in those lectures proposed that
the Earth could be considered as a conducting sphere and that it could
support a large electrical charge. Dr. Tesla proposed to disturb the
charge distribution on the surface of the Earth and record the period
of the resulting oscillations as the charge returned to its state of
equilibrium. The problem of a single charged sphere had been analyzed
at that time by J.J. Thompson and A.G. Webster in a treatise entitled
"The Spherical Oscillator." This was the beginning of an examination
of what we may call the science of terrestrial resonances, culminating
in the 1950's and 60's with the engineering of VLF radio systems and
the research and discoveries of W.O. Schumann and J.R. Waite.
The second method of energy propagation proposed by Dr. Tesla was
that of the propagation of electrical energy through electrified gases.
Dr. Tesla experimented with the use of high frequency RF currents to
examine the properties of gases over a wide range of pressures. It was
determined by Dr. Tesla that air under a partial vacuum could conduct
high frequency electrical currents as well or better than copper wires.
If a transmitter could be elevated to a level where the air pressure
was on the order of 75 to 130 millimeters in pressure and an excitation
of megavolts was applied, it was theorized that;
"...the air will serve as a conductor for the current produced, and
the latter will be transmitted through the air with, it may be, even
less resistance than through an ordinary copper wire".2 (Fig. 2)
Resonating Planet Earth
Dr. James T. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum, in chapter two of their soon
to be published book, A Tesla Primer, point out a number of statements
made by Dr. Tesla which indicate that he was using resonator fields and
transmission line modes.
1. When he speaks of tuning his apparatus until Hertzian radiations
have been eliminated, he is referring to using ELF vibrations: "...the
Hertzian effect has gradually been reduced through the lowering of
2. "...the energy received does not diminish with the square of the
distance, as it should, since the Hertzian radiation propagates in a
3. He apparently detected resonator or standing wave modes: "...my
discovery of the wonderful law governing the movement of electricity
through the globe...the projection of the wavelengths (measured along
the surface) on the earth's diameter or axis of symmetry...are all
4. "We are living on a conducting globe surrounded by a thin layer of
insulating air, above which is a rarefied and conducting
atmosphere...The Hertz waves represent energy which is radiated and
unrecoverable. The current energy, on the other hand, is preserved and
can be recovered, theoretically at least, in its entirety."4
As Dr. Corum points out, "The last sentence seems to indicate that
Tesla's Colorado Springs experiments could be properly interpreted as
characteristic of a wave-guide probe in a cavity resonator."5 This was
in fact what led Dr. Tesla to report a measurement which to this day is
not understood and has led many to erroneously assume that he was
dealing with faster than light velocities.
The Controversial Measurement;
It does not indicate faster than light velocity
The mathematical models and experimental data used by Schumann and
Waite to describe ELF transmission and propagation are complex and
beyond the scope of this paper. Dr. James F. Corum, Kenneth L. Corum
and Dr. A-Hamid Aidinejad have, however, in a series of papers
presented at the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium and the 1986
International Tesla Symposium, applied the experimental values obtained
by Dr. Tesla during his Colorado Springs experiments to the models and
equations used by Schumann and Waite. The results of this exercise
have proved that the Earth and the surrounding atmosphere can be used
as a cavity resonator for the wireless transmission of electrical
power. (Fig. 3)
Dr. Tesla reported that .08484 seconds was the time that a pulse
emitted from his laboratory took to propagate to the opposite side of
the planet and to return. From this statement many have assumed that
his transmissions exceeded the speed of light and many esoteric and
fallacious theories and publications have been generated. As Corum and
Aidinejad point out, in their 1986 paper, "The Transient Propagation of
ELF Pulses in the Earth Ionosphere Cavity", this measurement represents
the coherence time of the Earth cavity resonator system. This is also
known to students of radar systems as a determination of the range
dependent parameter. The accompanying diagrams from Corum's and
Aidinejad's paper graphically illustrate the point. (Fig. 3 & Fig. 4)
We now turn to a description of the methods to be used to build, as
Dr. Tesla did in 1899, a cavity resonator for the wireless transmission
of electrical power.
The Wireless Transmission of Electrical Energy Using Schumann Resonance
It has been proven that electrical energy can be propagated around
the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at
extreme low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity. The
Schumann cavity surrounds the Earth between ground level and extends
upward to a maximum 80 kilometers. Experiments to date have shown that
electromagnetic waves of extreme low frequencies in the range of 8 Hz,
the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with little
attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity.
Knowing that a resonant cavity can be excited and that power can be
delivered to that cavity similar to the methods used in microwave ovens
for home use, it should be possible to resonate and deliver power via
the Schumann Cavity to any point on Earth. This will result in
practical wireless transmission of electrical power.
Although it was not until 1954-1959 when experimental measurements
were made of the frequency that is propagated in the resonant cavity
surrounding the Earth, recent analysis shows that it was Nikola Tesla
who, in 1899, first noticed the existence of stationary waves in the
Schumann cavity. Tesla's experimental measurements of the wave length
and frequency involved closely match Schumann's theoretical
calculations. Some of these observations were made in 1899 while Tesla
was monitoring the electromagnetic radiations due to lightning
discharges in a thunderstorm which passed over his Colorado Springs
laboratory and then moved more than 200 miles eastward across the
plains. In his Colorado Springs Notes, Tesla noted that these
stationary waves "... can be produced with an oscillator," and added in
parenthesis, "This is of immense importance."6 The importance of his
observations is due to the support they lend to the prime objective of
the Colorado Springs laboratory. The intent of the experiments and the
laboratory Tesla had constructed was to prove that wireless
transmission of electrical power was possible.
Schumann Resonance is analogous to pushing a pendulum. The intent of
Project Tesla is to create pulses or electrical disturbances that would
travel in all directions around the Earth in the thin membrane of non-
conductive air between the ground and the ionosphere. The pulses or
waves would follow the surface of the Earth in all directions expanding
outward to the maximum circumference of the Earth and contracting
inward until meeting at a point opposite to that of the transmitter.
This point is called the anti-pode. The traveling waves would be
reflected back from the anti-pode to the transmitter to be reinforced
and sent out again.
At the time of his measurements Tesla was experimenting with and
researching methods for "...power transmission and transmission of
intelligible messages to any point on the globe." Although Tesla was
not able to commercially market a system to transmit power around the
globe, modern scientific theory and mathematical calculations support
his contention that the wireless propagation of electrical power is
possible and a feasible alternative to the extensive and costly grid of
electrical transmission lines used today for electrical power
The Need for a Wireless System of Energy Transmission
A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive
use of energy, the limited supply of resources, and the pollution of
the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems.
Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. Much of this
power is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to the
consumer. The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid
distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated.
This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is
only 70-74% efficient.
A system of power distribution with little or no loss would conserve
energy. It would reduce pollution and expenses resulting from the need
to generate power to overcome and compensate for losses in the present
The proposed project would demonstrate a method of energy
distribution calculated to be 90-94% efficient. An electrical
distribution system, based on this method would eliminate the need for
an inefficient, costly, and capital intensive grid of cables, towers,
and substations. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy
used by the consumer and rid the landscape of wires, cables, and
There are areas of the world where the need for electrical power
exists, yet there is no method for delivering power. Africa is in need
of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the
Sahara Desert. Rural areas, such as those in China, require the
electrical power necessary to bring them into the 20th century and to
equal standing with western nations.
As first proposed by Buckminster Fuller, wireless transmission of
power would enable world wide distribution of off peak demand capacity.
This concept is based on the fact that some nations, especially the
United States, have the capacity to generate much more power than is
needed. This situation is accentuated at night. The greatest amount
of power used, the peak demand, is during the day. The extra power
available during the night could be sold to the side of the planet
where it is day time. Considering the huge capacity of power plants in
the United States, this system would provide a saleable product which
could do much to aid our balance of payments.
Of the 56 billion dollars spent for research by the the U.S
government in 1987, 64% was for military purposes, only 8% was spent on
energy related research. More efficient energy distribution systems
and sources are needed by both developed and under developed nations.
In regards to Project Tesla, the market for wireless power transmission
systems is enormous. It has the potential to become a multi-billion
dollar per year market.
The increasing demand for electrical energy in industrial nations is
well documented. If we include the demand of third world nations,
pushed by their increasing rate of growth, we could expect an even
faster rise in the demand for electrical power in the near future.
In 1971, nine industrialized nations, (with 25 percent of the world's
population), used 690 million kilowatts, 76 percent of all power
generated. The rest of the world used only 218 million kilowatts. By
comparison, China generated only 17 million kilowatts and India
generated only 15 million kilowatts (less than two percent each).7 If
a conservative assumption was made that the three-quarters of the world
which is only using one-quarter of the current power production were to
eventually consume as much as the first quarter, then an additional 908
million kilowatts will be needed. The demand for electrical power will
continue to increase with the industrialization of the world.
The Energy Information Agency (EIA), based in Washington, D.C.,
reported the 1985 net generation of electric power to be 2,489 billion
kilowatt hours. At a conservative sale price of $.04 per kilowatt hour
that results in a yearly income of 100 billion dollars. The EIA also
reported that the 1985 capacity according to generator name plates to
be 656,118 million watts. This would result in a yearly output of
5,740 billion kilowatt hours at 100% utilization. What this means is
that we use only about 40% of the power we can generate (an excess
capability of 3,251 billion kilowatt hours).
Allowing for down time and maintenance and the fact that the night time
off peak load is available, it is possible that half of the excess
power generation capability could be utilized. If 1,625 billion
kilowatt hours were sold yearly at $.06/kilowatt, income would total
9.7 billion dollars.
Project Tesla: Objectives
The objectives of Project Tesla are divided into three areas of
1. Demonstration that the Schumann Cavity can be resonated with an
open air, vertical dipole antenna;
2. Measurement of power insertion losses;
3. Measurement of power retrieval losses, locally and at a distance.
A full size, 51 foot diameter, air core, radio frequency resonating
coil and a unique 130 foot tower, insulated 30 feet above ground, have
been constructed and are operational at an elevation of approximately
11,000 feet. This system was originally built by Robert Golka in 1973-
1974 and used until 1982 by the United States Air Force at Wendover AFB
in Wendover, Utah. The USAF used the coil for simulating natural
lightning for testing and hardening fighter aircraft. The system has a
capacity of over 600 kilowatts. The coil, which is the largest part
of the system, has already been built, tested, and is operational.
A location at a high altitude is initially advantageous for reducing
atmospheric losses which work against an efficient coupling to the
Schumann Cavity. The high frequency, high voltage output of the coil
will be half wave rectified using a uniquely designed single electrode
X-ray tube. The X-ray tube will be used to charge a 130 ft. tall,
vertical tower which will function to provide a vertical current
moment. The mast is topped by a metal sphere 30 inches in diameter.
X-rays emitted from the tube will ionize the atmosphere between the
Tesla coil and the tower. This will result in a low resistance path
causing all discharges to flow from the coil to the tower. A
circulating current of 1,000 amperes in the system will create an
ionization and corona causing a large virtual electrical capacitance in
the medium surrounding the sphere. The total charge around the tower
will be in the range of between 200-600 coulombs. Discharging the
tower 7-8 times per second through a fixed or rotary spark gap will
create electrical disturbances, which will resonantly excite the
Schumann Cavity, and propagate around the entire Earth.
The propagated wave front will be reflected from the antipode back to
the transmitter site. The reflected wave will be reinforced and again
radiated when it returns to the transmitter. As a result, an
oscillation will be established and maintained in the Schumann Cavity.
The loss of power in the cavity has been estimated to be about 6% per
round trip. If the same amount of power is delivered to the cavity on
each cycle of oscillation of the transmitter, there will be a net
energy gain which will result in a net voltage, or amplitude increase.
This will result in reactive energy storage in the cavity. As long as
energy is delivered to the cavity, the process will continue until the
energy is removed by heating, lightning discharges, or as is proposed
by this project, loading by tuned circuits at distant locations for
The resonating cavity field will be detected by stations both in the
United States and overseas. These will be staffed by engineers and
scientists who have agreed to participate in the experiment.
Measurement of power insertion and retrieval losses will be made at
the transmitter site and at distant receiving locations. Equipment
constructed especially for measurement of low frequency electromagnetic
waves will be employed to measure the effectiveness of using the
Schumann Cavity as a means of electrical power distribution. The
detection equipment used by project personnel will consist of a pick up
coil and industry standard low noise, high gain operational amplifiers
and active band pass filters.
In addition to project detection there will be a record of the
experiment recorded by a network of monitoring stations that have been
set up specifically to monitor electromagnetic activity in the Schumann
The project will be evaluated by an analysis of the data provided by
local and distant measurement stations. The output of the transmitter
will produce a 7-8 Hz sine wave as a result of the discharges from the
antenna. The recordings made by distant stations will be time
synchronized to ensure that the data received is a result of the
operation of the transmitter.
Power insertion and retrieval losses will be analyzed after the
measurements taken during the transmission are recorded. Attenuation,
field strength, and cavity Q will be calculated using the equations
presented in Dr. Corum's papers. These papers are noted in the
references. If recorded results indicate power can be efficiently
coupled into or transmitted in the Schumann Cavity, a second phase of
research involving power reception will be initiated.
The extreme low frequencies (ELF), present in the environment have
several origins. The time varying magnetic fields produced as a result
of solar and lunar influences on ionospheric currents are on the order
of 30 nanoteslas. The largest time varying fields are those generated
by solar activity and thunderstorms. These magnetic fields reach a
maximum of 0.5 microteslas (uT) The magnetic fields produced as a
result of lightning discharges in the Schumann Cavity peak at 7, 14, 20
and 26 Hz. The magnetic flux densities associated with these resonant
frequencies vary from 0.25 to 3.6 picoteslas. per root hertz
Exposure to man made sources of ELF can be up to 1 billion (1000
million or 1 x 109) times stronger than that of naturally occurring
fields. Household appliances operated at 60 Hz can produce fields as
high as 2.5 mT. The field under a 765 kV, 60 Hz power line carrying 1
amp per phase is 15 uT. ELF antennae systems that are used for
submarine communication produce fields of 20 uT. Video display
terminals produce fields of 2 uT, 1,000,000 times the strength of the
Schumann Resonance frequencies.9
Project Tesla will use a 150 kw generator to excite the Schumann
cavity. Calculations predict that the field strength due to this
excitation at 7.8 Hz will be on the order of 46 picoteslas.
The successful resonating of the Schumann Cavity and wireless
transmission of power on a small scale resulting in proof of principle
will require a second phase of engineering, the design of receiving
stations. On completion of the second phase, the third and fourth
phases of the project involving further tests and improvements and a
large scale demonstration project will be pursued to prove commercial
feasibility. Total cost from proof of principle to commercial
prototype is expected to total $3 million. Interest in participation
in this project may be directed to the author.
The following four papers were presented at the 1984 Tesla Centennial
Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium.
"The Transient Propagation of ELF Pulses in the Earth-Ionosphere
Cavity", by A-Ahamid Aidinejad and James F. Corum.
"Disclosures Concerning the Operation of an ELF Oscillator", by James
F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.
"A Physical Interpretation of the Colorado Springs Data", by James F.
Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.
"Critical Speculations Concerning Tesla's Invention and Applications
of Single Electrode X-Ray Directed Discharges for Power Processing,
Terrestrial Resonances and Particle Beam Weapons" by James F. Corum and
Kenneth L. Corum.
1. Tesla Said, Compiled by John T. Ratzlaff, Tesla Book Company,
Millbrae, CA, 1984.
2. Dr. Nikola Tesla: Selected Patent Wrappers, compiled by John T.
Ratzlaff, Tesla Book Company, 1980, Vol. I, Pg. 128.
3. "The Disturbing Influence of Solar Radiation on the Wireless
Transmission of Energy", by Nikola Tesla, Electrical Review, July 6,
1912, PP. 34, 35.
4. "The Effect of Static on Wireless Transmission", by Nikola Tesla,
Electrical Experimenter, January 1919, PP. 627, 658.
5. Tesla Primer and Handbook, Dr. James T. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum,
unpublished. Corum and Associates, 8551 ST Rt 534, Windsor, Ohio 44099
6. Colorado Springs Notes, 1899 - 1900, Nikola Tesla, Nikola Tesla
Museum, Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978, Pg. 62.
7. Van Nostrands Scientific Encylopedia, Fith Edition, Pg. 899.
8. "PC Monitors Lightning Worldwide", Davis D. Sentman, Computers in
Science, Premiere Issue, 1987.
9. "Artificially Stimulated Resonance of the Earth's Schumann Cavity
Waveguide", Toby Grotz, Proceedings of the Third International New
Energy Technology Symposium/Exhibition, June 25th-28th, 1988, Hull,
Quebec, Planetary Association for Clean Energy, 191 Promenade du
Portage/600, Hull, Quebec J8X 2K6 Canada
Marconi stole Teslas Patents
The Guglielmo Marconi Case - Who is the True Inventor of Radio?
How many mistakes are there in our history books after all? How many facts are erroneously described and so replicated throughout the world, while the reality is completely different?
The invention of radio is one of these cases. Despite the fact that almost every book mentions Guglielmo Marconi as the inventor of radio, the only thing Marconi did seems to be nothing more than reproducing apparati Nikola Tesla had registered years ago. Marconi copied Tesla, made some modifications, built a large industry producing radio devices in Europe and spent huge amounts to advertise his supposed invention.
Yet, the inventor of radio is Nikola Tesla, as proved by official court decisions and as great scientists of his era admit.
1893 - Tesla carries his first experiments with high frequency electric currents. The first demonstration of wireless communication. In his articles and lectures Tesla describes his first radio apparatus in detail.
Marconi presents a radio device in London, claiming it as his invention. However, the device is the same as what Tesla had already described in his articles. Later on, Marconi will claim that he had not read Tesla's articles, despite that they were translated in many languages very quickly.
First patent registered by Nikola Tesla on radio communication, Patent No. 645576.
Tesla constructs the first remotely controlled boat and demonstrates it in New York. He registers this invention under Patent No. 613809.
Tesla builds a large radio station in Colorado Springs, USA and starts his experiments. His observations are noted in his diary.
Marconi starts selling his radio apparatus. Tesla says he wants to sue him.
Tesla begins the construction of a huge radio station in Wanderclyffe, near New York. This station, Tesla's biggest dream, would transmit electric signals and energy to the whole planet. It was never completed, due to lack of financial means. The same year, Marconi transmits his first message over the Atlantic. The world was impressed, but did not learn that Marconi was only using Tesla's Patent No. 645576 (1897).
Marconi starts exploiting the rights of his supposed invention, considering himself, and not Tesla, the patent holder.
In an article in "Electrical Experimenter" Tesla announces a system to locate metallic objects through radio signal reflection. This is the beginning of the radar.
Nine months after Tesla's death, the Supreme Patent Court of the USA decides that Nikola Tesla must be considered the father of wireless transmission and radio. Justifying its decision the court notes that in Marconi's related Patent (No. 763772 of 1904) there is nothing new not having been earlier published and registered by Tesla. The Court considered Marconi's claim that he did not knew of Tesla's patents false.
Tesla's drawing published in 1893, showing the first radio communication
Other Scientists' Opinions
Alexander Popov, radio pioneer, in front of the Congress of Russian Electrical Engineers in 1900: "the emission and reception of signals by Marconi by means of electric oscillations is nothing new. In America, the famous engineer Nikola Tesla carried the same experiments in 1893."
James Wait, in charge of the USA project for radio communications with submarines at low frequencies: "from a historic point of view, Nikola Tesla imagined a world communications system employing a huge emitter in Colorado Springs in 1899; unfortunately, his sponsor cut all financial support. Tesla's experiments however have a tremendous similarity to the future development of low frequency communications."
B.A. Behrend, famous American scientist. It is said that when his colleagues thought they had discovered something new, he suggested they first had a look at Tesla's patents before proceeding with publishing their findings.
Edwine Armstrong, Tesla's colleague, later honored with a Nobel prize: "I believe that the world will wait long time for a progress and imagination equal to Tesla's."
In one of his rare moments of expressing anger when asked to comment on Marconi, Tesla said: "Marconi is a... donkey"
Despite all these, Marconi received the Nobel prize in 1909 for wireless telegraphy! When the possibility of honoring Nikola Tesla with the Nobel Prize was discussed later (likely for his work on electric energy transmission) he publicly refused it, noting that the importance of his inventions was not yet understood and that for him it would be more important to see his name on each of his numerous inventions that changed the world. Even for one such invention, he concluded, he would give the Nobel Prize away for a thousand years.
"Tesla: Man out of time", Margaret Cheney, Ed. Layrel, N.York 1983. (probably the best Tesla biography)
"Nikola Tesla, Life and Work of a Genius", Yugoslavian Society for the Promotion of the Scientific Thought "Nikola Tesla", Belgrade 1976. (Proceedings of the Nikola Tesla conference for the pronouncement of the year 1976 as the Nikola Tesla Year in Yugoslavia)
Marconi Scientists Mystery
In the 1980,s over two dozen science graduates and experts working for Marconi or Plessey Defence Systems died in mysterious circumstances, most appearing to be 'suicides.' The MOD denied these scientists had been involved in classified Star Wars Projects and that the deaths were in any way connected. - click here for a list & details
HAARP array may use Moon as a reflector to reach distant targets on Earth to create Nuclear-Sized Explosions Without Radiation!
By Guy Cramer
As political and military experts on News talk shows discuss with all seriousness, the potential for a tactical nuclear response from the U.S. for the mounting bio-terror attacks, it should be pointed out that geophysics warfare weapons such as HAARP are making nuclear retaliation obsolete.
This military array in Alaska and others like it around the world have the potential to deliver an equivalent nuclear detonation to a long-range target without warning, without the missile and without the radiation. One of 12 U.S. HAARP patents is titled: U.S. Patent 4873928: Nuclear-Sized Explosions Without Radiation
HAARP was constructed under the SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) other wise known as "Star Wars".
The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is a congressionally initiated program jointly managed by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy. Using 3 gigawatts of power (3 billion watts) from a 23-acre site in Gakona, Alaska, it is considered the most powerful array on Earth.
Another ability of an array such as HAARP could be used to heat radiate people within a large yet distant target, even a buried underground bunker or cave network. This would minimize public and international opposition to such a response as the effects, although not as visual as tactical nuclear detonations, provides a similar broad termination of targets. The world may not even realize anything had happened and thus large-scale enemy losses in one location without physical munitions detonations may be played down or passed off as conventional combat or Special Forces action.
The trick to using such a weapon with underground targets is to find the target in the first place. The same array that may be used to deliver the effect can also be used to penetrate deep into the ground to find the target. HAARP can in effect be used for Earth-penetrating tomography, which can reveal the existence of underground installations.
The HAARP complex consists of 180 towers, 72 feet in height, forming a "high-power, high frequency phased array radio transmitter". Military applications of HAARP include long-range ground penetration radar, over the horizon radar, submarine communication…
The basics for Ground penetration or target neutralization is to use the antenna array to target and heat the ionosphere in the upper atmosphere to create a lens to bounce or reflect a signal off to a target of great distance. Although some distances may be to far to reach a target if it is on the other side of the globe.
In late 1998 and early 1999 the ELFRAD GROUP monitored a daily frequency from .9 to .95 hertz (pulses per second), the wavelength of this frequency was approximately 319,877km or 198,711 miles. The moon's distance is fairly close to the wavelength. The signal appears to be a controlled signal transmitted from an unknown source at approximately the same time daily except weekends. The signal is strong enough to generate it's third harmonic which is 2.81235 hz. The signal has a very quick rise time and a slower decay at the end, which is usually indicative of an artificial source. A low pass filtered showed the signal tracks very well with the magnetometers placed in various locations around the planet especially those in the northern area.
Lets pick apart the data above. A Ultra Low Frequency signal in late 1998 through early 1999 from an unknown source which occurs only on week days, powerful enough to create a third harmonic wave, with a quick rise slow decay which tracks better with magnetometers in the North and a wavelength approximately matching the distance to the moon. The answer seems apparent HAARP or a similar array in the North is bouncing signals off the Moon back to the Earth.
Why would you want to bounce signals off the Moon?
To reach targets around the world you could design a floating mobile HAARP that would have to equal the surface area of five large aircraft carriers or 8 super tankers tied together costing billions of dollars, or you could use a stationary permanent array such as HAARP and use the moon as a reflector to effectively bounce your signals anywhere on Earth given mutual Moon visibility between the source and the target!
Ham radio enthusiasts call this reflection technique EME (Earth-Moon-Earth) or Moonbounce, and have been utilizing the moon with High Frequencies since the 1950's to communicate around the world. HAARP can transmit both Low and High Frequencies.
It is rumoured that Israel has access to a similar array, which would increase mutual moon visibility in the Middle East region for Moonbounce transmission, but proximity to any targets in this area might be close enough to an Israeli array that Ionosphere reflection might be possible around the clock.
Tactical Nuclear retaliation by the U.S. during the War on Terrorism is in effect obsolete, given that the Americans could Tactically strike with a geophysics array producing similar damage associated with nuclear detonation, without the long term detrimental effects and downwind radioactive fallout. Other alternative uses of the array such as radiating transmissions may provide similar biological target termination without any blast effects. Moonbounce techniques also mean that a stationary array can in effect target anywhere on the Earth.
Star Wars now seems an appropriate term for this particular Strategic Defense Initiative using HAARP to utilize the Moon as a potential Death Star!
Japan Plans To Launch Solar Power Station In Space By 2040
by Takahiro Fukada Tokyo (AFP) Jan. 31, 2001
Undaunted by its less than glorious track record in space, Japan's ministry of economy, trade and industry (METI) has ambitious plans to launch a giant solar power station by 2040.
"We are starting research for a solar power generation satellite from fiscal year 2001 in April," Osamu Takenouchi, of METI's airplane, weapons and space industry division told AFP. "We are planning to start operating the system in 2040," Takenouchi added. "On Earth, clouds absorb sunlight, reducing (solar) power generation. But in space, we will be able to generate electric power even at night," Takenouchi said.
METI plans to launch a satellite capable of generating one million kilowatts per second -- equivalent to the output of a nuclear plant -- into geostationary orbit, about 36,000 kilometers (22,320 miles) above the earth's surface. The satellite will have two gigantic solar power-generating wing panels, each measuring three kilometers by a 1,000 meter diameter power transmission antenna between them, Takenouchi said.
The electricity produced will be sent back to earth in the form of microwaves with a lower intensity than those emitted by mobile phones.
"We intend to ensure the microwaves will not interrupt mobile phone and other telecommunications," Takenouchi said. The receiving antenna on the ground, several kilometers in diameter, would probably be set up in a desert or at sea, and the electricity relayed from there along conventional cables he said.
The satellite is projected to weigh about 20,000 tonnes and the total construction cost is estimated at around two trillion yen (17 billion dollars), at current prices. One economic hurdle so far is that it would cost about 23 yen per kilowatt hour to generate power in space compared to nine yen for thermal or nuclear power generation.
"But we will consider ways to lower the costs," Takenouchi said.
A similar plan was aired by the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) but nothing has so far come of it. One of the reasons for pursuing the dream of beaming power back to Earth is that scientists believe it could help reduce global warming.
"Solar power generation will not emit carbon dioxide, and so would benefit the environment compared to thermal power," Takenouchi said. Besides, "the safety and other issues associated with nuclear power generation will disappear," Takenouchi said.
Honorary professor of space science at Tokyo University, Jun Nishimura said launching such a huge satellite was theoretically possible, adding the investment on research and development was money well spent.
Satellites being put into orbit nowadays weigh between 20 and 30 tonnes on average, Nishimura noted. "But 20 to 30 years earlier, satellites weighing only 100 kilograms could be launched." "The International Space Station will also be huge."
While the lead time needed to develop the technology to build large-scale structures in space made 2040 a realistic target date, "the real question is cost performance," he said. "Solar power generation in space can be realized only if the same amount of electricity can be generated at the same cost" as conventional means of power generation including construction costs, Nishimura said.
Japan started its space development programme in 1969 and has launched more than 30 rockets. But the programme has been blighted by a series of embarrassing failures. Last November, the National Space Development Agency of Japan was forced to explode an H-2 rocket and satellite by remote control when it veered off course after lift-off. In February 1998, a satellite was lost in space despite a successful separation from an H-2 rocket because it was released at the wrong altitude and sent into an elliptical orbit.
The H-2 is intended to be Japan's answer to Europe's Ariane commercial satellite launch vehicle.
A Constellation Of Orbital Power
Huntsville - March 27, 2001 NASA Space Science
It's December 2000 and the governor of California flips a switch illuminating the state Christmas tree on the capital lawn. Twenty minutes later, he orders aides to pull the plug. Why? Statewide power shortages. The United States energy secretary ordered a dozen out-of-state power companies to sell electricity to California to avert blackouts. But it's not just California. In metropolitan areas across the country, residents are being asked to limit power consumption during peak periods of the day. Last November, in the midst of the closest presidential election in history, Tom Brokaw referred to the electricity shortages as "The Real Power Struggle."
So what's going on here?
"The United States consumption of energy is almost flat," says Dr. Neville Marzwell, technical manager of the Advanced Concepts & Technology Innovations program at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "But, we are decommissioning nuclear plants across the country and they are not being replaced." Twenty-three states have joined California in deregulation of the power industry, a step which is forcing companies to take a longer look at investing billions in construction of new power plants.
With the world's population projected to skyrocket to 10 billion people by the year 2050, supplying cheap, environmentally friendly electricity to meet basic needs will be a daunting challenge.
"We need new sources of electrical power," said John Mankins, Manager of Advanced Concepts Studies at NASA Headquarters Office of Space Flight, "and we have been studying a variety of space solar power concepts. Tremendous advances have been made in many relevant technologies in the last fifteen years."
NASA's involvement in space solar power, or SSP for short, began after the oil embargo of the mid-1970's when the space agency (working under the leadership of the US Department of Energy) began to study alternative energy sources that might result in less dependence on foreign oil.
Proposed space solar power systems utilize well-known physical principles -- namely, the conversion of sunlight to electricity by means of photovoltaic cells. (You can see such cells on many neighborhood rooftops and on small sidewalk lighting fixtures.) Giant structures consisting of row after row of photovoltaic (PV) arrays could be placed either in a geostationary Earth orbit or on the Moon. A complete system would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwave radiation to Earth where it would be captured by a ground antenna and transformed to usable electricity.
According to an April 2000 article in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Journal, photovoltaic arrays in a geostationary Earth orbit (at an altitude of 22,300 miles) would receive, on average, eight times as much sunlight as they would on Earth's surface. Such arrays would be unaffected by cloud cover, atmospheric dust or by the Earth's day-night cycle.
When the idea was first proposed more than 30 years ago, PV technology was still in its infancy. The conversion efficiency rate -- the fraction of the sun's incident energy converted into electricity -- was only 7 to 9 percent.
"We now have the technology to convert the sun's energy at the rate of 42 to 56 percent," said Marzwell. "We have made tremendous progress."
Even so, launching thousands of tons of solar arrays into space will be expensive. But there may be a way to reduce the needed area of the arrays -- by concentrating sunlight.
"If you can concentrate the sun's rays through the use of large mirrors or lenses you get more for your money because most of the cost is in the PV arrays," said Marzwell.
A drawback to concentrated sunlight is that it is hot. Focused radiation that's not converted to electricity turns into heat -- enough to damage the arrays if there's too much excess warmth. Marzwell and his colleagues at JPL are studying ways to capture waste heat and convert it to electricity by means of thermal voltaic processes. Special coatings on the mirrors and lenses can also reject portions of the sun's spectrum that PV arrays don't use, further reducing excess heat.
Once the Sun's energy is captured in space, what do you do with it?
One possibility is to convert stored solar energy to microwave radiation and beam it down to a combination rectifier-antenna, called a rectenna, located in an isolated area. The rectenna would convert the microwave energy back to DC (direct current) power. According to Marzwell, the dangers of being close to the microwave beam would be similar to the dangers of cell phone transmissions, microwave ovens or high-power electrical transmission lines.
"There is a risk element but you can reduce it," said Marzwell. "You can put these small receivers in the desert or in the mountains away from populated areas."
Lasers are also under consideration for beaming the energy from space. Using lasers would eliminate most of the problems associated with microwave but under a current treaty with Russia, the U.S. is prohibited from beaming high-power lasers from outer space.
All in all, the positive aspects of such a system appear to outweigh the negative ones. Space-based solar power offers energy from an unending source with no emissions and very little environmental impact.
According to Marzwell, using today's technology a space solar power system could generate energy at a cost of 60 to 80 cents per kilowatt-hour. This estimate includes construction costs for the first system.
"We believe that in 15 to 25 years we can lower that cost to 7 to 10 cents per kilowatt hour," said Marzwell. The market price today is around 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour. "With funding and support, we can continue developing this technology," said Marzwell. "We offer an advantage. You don't need cables, pipes, gas or copper wires. We can send it to you like a cell phone call -- where you want it and when you want it, in real time."
Mankins agreed. With a dedicated effort and resources, he says, space solar power --just a dream today-- could become a reality in the decades ahead. - spacedaily
Space-Based Power System Needed to Solve Earths Energy Woes
By Robert Roy Britt Senior Science Writer - 31 October 2002
Civilization faces an urgent need to develop space-based power generation systems that would beam energy to the planet from satellites that would shine like "golden apples" in the night sky, a large team of scientists said today.
The researchers also recommend looking into deploying some cosmic Coppertone, giant sunscreens that would block solar energy and curb global warming.
With energy demand expected to triple over the next 50 years while traditional energy production fuels global warming, the diverse group of scientists said creative but feasible technologies are needed to battle a growing "energy imbalance" that threatens global prosperity. Among the remedies they suggest, in the Nov. 1 issue of the journal Science, are several space-based concepts. The overall analysis is designed to accomplish three goals:
Develop pollution-free energy
Trim the growth in energy demand
Intervene in the global warming trend by "geoengineering" the planet
Fossil fuels provide the bulk of Earths energy. Their conversion to useable energy contributes, most scientists now agree, to a warming planet. Decades of efforts to harness solar power and other renewable, clean resources have yielded only marginal benefit. But the Suns energy is eight times greater in space, above Earths atmosphere and clouds. Capturing it there could supply all the worlds power needs now and for millennia to come, says Martin Hoffert, a physics professor at New York University and lead author of the report.
"The potential is vast," Hoffert told SPACE.com. "From humankind's point of view most of the Sun's energy is wasted."
The evaluation of myriad ideas was written by experts in atmospheric science, energy production, economics and biology from NASA, Exxon-Mobil Research and Engineering Company, and about a dozen universities and research institutions.
Hoffert and his colleagues reviewed options that have been envisioned by others. Among their recommendations are continued research into nuclear fusion, a promising but unharnessed cousin to atom-splitting fission reactors that dot the globe today. They also suggest further improvements in automobile fuel efficiency but warn that China and India could erase any U.S. gains if cars overtook bicycles as the primary form of transportation there. The report considers the future of wind and solar power but cites their inability to provide the huge amounts of electricity needed to meet "baseload" demands.
The first space project could involve power plants in low Earth orbit (LEO) -- where the space station and shuttles roam -- that would use solar panels to collect energy, then convert it to microwave energy and beam it to the planet, where it would be converted to electricity. Broader schemes would put power plants in higher orbits or even on or around the Moon or in other points in space, then beam the energy to Earth-orbiting reflectors.
Satellites could also be used to transmit power from one terrestrial location to another.
No single effort would cure civilizations energy woes or halt global warming, the scientists point out. But some of the space-based efforts are more promising and immediately feasible, Hoffert said. "We recommend starting in a practical way -- with simple, LEO-based systems at relatively low cost, beaming intermittent power to multiple locations, and working up to a constellation to handle baseload power," Hoffert said.
Later, systems could migrate to higher, so-called geosynchronous orbits, where a single satellite can hover continuously over a given spot on Earth and beam power to any location on half the globe.
"Space Solar Power (SSP) is certainly a technological challenge," Hoffert said. "But much less of one than, say, building a fusion power reactor."
Both methods have the potential to provide baseload electricity for Earth for millennia to come, he said. But unlike fusion, space-based power generation doesn't require scientific breakthroughs before it can be employed.
"We advocate an SSP demonstration in the next 10 years to explore the technology and potential for cost reductions aimed at power for developing nations."
The idea is not new.
Freeman Dyson, a visionary physicist now at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, speculated five decades ago that advanced civilizations would build spheres around their suns to capture energy. The artificial structures -- perhaps a ring of solar collectors, he suggested -- came to be known as Dyson spheres.
Solar energy might be pollution free in the traditional sense, but there are other forms of "pollution" to consider. While the beams of microwave energy would not themselves be visible, the satellites would, because their solar panels would be huge. Many satellites no bigger than a bus reflect enough sunlight to be visible from Earth. Power generation schemes conceived by NASA involve solar arrays the size of Manhattan.
"A large enough system would reflect enough sunlight to be seen," Hoffert said. "Their visibility poses interesting aesthetic issues."
Poetry and power
Rather than a form of visual pollution, advocates argue that a ring of solar power satellites in geostationary orbit might be viewed as inspiring "golden apples of the sun," a reference to the last line of the poem "Song of Wandering Aengus," by William Butler Yeats.
Where poetry and power might meet, the need is clear, the scientists argue. University of Houston physicist David Criswell, another author of the paper, has advocated gathering solar power at the Moon for more than 20 years.
"Prosperity for everyone on Earth requires a sustainable source of electricity," Criswell said earlier this month at a World Space Congress meeting. He said it would take about a decade to build a lunar power station and begin delivering electricity to the terrestrial grid.
The raw materials needed to make solar cells are present in the Moons soil, other researchers have said. Equally important, a lunar station could be situated to receive continuous sunlight, except for about three hours a year during a total eclipse, when stored energy would be needed.
Ultimate UV protection
Space-based power generation isnt going to solve the energy imbalance overnight, the researchers say. An insurance policy of sorts is needed to prepare to combat global warming from another angle. Ironically, while Hofferts team recommends harnessing the Suns energy from space, they also suggest blocking some of it, either with giant translucent shields or mirrors. About 2 percent of the Suns energy would need to be blocked in order to correct for climate-warming gas production. Such an effort is called geoengineering.
"For this application a sunshield or solar parasol would have to be very large (thousands of kilometers in diameter), possibly very thin, and possibly fabricated from lunar materials," Hoffert said. "At this point, space mirrors are more of a thought experiment than a real option."
The scientists stress that each approach outlined in their report has deficiencies. Only a broad range of intensive research and development will provide the options needed to stabilize the global climate and allow continued economic development.
Accomplishing such broad change in energy management would require worldwide political cooperation, they acknowledge. Yet the need to do something involving "great compromise may become more acute" as the global economy grows, they conclude. - space.com
Compare early concepts to
QuickScat space based scatterometer - The BCP 2000
QuikSCAT operates in a near polar orbit. Its angle of inclination is about 98 degrees, which means that according to a compass it is flying north by north-west at a directional angle of 352 degrees when it is ascending (i.e. south to north). It flies in a circular orbit at an altitude of approximately 800 km above sea level. It completes a full orbit in about 101 minutes, which translates to a little more than 14 orbits per day.
The Instrument. SeaWinds is the main instrument on the QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is an active radar scatterometer. This scatterometer operates by transmitting high-frequency microwave pulses to the ocean surface and measuring the echoed radar pulses bounced back to the satellite. The scatterometer estimates wind speed and direction over the Earth's oceans at 10 m above the surface of the water by analyzing the backscatter from the small wind-caused ripples, called cat's paws, on the surface of the water. When the microwave pulses strike the ocean surface, it causes a scattering affect referred to as backscatter. A rough ocean surface returns a stronger signal because the waves reflect more of the radar energy back toward the scatterometer antenna. A smooth ocean surface returns a weaker signal because less of the energy is reflected. QuikSCAT can acquire hundreds of times more observations of surface wind velocity each day than can ships and buoys, and can provide continuous, accurate and high-resolution measurements of both wind speeds and direction regardless of weather conditions.
SeaWinds uses a rotating dish antenna with two spot beams that sweep in a circular pattern. It actively transmits 13.4 GHz microwave pulses (Ku-band radar) at a rate of 1 pulse every 5.4 ms. The pulses are alternately polarized, vertical and horizontal. It uses the same parabolic antenna for both pulses, with different feeds. The antenna rotates at a rate of 18 rotations per minute. The feeds on the antenna are set up so that the vertical polarized beam has an elevation angle of 45 degrees and the horizontal polarized beam an elevation of 39 degrees. This creates an outer and an inner beam.
As the antenna rotates, the instrument pulses form a circular footprint on the ground. The outer beam covers a circle on the surface of 1800 km diameter while the inner beam covers about 1400 km. When the circular rotation of the antenna is combined with satellite movement of approximately 25 km per rotation, a helical shape is traced out on the ground. This type of coverage pattern allows the instrument to cover 90 percent of the earth every day. The instrument is currently collecting data over ocean, land, and ice in a continuous, 1,800-kilometer-wide band that results in twice per day coverage. Because of the twice per day coverage, one day's worth of data can be displayed on a global map for the ascending paths separately from the descending paths. - newmediastudio.org
and consider the following: weather control
Taking the Twist Out of a Twister
By Leonard David Senior Space Writer - posted: 03:56 pm ET 03 March 2000
ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO -- A blast of microwave energy beamed down from a space satellite could be used to tame the destructive nature of a tornado, a scientist said this week. Such weather-watching duty might be assigned to future solar power stations that would circle Earth.
Each year, about 1,200 tornadoes are reported in the United States, according to the American Meteorological Society. An average of 55 people die annually as a result of twisters, and billions of dollars worth of property are destroyed or damaged.
Their extremely high winds propel debris, destroy homes, collapse buildings and overturn vehicles. There is growing evidence that global warming may spawn increasing amounts of nasty weather, including tornadoes, at an even greater intensity in years to come.
But the tornado-nuking concept advocated here this week flies in the face of being at the mercy of Mother Natures fury. Called a Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite, the concept was presented at the Space 2000 Conference and Exposition on Engineering, Construction, Operations and Business in Space, sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
The proposal calls for beaming microwave energy into the cold, rainy downdraft of a thunderstorm where a tornado could originate. That pulse of power would disrupt the convective flow needed to concentrate energy that forms a tornado, said Bernard Eastlund, president of Eastlund Scientific Enterprises Corp, based in San Diego, California.
He has teamed up with Lyle Jenkins, a 37-year NASA veteran who now heads his own firm, Jenkins Enterprises in Houston, Texas.
The two researchers envision surgical strikes of microwave energy that could modify the temperature and fine structure of storm systems.
"We call it taming the tornado," Jenkins said. "With just a little burst of microwave energy, we think we see a way to negate the trigger point in tornado creation. We want to heat the cold rain. By tailoring the beam, it can absorb the rain that is part of the tornado-making process."
Eastlund has looked at data provided by the Advanced Regional Prediction System at the Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms Center at the University of Oklahoma.
These numerical simulation data were used to study the formation of conditions suitable for "tornado-genesis." And he and Jenkins used them to see the effects of zapping an incipient storm with electromagnetic radiation beamed from a proposed Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite.
Another aspect of their proposal could address the need for orbiting Doppler radar that could see tornado conditions forming. These data would be fed into a tornado-stopping satellite, perhaps positioned in geosynchronous orbit above the areas most affected by severe weather. By using a specially-tuned microwave pulse, rather than laser or infrared beams, that energy can be targeted within a storms interior, not through it or reflected away.
"You cant wave your hands about this idea," Eastlund said. "Youve got to use real numerical modeling. My research shows that by heating the falling rain, we can turn off the downdraft that drives a tornado." More research is needed, he said, to further determine just how much energy would yield a knockout punch to a tornado on the brew.
But is it nice to fool with Mother Nature? "This is a new science were talking about of weather modification...a new paradigm which seeks to mitigate these violent weather systems," Eastlund said.
"If it does prove possible to prevent tornadoes," Eastlund continued, "then systems could be envisioned in which severe storm phenomena such as hurricanes and typhoons are also modified in some beneficial fashion, and weather modification could be routine in the 21st century." - space.com
Space Geeks Seek Wireless Power
By Michael Grebb 02:00 AM Oct. 20, 2005 PT
The concept is at least as old as Nikola Tesla, the turn-of-the-20th-century icon who used to demonstrate the wonders of electricity by letting it course through his body as crowds gawked in wonder. Tesla was so fascinated with electricity and wireless frequencies that he spent the early 1900s constructing the Wardenclyffe Tower on land near Long Island Sound, partly to demonstrate that he could beam energy from one point to another without any wires. But, alas, Tesla experienced a horror that many technology pioneers of today understand all too well: His investors pulled out before he could finish the project.
Since then, however, scientists have shown that one can generate power, convert it to lasers or microwaves, beam it to another point and reconvert it into electricity. Such a system could beam power to hard-to-reach rural areas without running expensive power lines -- or could even beam it down to Earth from power stations in space. But while proponents argue that wireless power beams could solve the world's energy problems, skeptics aren't so sure. In addition, the concept hasn't proven itself as a practical energy alternative: at least not yet.
"The power beam thing comes and goes," said Leonard David, a space expert who helped gather research on beaming microwave power from solar-powered satellites for the U.S. Department of Energy in the mid-'70s and now writes for Space.com. "The whole concept was a dream-machine solar collection array that would collect energy in outer space. The physics of it look intriguing, but these things have been waylaid."
The government also got distracted with other potential applications. "Before long, somebody said, 'Hey wait. We can make this into a weapon,'" he said.
Indeed, the U.S. military is developing a new class of potentially non-lethal "directed-energy weapons" that could create a Star Trek-esque world of warfare. Set the phaser to stun or kill, depending on the situation. Defense contractor Raytheon actually delivered an energy-weapon prototype to the Pentagon earlier this year, and some believe such weapons could see combat in Iraq and Afghanistan by late 2006.
Meanwhile, the idea of wireless energy transmission continues to evoke on-and-off interest from governments around the world. One long-sought application is aviation. In 1987, Canada successfully flew its Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform aircraft using power generated from a microwave beam on the ground. In 1992, Japan successfully flew its own version of a microwave-powered plane as part of a project known as MILAX. And in October 2003, NASA actually used a ground-based laser beam to power the flight of a tiny 11-ounce aircraft made of balsa wood and carbon fiber tubing, and covered in Mylar film.
Others have imagined terrestrial networks of power-beaming stations that could fuel electric cars and other vehicles, which would essentially "top off" every time they passed by a station. Some could power up vehicles at stoplights. These are still just concepts, but proponents hope that at least in the United States, the post-Sept. 11 desire to wean the country from foreign sources of energy could renew interest in alternative concepts, including wireless power.
Even the boldest concepts are getting a hearing at the highest levels.
In November 2003, David Criswell, director of the Institute for Space Systems Operations at the University of Houston, testified before the Senate Commerce Committee's subcommittee on science, technology and space to pitch a Lunar Solar Power system. LSP would use colossal solar arrays on the surface of the moon that would beam microwave energy down to Earth. Criswell's concept is massive in scale: It would involve building 20,000 to 30,000 reception stations on Earth to accept the power beams and convert them into electricity that could be distributed to the population (The solar panels would be constructed on the moon with raw materials in the soil in "basically a glass-making process," he said).
Meanwhile, a series of moon bases housing up to 5,000 human beings (but possibly only a few hundred because of recent advances in automation and robotics) would be required on the lunar surface. "I hope they're Americans," Criswell told Wired News. "We'd be extending ourselves off of the Earth permanently."
Criswell predicts that the LSP system could produce a steady 20-terawatt stream that he predicts the estimated 10 billion people living on Earth by 2050 will need. "It actually provides you with such clean, sustainable energy that we can correct our past errors," he said.
Of course, Criswell's enthusiasm isn't shared by everyone. One problem is the price tag: Criswell said the project would cost at least $500 billion before it started to break even, after which it would start paying for itself and increasing global wealth exponentially. Still, it's a hefty bill for an untested concept. And then there's the issue of sending thousands of microwave-energy beams down to Earth. The prospect of bathing the planet in radiation hardly sounds appealing. "I walked away from the (Department of Energy) project a little bit worried," said Space.com's David. "You start adding up all the microwave-generating sources bombarding people, and you start to say, 'Wait a minute. What's an acceptable level'"?
Criswell dismisses such concerns, arguing that the microwaves could be directed at human-free zones around power stations and made so weak that radiation exposure would amount to standing in the sunlight or talking on a cell phone. Other concepts revolve around using satellites in Earth orbit rather than a lunar solar array.
One idea involves dangling a tether from a satellite into the Earth's atmosphere, which naturally emanates energy, and then feeding that power back up to the satellite, which would beam microwaves or lasers down the Earth for conversion into electricity. Others advocate vast solar panels in Earth orbit that would collect energy from the sun and beam it back down the same way.
The major downside is the cost. "This is not cheap technology," said Craig Mathias, a principal at advisory firm Farpoint Group. "The problem is the expense of launching the satellites. You're looking at the equivalent of paying hundreds of dollars per gallon of oil. You'd have to put up acres of solar cells -- so many that it would literally darken the day."
NASA, for its part, has in fact been trying to find a cheaper way to get materials into space, even toying with a "space elevator" concept in which a tether would dangle down to Earth from a geostationary satellite, and climbing robots would carry materials up and down the structure. The problem is that they would need to travel thousands of miles to reach high Earth orbit, and that's where wireless power comes in.
"Space elevators need power beaming," said Brant Sponberg, manager of NASA's Centennial Challenges project. "They can't carry an extension cord all the way down to the ground."
As a result, NASA has created the 2005 "Beam Power Challenge" to award $50,000 to the team whose climbing bot can lift the most mass in three minutes by most efficiently converting beam power into electricity. Second and third place will receive $20,000 and $10,000, respectively. At this year’s Oct. 21 competition, all teams will receive power from the same photonic source: a 10-kilowatt Xenon searchlight. But next year’s competition will allow each team to also build their own beam-power device, which could use photons, lasers or microwaves. Sponberg said the purse for the 2006 competition will be $150,000 ($100,000, $40,000 and $10,000 to the three best teams).
But Sponberg also pointed out that "NASA has no plans to build a space elevator in the near future," which means that such power-beaming innovations may not be applied for years, if ever. - wired.com
LUNAR SOLAR POWER SYSTEM FOR ENERGY PROSPERITY
WITHIN THE 21ST CENTURY
It is technically and economically feasible to provide at least 100,000 GWe of solar electric energy from facilities on the Moon. The Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System can supply to Earth power that is independent of the biosphere and does not introduce CO2, ash, or other material wastes into the biosphere.
Power beams are considered esoteric and a technology of the distant future.
However, Earth-to-Moon power beams of near-commercial intensity are an operational reality.
Fig. 3 is an artist's concept of the new Trumpet satellite that employs a 100 m diameter reflector antenna. Trumpet is now in geosynchronous orbit. It is operated by the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office . This reflector, only a few tons in mass, has a diameter within a factor of 1 to 3 of that necessary to redirect a power beam to a 1 km diameter or larger rectenna on Earth. Trumpet is reportedly similar in design to antennas planned for the Hughes commercial HS 601 AMPT satellites. Power beams and redirector satellites can minimize the need for long-distance power transmission lines and their associated systems.
Alternatively, a power beam from the Moon can be received by a receiver satellite. The relay satellite then retransmits new beams to several rectennas on Earth.
The transmission of beams, with commercial level intensity in low Earth orbit, has been demonstrated by unmanned and manned spacecraft.
Fig. 4 illustrates the NASA Shuttle with a phased array making a synthetic aperture radar picture of the Earth. Near the Shuttle the beam has an intensity the order of 150 W/m2. This is well within the range for commercial transmission of power [6, 8].
Consideration of the LSP System is recommended by technical, national, and international panels and scientists active in lunar research. An LSP System scaled to enable global energy prosperity by 2050 can, between 2050 and 2070, stop the depletion of terrestrial resources and bring net new non-polluting energy into the biosphere. Humanity can stop extracting resources from the biosphere, become independent of the biosphere for material needs, and have excess energy to nurture the biosphere. The boundaries of routine human activities will be extended beyond the Earth to the Moon and a two-planet economy will be established.
read the entire document here:
- worldenergy.org [backup] [pdf file]
The coming interplanetary Economy?
The Moon - mining project?|
Forget about drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison think all the energy we need for the next millennium can be found on the moon.
The energy source, helium-3, literally litters the moon's surface, said Gerald Kulcinski, professor of nuclear engineering and director of the Fusion Technology Institute at UW.
And with President Bush's call last week for the creation of a permanent lunar base, the possibility of using helium-3 as an energy source could become a reality.
"If we could land the space shuttle on the moon, fill the cargo with canisters of helium-3 mined from the surface and bring the shuttle back to Earth, that cargo would supply the entire electrical power needs of the United States for an entire year," he said.
However, since the space shuttle is expected to be phased out, it would not be the transport vehicle, he said.
According to John Santarius, a professor at UW's Fusion Technology Institute, helium-3 provides one million times more energy per pound than a ton of coal.
And fusion of helium-3 "doesn't produce greenhouse emissions. It's safe for the environment," Kulcinski said.
In addition, little environmental harm would come to the moon from the mining of helium-3, said Kulcinski and Santarius.
Moon's surface brimming with untapped power - Geologist believes plentiful element holds energy value
Astronauts journeyed to the moon as a display of Cold War technical prowess, but the far-reaching legacy of their explorations may be the discovery of an invisible nuclear power source locked in the gray lunar soil. The material is helium-3, a rare form of nature's second most plentiful chemical element and a potential radiation-free source of nuclear fusion-generated electricity.
Experts estimate that the most accessible layers of the lunar soil are laced with one million tons of helium-3.
Though fusion power generation technologies are far from mastered, 40 tons of the material theoretically would supply the current annual electricity needs of the entire nation. [see: Tesla & power games]
Based on current spot crude oil prices, each ton of lunar helium-3 is worth about $5 billion.
Scientists examining the first lunar rocks the Apollo missions brought to Earth began reporting the presence of helium-3 in the early 1970s, but only over the course of time has its potential begun to be realized.
"Most of the long-term sustaining value of exploration turns out to be serendipitous," said Harrison "Jack" Schmitt, a Harvard-trained geologist who became the only professional scientist among 12 Apollo astronauts to make the 240,000-mile lunar journey.
"The same has to be applied to the Apollo exploration of the moon. We did not know at its conclusion the value of helium-3."
Titan - mining project?
Big Stone Gap, Va. --- Remote sensors aboard the spacecraft Cassini are providing Earth's science community and the general public with unparalleled and astonishing surface topography data and images from the distant moon of Titan in orbit around the sixth planet from the Sun.
A think layer of clouds and methane smog blanket the surface features from image cameras aboard Cassini but the infrared mapping spectrometer reveals an exotic surface features. The yellow areas correspond to the hydrocarbon-rich regions, while the green areas are the icier regions of Titan's surface.
A bright area on Titan's surface, euphemistically named Xanadu, is the target for landing of the spacecraft Huygens on Friday, January 14, 2005. Planetary scientists and astrobiologists yet know the full extent of the surface composition of Titan. Yet data gathered over a period of time indicate an alien world of methane, causing thick cloud cover where it rains methane almost constantly like snow falling to its surface.
Astronauts will land the Moon with spades to dig for helium-3
A few kilograms of the lunar substance will be enough to start a thermonuclear electric power station
Head of the Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, Nikolay Sevastyanov, said the other day that the International Space Station was getting its second wind and it got new objectives. The ISS is supposed to be used as a platform to assemble complexes sent to the Moon.
"One of the station docks can wonderfully do for receiving carriers with lunar blocks. This may be a lateral dock of Zvezda and Zarya modules or additional platforms on the propulsion modules," representatives of the corporation said.
Ordinary booster rockets like Progress or Soyuz are supposed to deliver components of a lunar ship from the surface to the ISS. A flight to the Moon will require one or several stages to pull the complex to the Moon, and one spaceship for astronauts. Primarily, three pioneers will be enough to reach the Moon, circle the satellite and then get back to the surface. Subsequently, the number of astronauts may considerably increase depending upon the results of the test flight. It is not ruled out that astronauts will even have a chance to land on the Moon during the second flight.
Today, experts consider opportunities of mining helium-3, the key mineral which can be found on the Moon. The Rocket and Space Corporation Energia states that this new fuel may be even more effective than traditional ones. A few kilograms of the lunar substance will be enough to start a thermonuclear electric power station. Delivery of helium-3 from the Moon to the surface will return great profits. To begin the mining of helium-3 on the Moon, astronauts must first of all build a base for miners to live and work in. Experts already know the exact location of helium-3 fields on the Moon. A special machine will be going about the lunar surface; it will dig, warm the lunar soil, regolith, and then extract helium-3. It is planned to build such a base in one of the lunar seas.
Europeans, Americans and even Chinese also want to participate in the project. November 1, head of Russia's Roskosmos, Anatoly Perminov, came to China to conduct talks about the future of Russian-Chinese space cooperation. - pravda
Russia to open moonbase mine
From: Agence France-Presse From correspondents in Moscow - January 26, 2006
RUSSIA is planning to mine a rare fuel on the moon by 2020 with a permanent base and a heavy-cargo transport link, a Russian space official says.
"We are planning to build a permanent base on the moon by 2015 and by 2020 we can begin the industrial-scale delivery ... of the rare isotope Helium-3," Nikolai Sevastyanov, head of the Energia space corporation, was quoted by ITAR-TASS news agency as saying at an academic conference.
The International Space Station (ISS) would play a key role in the project and a regular transport relay to the moon would be established with the help of the planned Clipper spaceship and the Parom, a space capsule intended to tug heavy cargo containers around space, Mr Sevastyanov said.
Helium-3 is a non-radioactive isotope of helium that can be used in nuclear fusion.
Rare on earth but plentiful on the moon, it is seen by some experts as an ideal fuel because it is powerful, non-polluting and generates almost no radioactive by-product - news.com.au
Russia, U.S. in new race for the Moon
Vladimir Radyuhin MOSCOW: Russia and the United States look set to join a new space race for the Moon. Russian space officials have announced plans to set up a permanent base on the Moon by 2020 to mine valuable fuel. Two years ago to the day U.S. President George W. Bush unveiled similar plans tied to the same timeframe.
"We are planning to build a permanent base on the moon by 2015 and begin the industrial-scale delivery... of the rare isotope Helium-3 by 2020," head of Russia's Energia space corporation Nikolai Sevastyanov said addressing an academic conference in Moscow.
Helium-3 is a highly promising fuel for thermonuclear reactors, which is extremely scarce on Earth and abundant on the Moon. Mr. Sevastyanov said one tonne of the isotope would generate as much energy as 14 million tonnes of oil.
Experts said 100 tonnes of Helium-3 could meet the Earth's entire energy needs for one year, while the Moon is believed to hold up to 500 million tonnes of helium-3 trapped in the upper layers of the lunar rock.
Both Russia and the U.S. set 2020 as the deadline for mining the lunar isotope.
This is also the target year for the construction of a thermonuclear reactor running on helium-3.
"The country which is the first to deliver helium-3 to Earth will win the race for global energy leadership," said Russian Academician Erik Galimov. "Our space industry is quite capable of doing it." - hinduonnet.com
Russian Rocket Builder Aims for Moon Base by 2015, Reports Say
26 January 2006 - MOSCOW (AP) - The head of a leading Russian space company said it was considering plans to set up a permanent moon base by 2015, a statement that appeared to be an effort to win government funds rather than a specific action plan, news reports said Thursday.
Nikolai Sevastyanov, the head of the state-controlled RKK Energiya company that built Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, said that mining helium-3, a potential rich source of energy, and harnessing it back to Earth would be a key priority in the moon exploration program, the Gazeta.ru and Lenta.ru Web sites reported. Sevastyanov said a Russian moon base could start tapping helium-3 in 2020. He and other Russian space officials have made similar projections in the past, but the government hasn't allocated any funds yet for moon exploration. Sevastyanov's statement, made at a seminar on space research, appeared to be part of Energiya's publicity campaign aimed at attracting government funding for the development of a next-generation spacecraft. Sevastyanov said the Klipper spacecraft being designed by Energiya could serve as a transport ship to deliver helium. The company has also proposed building the Parom (Ferry) space vehicle that could help assemble elements of moon missions on Earth's orbit.
In January 2004, U.S. President George W. Bush outlined a plan for NASA to send astronauts back to the moon by 2020 and then on to Mars and beyond.
Scientists believe the moon's rich resources of helium-3 could be used in futuristic fusion reactors on Earth that would generate electricity without producing nuclear waste. Such fusion technology could also power rockets for deep space travel in the future. There is so little helium-3 on Earth that the technology hasn't been studied much. The moon appears to have it in abundance because it lacks the atmosphere and magnetic field that keep helium-3 from raining down on our planet from outer space.
Speaking at the same seminar in Moscow, Erik Galimov, the head of the Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry Institute, also said Thursday that helium-3 could emerge as a vital source of energy as Earth's resources were being quickly exhausted, the ITAR-Tass news agency reported. - space.com
Experts poles apart over Moon landing sites
17:19 06 February 2006 NewScientist.com news service - Kimm Groshong
A healthy debate over whether humans should go to the Moon's well-studied equatorial regions or its more enigmatic but sunny poles is emerging among lunar researchers, as NASA pushes towards a return to the Moon. Reminiscent of debates seen during the planning stages of the Mars rovers mission, its central question asks whether robotic landers and later human missions should focus on the known equatorial regions or the promising, but still largely unknown, polar regions of the satellite.
Recently, David McKay, chief scientist for astrobiology at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, US, circulated a white paper suggesting at least one landing site should be located on dark volcanic rock deposits - called pyroclastic deposits - mainly found away from the Moon's poles.
The deposits are thought to run deep and contain extremely fine-grained particles likely to be rich in material that could be used for in situ manufacturing. Besides raw materials, McKay says, the overall advantage is that "producing oxygen and hydrogen from lunar pyroclastics may be significantly simpler and cheaper than from any other lunar feedstock." These components could be key for life support and fuel production.
But many researchers argue that the polar regions should be the top priority. A number of current and planned international lunar orbiting missions will help fill the knowledge gaps. NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, planned for launch in late 2008, aims to identify resources around the Moon that later missions might investigate.
The lunar research community is truly split over where to send future landers, says Butler Hine, deputy program manager for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program at Ames Research Center in California, US.
"Half of the science community says the most interesting place to go is the polar regions and half of the community says it's the equatorial regions," he says. "But my prediction is that the first lander will go to the polar regions." he told New Scientist.
Others say the debate is not so evenly divided. Lunar and planetary scientist Charles Wood of Wheeling Jesuit University in West Virginia, US, says "there seems to be this bandwagon to go to the poles." He describes McKay's white paper as "a refreshing change of thought".
The argument to explore the northern polar regions is driven by the possibility that water ice from comets may lay frozen in the shadowed depths of impact craters there. Some of those potential shadowy water traps are thought to be near other areas that receive nearly constant sunlight. The water ice theory is fuelled by data from the Lunar Prospector Orbiter, which indicates abundance of hydrogen atoms at the poles. But no one definitively knows whether that hydrogen is in the form of water ice.
Making light work
But even without the increased levels of hydrogen, the increased sunlight provides a compelling argument for going to the poles, says Ben Bussey, at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory, US. He reported in 2005 (Nature, vol 434, p 842) that data from the 1994 Clementine mission showed that several spots high on the rims of craters near the North Pole were constantly illuminated throughout an entire lunar day - about 29 Earth days - in the summer.
"The poles may present the best place to be for an extended period of time," he says. "It's the light that is potentially enabling."
Scientists believe horizontal solar panels at the poles could collect energy from the Sun at least 75% of the time while the equatorial regions of the Moon alternate between 14 Earth-days of sunlight and an equal period of darkness. Models have estimated that the poles stay within about a 10 degree range of -50°C. Meanwhile, temperatures at the equator fluctuate between -180°C and 100°C.
Space Hawks Chase Death Rays
By John Lasker | Also by this reporter - Mar, 01, 2006
For more than a year, Bruce Gagnon strongly suspected he and his family were being spied on, but he didn't have any evidence, and he didn't know who might be behind it. An Air Force veteran, Gagnon is one of the most prominent activists in the world concerned with space weapons. He directs the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space from a small office in Maine. Still, he was caught off guard when the American Civil Liberties Union called and told him it had uncovered court documents revealing that NASA and the U.S. Air Force were secretly monitoring him.
"We're a small organization with meager resources," said Gagnon. "They feel threatened by us? That tells us something."
As tourists line up to ride private rocket ships into space, the galaxy has never seemed closer as a theater for war. The evidence goes beyond surreptitious surveillance of peace-loving space activists. Even now, lobbyists from the fledgling commercial space industry are besieging Capitol Hill, hoping to persuade the government to hand out contracts to help put the U.S. military into orbit.
This week is "March Storm," when 50 to 75 lobbyists will spend three days speaking with staffers from more than 250 offices on Capitol Hill. Some of the lobbyists represent the aerospace industry, but most have been hired by smaller space startups and entrepreneurs. The big talking point? How the private sector can help the U.S. military build space-based weapons a lot faster and with a lot less of taxpayers' money.
"The U.S. military still doesn't have the capability to launch a spy satellite on demand," said Marc Schlather, director of ProSpace, the lobbyist group coordinating March Storm. "We are seeking a cross-pollination."
The Bush administration, as the Clinton administration before it, continues to push forward President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative -- or "Star Wars" -- a wide-ranging space weapons program first proposed in the mid-1980s.
Since the '80s, the military has spent an estimated $120 billion trying to develop weapons that could destroy incoming nuclear, biological or chemical warheads targeting American cities.
Yet in the 20 years since Reagan called for this multilayered "space shield," the military is still light-years away from deploying any directed-energy weapons or anti-satellite mines.
Despite the lack of tangible progress, the Bush administration increased the Star Wars budget by 20 percent for 2007, with the total allocation reaching $10.7 billion, an increase of nearly $6 billion since 1999.
Gagnon is convinced this master plan for space defense is nothing but a fantastic Trojan horse.
"This massively costly program under way today is not really about defense," he said. "The true purpose of this arms program is to control and dominate space. And whoever controls space will control the Earth."
Gagnon and other critics say the military's ambition to control space has been an objective since the beginning of the Cold War.
The Bush administration has called for a permanent base on the moon by 2020, Gagnon noted. Once there, the United States will be able to monopolize the moon's resources, he said, such as helium-3, an element rare on Earth but abundant on the moon that may drive nuclear fusion.
In January, Russia announced a similar plan, aiming to establish a permanent base on the moon by 2015 and mining operations to extract helium-3 by 2020. China, which in 2003 became the third country in the world to send a human into space, has announced plans for an unmanned lunar landing by 2010, and a manned moon mission by 2020.
To protect U.S. interests, Gagnon said space-based weapons will be deployed near or on the moon.
"The military has stated the moon is the ultimate high ground," Gagnon said. "There's going to be a scramble for the moon by the Chinese, the Russians and the Americans. This is real. There's going to be a conflict over it."
Theresa Hitchens, director of the Center for Defense Information, a Washington think tank, said the militarization of space is being championed by factions in the Air Force, the Pentagon, the Defense Department and even the White House -- but not by all.
"There is a debate ongoing about the wisdom, the affordability and the do-ability of implementing a full-up space-war fighting strategy," she said.
But because China is claiming to have developed anti-satellite capabilities, and the U.S. military is fighting terrorists across the globe, "these space hawks are emboldened now," said Hitchens. On the other hand, Hitchens said there are factions within the Air Force and the White House against the militarization of space, mostly because the cost would run into the hundreds of billions of dollars. Hitchens said the space hawks, which include Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, have clearly stated their goals in several strategic-planning reports published during the last several years.
"While our ultimate goals are truly to 'exploit' space through space force enhancement and space force application missions, as with other mediums, we cannot fully 'exploit' that medium until we first 'control' it," said U.S. Space Command in the recent Strategic Master Plan FY06 and Beyond.
Controlling space, said sources, was outlined in a Department of Defense report published in 2000 titled Joint Vision 2020. The report introduces the doctrine of Full Spectrum Dominance, or supremacy on land, sea, air -- and space.
"In the past, Full Spectrum Dominance meant land, sea and air," said a public affairs officer from U.S. Space Command, who declined to give his name. "Now it encompasses cyberspace and space.
"We need to operate in the realm of space. No doubt about it," added the officer. "We also reserve the right to protect our assets in space."
The moon affects our weather systems
A Case for the Moon
We all know the Sun radiates heat to the ground and causes evaporation, from the puddles on the footpath to the oceans and rain forests, yet there is no way the Sun can cause the evaporation to fall back to the Earth. Moreover, it can rain at night, when there is no Sun in the sky. The Sun cannot make it rain or snow, something else must be responsible. There is only one other thing in the sky capable of exerting the necessary huge forces that would be required.
The Moon has about one sixth of the Earth's gravitational force. From only a couple of hundred thousand miles away, changes in the Moon's orbital patterns are going to have major effects on Earth. Between a third and a quarter the size of Earth, the Moon is equivalent in size to a smaller person running around and around an adult, all day every day. Ask yourself, would that affect you? Better still, ask the mother of a two-year-old.
Simply stated, changes in the Moon's movement can trigger changes in our weather. How it works is really rather logical but scientists seem to have a vested interest in not stating it. Possible reasons for this political manoeuvring will soon become clearer.
Meteorologists utilise sea level or sea surface temperature analysis as tools in forecasting, Because sea tides/levels/temps are affected by many lunar factors, including synodic cycle, apsidal cycle(perigee/apogee), apsidal angle, declination angle, declination hemisphere, inclination, nodal or nutation cycle, apsidal cycle, anaomalistic cycle, tide cycle, variable diurnalism, moon's angular momentum crossing ecliptic and equator, tide times and other cycles within cycles; it is hard to see how can they rule out the Moon as an empirical variable. And that is not even mentioning secondary (arguably lunar) factors such as wind speed and force, high and low pressure zones, cycles of currents, land movement etc. By virtue of tides and gravitational pull the Moon has its stamp on anything to do with the oceans.
It is little known that there are at least four separate but sometimes interfacing tides caused by lunar gravitation. The best known is the sea-tide, the exact times of which repeat every so many weeks, months and years. There is also the inner-core tide affecting the molten core of the Earth(Core Tide) which plays a major role in the cycles of earthquakes and eruptions, the land-tide (called Earth-tide, where the ground rises towards the Moon about 8 inches per day as the Moon goes overhead and then recedes again when the Moon goes below the horizon) and the air-tide affecting the height of the atmosphere. If the Moon has an effect on the sea then it must control the tides by distribution of the water. So is it too silly to state that if it has an effect on the atmosphere then it must control the weather by distribution of the clouds?
Why should clouds, air, land and inner mantle not be tidal?
They are masses of flexible matter. As masses they are subject to the pull of a large gravitational body such as a close Moon. The movable fluids on Earth would like to fly off into space toward the Moon, but are more strongly held to Earth by the Earth's gravity and so remain on the Earth's surface. But the inconstant Moon causes these fluids to be in flux. The Sun, too, has a tidal pull on these fluid bodies, but being much further away, has a pull less than half that of the Moon. So how does the Moon's gravitational force overcome the gravity of the Earth, and affect those movable masses? The answer is that there are times when Earth's gravitational force is nullified, and these are special positions of the Sun and Moon and planets, from which forces from above can effect changes on Earth.
It is the old principles of Astrology that we should be turning back to to re-examine, the subject that people with Higher Learning imagine to be at worst the stuff of the Devil or at best only a silly party game. When it comes to the Old Astrology, the Moon was the central player, the Moon established the pivot from which everything else related. Etymologically speaking, our word measurement came from moon.
At only ten earth-circumferences away the Moon is very close, actually it is our closest celestial neighbour, and it has two and a half times the gravitational pull of the Sun. Therefore it exerts an influence on everything movable on our planet, be it solid, liquid or gas. Much of this influence is barely noticeable because there is nothing to compare it too, like the rising of the land towards the transiting moon, called the Earth Tide, and the receding of it back again within 24 hours. Part of the problem is that we are very locked in to what we can see, and that goes for our technology, in which we only believe that which we can see through instruments of our own making. But does that not mean that forces do not exist for which we have not yet invented instruments to measure.
Each Moon phase has a changing effect on the weather, whether it be droughts, hurricanes, tornadoes or lightning. And as the atmosphere has its daily tide, the air density too is forever changing. If it did not, barometric pressures would always remain constant. The volume of air changes just as does the volume of sea water in a bay during high SEA tide, but we can see that. We can't see a high AIR tide because we haven't yet invented an instrument to detect it. Yet by deduction we can conclude that it must occur. To put it another way, it would be very odd if the Moon chose to daily pull upward the sea and land but decided against daily changing the height of the massiveocean of air.
Every New moon time, for two or three days, the Moon shields us from the solar wind; that electromagnetic energy force-field sent forth into space by the Sun. Older cultures and civilisations knew that at this time of maximum shielding, the New moon period was the best time for planting and fishing, and so over thousands of years grew the lunar planting and fishing calendar.
Since 1976 satellite data coming from NASA suggests that these ancient lunar calendar systems that were used to determine seasonal climatic fluctuations indeed had a sound scientific basis. NASA is currently collecting aerial evidence of ancient stone circles, and last year (I know because I was there)discreetly surveyed in NZ, the large ancient stone circle at Mangonui Bluff near Dargaville which displays the same diameter dimensions as Stonehenge(288 feet), which some claim could be further proof of the existence of the Indo/Egypto/European culture in NZ many thousands of years ago.
This supports the legends of Ngapuhi and Tuhoe tribes about the elusive white-skinned Patu-paiarehe, Urekuhu and Turehu peoples. These are mentioned from the north of NZ to the Ureweras in Maori oral tradition, and it seems along with other now-vanquished tribes they were hunted to extinction. Some historians hold the view that the Polynesians started as an originally Caucasian race in the foothills of the Himalayas. Researcher Richard Holdaway has found, catalogued and carbon-dated rat-bones 2,000-years old from natural predator sites around Taupo in NZ, and his team have confirmed that rats could only have been brought here by man.
It seems that the prehistory of NZ needs to be written, and my reason for stating this is that the seeming reluctance to do so parallels the reluctance on the part of meteorologists to mention the Moon in weather forecasts. Many agriculturalists would like to learn about the true science of weather, so they might be furnished with their own forecasting tools if they were available, the lack of which at the moment means they are unable to plan ahead for more than 2 or 3 days and this impacts on their livelihoods.
The parallel gies further. Schoolchildren are taught that ancient peoples came here by accidental voyaging, by navigating by the stars. With respect to historians, both can't be true. If you don't know where you're going, what are you looking up for? Lost in a pitch black night, the most intricate map will be of no help. There is no Maori word for Australia, not only the nearest island to NZ but also the world's biggest. If accidentally voyaging or if migrating by a star-map then you'd think Australia would at least once get a mention as in "if you hit dot dot dot you've gone too far. In a similar way we are told that we are accidental voyaging with the weather(it is out of control, we don't know what is going to happen or where the climate is going) and that we are at one and the same time navigating way off(aha..we can see we are heading for global warming).
I believe the ancient peoples knew where they were going. I believe they either sailed here with good maps or were brought here by others who had the maps. Tongaroa, who commanded the "canoes" was described as a chief with white skin. There were maps of the southern ocean in existence 20,000 years ago. They were stored in the libraries of Alexandra, and some are shown and described in the book Ancient Maps of The Sea Kings(by Charles Hopgood). It is very likely that Euro/Indy traders from ancient times distributed work-gangs of many races, including Asian, Melanesian and Polynesian peoples all over the Pacific to establish colonial outposts, which would explain why the Hawaiian language is so understandable to today's speaker of Maori and why Moriori and some Maori appear frizzy-haired, some straight and some with Asian characteristics. It would also explain how two tribal names, Tainui and Arawa are found on S America. Even Captain Cook believed the Maori were brought to NZ as slaves. All this is not to denigrate present-day Maori status, but simply to accord Maori a rightful place in the nation's history. Similarly I believe the old peoples knew about the moon and the weather, and set up stone circles to measure the progress of both.
The old still works
One might say that moon-weather knowledge so old, it can now be considered new again. Due to the decoding work of the structure of stone circles during the last few decades, we can guess that lunar orbit calculation was probably well known 12,000 or more years ago. All the ancient stone circles are aligned to the Moon in the same way. The smaller ones are ratio replicas of Stonehenge, indicating the same system was utilised internationally. It seems stone-circle builders were obsessed with lunar declination and nodal crossings - almost certainly for weather, long range climate and for eclipse prediction. The vast ancient wisdom began to disappear with the destroying by the early Christians of the libraries of Alexandria, in their hopes of destroying paganism of which the Moon had become the paramount symbol.
Why do you think 13 is considered 'unlucky'? 13 was always known as the Moon's number, because 13 features so much in the mathematics of the Moon's orbits - 13 full and new moons each year, 13 declination cycles, 13 perigees and apogees, and the Moon moves 13 deg per day through space in its monthly orbit around the earth. Lesser known are orbit anomalies that occur at roughly 13 weeks and 13 years. Examples: every 13 years the phases recur(just over a week later). Every 26 years the opposite phase and apse occur about the same time. Every 31 years(18+13) the opposite phase of the Moon occurs about two days later. Every 5 years(18-13) the opposite phase occurs(about 3 weeks later) with a single relation to the apse..
Poor old 13 got itself declared unlucky, evil, heretic and powerless by the new religious order that wanted to distance you from anything that even reminded you of the Moon. They did a number on it, so to speak. Bear in mind that to even talk about this in the Middle Ages as we are doing now would have meant certain torture and death and future residence in hell. You are all sinners.
The old forecasting science went into decline and in some cases underground for two millennia and has continued to be largely ignored by mainstream science. Lunar forecasting was done by Theophrastus in 300BC, by Copernicus, Galileo, Nostradamus, Johannes Kepler, Sir Isaac Newton, Sir Francis Bacon four centuries ago and in 1750 by Benjamin Franklin. Each was a lunar forecaster and put out an Almanac predicting weather. Each one who did it got himself into hot water politically. Still alive in those eastern cultures that have retained their lunar calendars, it became far less common in the western world as the new religion demanded the newer solar calendar.
Nowadays the idea of a lunar orientation is slowly becoming reawakened as people begin to realise the benefits that can be gained. This is a way for the common person to once again be able to predict weather trends for him/herself without having to watch the TV and be forced to see the advertisers' products. One day weather-science will once again be reachable by commonfolk, instead of being just another profit-driven industry.
Forecasters do their best with the tools available, but when put on the spot most will admit to having no longrange method. They have inherited a science that has large gaps, along with a refusal to consider cycles, opting instead for a linear mindset whereby weather and climate are believed to be getting steadily and mysteriously worse for the whole planet.
One would think that science would be open to the introduction of new testable ideas and possibilities, but such is not the case. The Moon and acquiring any further knowledge about it is still actively suppressed as being a pagan activity and the mere mention of the Moon still sometimes creates fear and hostility. Also suppressed is any discussion about it, on NZ weather forums or in the newspapers. I know because I've tried and been told that Moon theories and methods have no place in Our Science.
I have good-naturedly been called a "lunatic" in TV interviews and on radio, a gentle fobbing off. The labels 'snake oil', New Age, voodoo, hocus pocus, lunatic etc become par for the course amongst skeptics who, rather than investigate the orbits and behaviour of the Moon and correlate that to weather events in any scientific way, find it easier to guffaw and smirk - a process some might call job protection. Well, I suppose everyone has to eat.
Unfortunately for these skeptics many academically respectable research papers have been done linking Moon influence with weather. I compiled a book 'Predicting Weather By The Moon' in which I cited from 30 such university-level research conclusions, all listed in the appendix. Much work has been done and it has not been challenged, and the results are waiting to be incorporated into weather science, but sad to say most climate and weather scientists simply refuse to focus on the Moon beyond sea tides. Air tides are definitely a no-no. One wonders what there was to be afraid of.
Perhaps the universities, the media and the government, in other words The Establishment, do not want another viewpoint popularised. Perhaps there is more revenue in maintaining the knowledge status quo. Perhaps there is a fear of one day having to admit one might have been unaware of the whole story when one wrote the weather textbooks. Or perhaps it is just the fear of change.
There is much to learn about the Moon and her fascinating movements - information most would not have learned at school. And even now in the 21st century, information about the orbital behaviour of our nearest celestial neighbour can mostly only be found in back-alley astrology shops. Pick up any popular book about weather in your nearest book shop and look for 'moon' in the index. It is a rare book that even will be found to list the planet, let alone give it any role. But like it or not, the study of lunar cycles holds the key to understanding weather.
- Ken Ring -
"Weatherman" forecasts weather months on advance whilst other Meteorologists claim that the weather patterns cannot be forecasted
more than 5 days in advance. Forecasts are based on the likely pattern of atmospheric-tidal movements, winds and wind changes plus high and low pressure zones based on correlations of past, and future lunar orbits and phases. - see here for radio interview
Spacecraft to Slam into the Moon
By Leonard David Senior Space Writer posted: 07 March 2006
Scientists are plotting out a "crash course" in learning what happens when a European lunar probe slams into the Moon. The European Space Agency's (ESA) SMART-1 spacecraft-now circling the Moon-is headed for a planned early September impact with Earth's celestial neighbor.
The ESA probe would plow into the lunar surface, giving it a glancing blow as it speeds in at nearly 5,000 miles per hour (2 kilometers per second).
SMART-1 is Europe's first robotic lunar mission. The name SMART stands for Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology
The spacecraft was launched on September 27, 2003. Making use of its ion-propulsion engine to slowly nudge it outward from Earth, the probe powered its way into lunar orbit on November 15, 2004.
Outfitted with miniaturized instruments, SMART-1's goal has been to gauge key chemical elements in the lunar surface, as well as look into the theory that the Moon was formed following the violent collision of a smaller planet with Earth long ago.
ESA's lunar probe completes a loop around the Moon every five hours-but that's about to end later this year.
Engineers and scientists are now targeting SMART-1 for possible impact on the Moon around September 1-2. The current uncertainty range for the exact time of impact is 15 hours.
At the end of June, SMART-1 is slated to carry out two maneuvers. These will fine-tune the exact time of impact. Those slight thrust firings will lead to the spacecraft flying over the Moon at its lowest point at below186 miles (300 kilometers) in altitude.
In early July, the plan calls for assessing the success of the maneuver and determining the spacecraft's orbit and expected impact time. Later that month, the probe will zip as close as 124 miles (200 kilometers) from the barren lunar landscape.
In early August, SMART-1 will make an overflight of its eventual impact site, racing over that area at just 75 miles (120 kilometers) height in what's termed as "rehearsal" mode for the early September run-in with the Moon.
According to Bernard Foing, ESA SMART-1 project scientist, an inventory is being made of the composition and mechanical properties of the spacecraft-including aluminum, copper, titanium, and other materials, as well as the probe's remaining hydrazine fuel.
That data will be used to support observations of what is kicked up from the Moon itself on impact, contrasted to bits, pieces, and fuel tossed into the mix due to SMART-1's high-speed slap.
Boom and bust finale
Here on Earth, sky watchers worldwide are getting ready for the projected September 1-2 lunar boom and bust finale of SMART-1.
Foing told SPACE.com that he is now engaged in assembling a "coordinated campaign" of ground-based observations. This activity would support SMART-1 measurements and monitor the artificial crash that mimics in a small way, an asteroid or comet hit on the Moon.
Numbers of observatories around the world have indicated interest in watching the outcome from SMART-1's collision with the Moon, Foing has reported.
At impact, the ESA spacecraft will weigh a little over 628 pounds (285 kilograms), punching the Moon at a grazing incidence near 37 degrees south latitude. The near-side impact is timed so that it will be illuminated to assist in observations from Earth.
A current orbit simulation of the SMART-1 impact for September 2 is at lunar longitude 44.54 degrees West and 36.22 South in Lacus Excellentiae, 10 degrees south of Mare Humorum. A far more refined target point will come as the event draws closer.
Back on July 31, 1999, the Moon was on the receiving end of NASA's Lunar Prospector.
That farewell fall of space hardware struck within a crater near the lunar south pole-in an attempt to detect water ice stirred up by the wallop. No visible debris plume was reported.
According to Foing, the hope is that those Earth-based observers intending to take part in September's thump of the Moon can make pre-hit predictions of SMART-1's impact magnitude, cloud ejecta dynamics, exospheric effects and other observable manifestations brought about by the crash.
Coordinated measurements by observers here on Earth are high on the priority list, Foing noted. Impact observations would include: Infrared imaging of thermal flash; visible/infrared imaging of ejected clouds; hydrazine flame detection; post-characterization of ejecta; as well as exospheric effects if lunar material is blasted high off the Moon's surface.
In addition, Foing said, there is also intent to conduct follow up searches for the crater produced by SMART-1's crash into the Moon via the sensor eyes of future, follow-on lunar orbiters. - space.com
Watch Out for Moonquakes
Thu, 16 Mar 2006 - During the Apollo Moon missions - between 1969 and 1972 - NASA astronauts placed seismometers at their landing sites to detect if the Moon has earthquakes (moonquakes). The equipment mostly detected minor tremors, but it also experienced some fairly strong ones, measuring greater than 5.5 on the Richter scale. And they lasted for a very long time, sometimes going on for 10 minutes. If the next group of astronauts will be visiting the Moon for any length of time, they'll need a lunar base that can withstand the occasional trembler.
NASA astronauts are going back to the moon and when they get there they may need quake-proof housing.
That's the surprising conclusion of Clive R. Neal, associate professor of civil engineering and geological sciences at the University of Notre Dame after he and a team of 15 other planetary scientists reexamined Apollo data from the 1970s. "The moon is seismically active," he told a gathering of scientists at NASA's Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) meeting in League City, Texas, last October.
Between 1969 and 1972, Apollo astronauts placed seismometers at their landing sites around the moon. The Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 instruments faithfully radioed data back to Earth until they were switched off in 1977.
And what did they reveal?
There are at least four different kinds of moonquakes: (1) deep moonquakes about 700 km below the surface, probably caused by tides; (2) vibrations from the impact of meteorites; (3) thermal quakes caused by the expansion of the frigid crust when first illuminated by the morning sun after two weeks of deep-freeze lunar night; and (4) shallow moonquakes only 20 or 30 kilometers below the surface.
The first three were generally mild and harmless. Shallow moonquakes on the other hand were doozies. Between 1972 and 1977, the Apollo seismic network saw twenty-eight of them; a few "registered up to 5.5 on the Richter scale," says Neal. A magnitude 5 quake on Earth is energetic enough to move heavy furniture and crack plaster.
Furthermore, shallow moonquakes lasted a remarkably long time. Once they got going, all continued more than 10 minutes. "The moon was ringing like a bell," Neal says.
On Earth, vibrations from quakes usually die away in only half a minute. The reason has to do with chemical weathering, Neal explains: "Water weakens stone, expanding the structure of different minerals. When energy propagates across such a compressible structure, it acts like a foam sponge-it deadens the vibrations." Even the biggest earthquakes stop shaking in less than 2 minutes.
The moon, however, is dry, cool and mostly rigid, like a chunk of stone or iron. So moonquakes set it vibrating like a tuning fork. Even if a moonquake isn't intense, "it just keeps going and going," Neal says. And for a lunar habitat, that persistence could be more significant than a moonquake's magnitude.
My Note: Power generated from earthquakes:|
imagine a tuning fork which is banged vibrating...
Now imagine huge tuning forks on tectonic plates near a fault line and tapped of this vibrational energy during an earthquake...
How a Clock Works
If a tuning fork mechanism can power a clock through vibration
imagine how much power earthquakes could provide ?
"Any habitat would have to be built of materials that are somewhat flexible," so no air-leaking cracks would develop. "We'd also need to know the fatigue threshold of building materials," that is, how much repeated bending and shaking they could withstand.
What causes the shallow moonquakes? And where do they occur? "We're not sure," he says. "The Apollo seismometers were all in one relatively small region on the front side of the moon, so we can't pinpoint [the exact locations of these quakes]." He and his colleagues do have some good ideas, among them being the rims of large and relatively young craters that may occasionally slump.
"We're especially ignorant of the lunar poles," Neal continues. That's important, because one candidate location for a lunar base is on a permanently sunlit region on the rim of Shackleton Crater at the Moon's south pole.
Neal and his colleagues are developing a proposal to deploy a network of 10 to 12 seismometers around the entire moon, to gather data for at least three to five years. This kind of work is necessary, Neal believes, to find the safest spots for permanent lunar bases.
And that's just the beginning, he says. Other planets may be shaking, too: "The moon is a technology test bed for establishing such networks on Mars and beyond." - universetoday.com
UK: SOLAR POWER FROM SPACE IN 2100?
Looking well into the future at which emerging technologies might help power the UK and the world was the subject of the Energy 2100 conference in London today.
Scientists, engineers, researchers and industry gathered to debate the technologies and do some long-term horizon scanning. Initiated by the Prime Minister's Council for Science and Technology and presented by the Royal Academy of Engineering, its purpose was to look ahead, in the light of best current knowledge, to the energy supply options which could exist in the UK in 2100.
Speaking at the conference, Energy Minister Malcolm Wicks said:
"This conference will explore options from wind and tidal power to nuclear fission and fusion, and will also look at more speculative ideas such as space based solar power and nanotechnology to imitate the way plants harness and use solar energy. There is an amazing range of technologies that could provide the planet's energy needs a century from now. Of course, a lot of this will be speculation but one thing we can be pretty certain about is that by the end of this century we will be living in a low carbon economy. We have no choice. Our current reliance on fossil fuels is unsustainable; our carbon emissions are throwing the climate out of balance.
"Human ingenuity - in particular the ingenuity of scientists and engineers whom we will be hearing from today - will be crucial in developing new energy sources. I am fascinated by some of these technologies; there is enormous potential in areas such as hydrogen fuel cells and tidal power, which we will be discussing today. And I look forward to hearing from the energy companies themselves about their long-term research projects.
"The prospect of finding energy sources to replace fossil fuels and supply them to the world is stimulating the market to great activity, as one would expect. But we cannot leave it all to market forces; there is a role for government too, not least because of the question of timing. Government can help frame the market so that it pulls technologies forward from being the stuff of science fiction to real world demonstration and commercial viability, as well as pushing new technologies through support such as that given by the Research Councils.
"Our current Energy Review is looking at the balance between "push" and "pull", and I look forward to presenting my recommendations to the Prime Minister this summer. The Review is focussing on UK energy policy from 2010. But today is about looking beyond the medium term and I relish the opportunity to do a bit of blue sky thinking with some of the country's top scientists and engineers."