Several of [Thomas] Edison's early business offerings are in fact still part of GE today, including lighting, transportation, industrial products, power transmission and medical equipment. The first GE Appliances electric fans were produced at the Ft. Wayne electric works as early as the 1890s, while a full line of heating and cooking devices were developed in 1907. GE Aircraft Engines, the division's name only since 1987, actually began its story in 1917 when the U.S. government began its search for a company to develop the first airplane engine "booster" for the fledgling U.S. aviation industry. Thomas Edison's experiments with plastic filaments for light bulbs in 1893 led to the first GE Plastics department, created in 1930.
History of GE
Tesla - discoverer of Alternate Current and 'free energy via Radio waves ?
It was 1884 and Tesla used all his savings to buy himself a ticket to New York and left on the first available boat. On arrival, he immediately began working for Edison. Although he had little confidence in AC, regarding it as a pipe dream, Edison was quickly impressed at Tesla's skill at trouble-shooting and his ferocious work-rate. Tesla, as usual, started at 10.30am and finished at 5.30am the following morning. Tesla's attitude towards Edison at the beginning of their working relationship seems to have been little short of hero worship, which, given Edison's well known egotism, could only have helped him warm towards Tesla. Eventually Tesla was presented with a challenge. If he could increase the efficiency of the DC dynamos by 25% Edison would present him with a bonus of $50,000. A two-month deadline was imposed and Tesla kept to it, improving the efficiency of some dynamos by up to 50%.
Unfortunately, Tesla hadn't reckoned on Edison's notoriously tight-fisted nature. He reneged on the deal and refused to hand over the money. Tesla, infuriated at being betrayed by his idol, quit in disgust11. It was at this point that he was approached by a group of investors interested in developing an arc light that he had invented. He went into partnership with them as the Tesla Arc Light Company. The arc lights sold well and Tesla expected to have enough money to develop his AC system. But, in the first of a series of business errors that were to plague his life, he found out that his 50% share did not entitle him to a 50% voting share and he was voted out of his own company. One of the finest engineers in the world was reduced to digging ditches for a dollar a day12.
 Tesla was focusing on using radio waves for power transmission. At Colorado Springs he built a huge magnifying power transmitter, based around a massive Tesla coil and an antenna that was 200 feet tall. It was capable of generating voltages of 100,000,000 volts. Tesla used this apparatus to light banks of light bulbs over 20 miles away. However, the power of radio waves from an antenna falls off at the rate of 1/r2. (Where r = distance.) |
Quite by accident, Tesla found a fascinating, unorthodox solution to this problem. As his antenna also functioned as a receiver, he had taken to tracking the progress of lightning storms across the sky. He noticed a fading pattern as the storms moved over the horizon and deduced the presence of a standing wave effect between the sky and the ground.
From these observations he deduced the existence of what he claimed were global resonances of 6, 18 and 30 Hz. This effect reduced the fall off in power to only 1/r, and so effectively the space between sky and ground was acting as a 2-D waveguide. The area between the ionosphere and the ground that allows the transmission of standing waves is now known as the Schumann cavity, and the Schumann resonances (discovered in 1952) are multiples of 7.5 Hz24. However, as Tesla did not know this, and the prediction of the ionosphere by Heaviside was still two years away, he became convinced that Maxwell's equations were wrong. This was the first clear example of his lack of theoretical rigour leading him astray.
"Nikola Tesla is now credited with having invented modern radio. The Supreme Court overturned Marconi's patent in 1943 in favor of Tesla."
Did the Power Nazis Hijack Teslas dream for FREE ENERGY?
Morgan offered Tesla $150,000 to build a transmission tower and power plant. A more realistic sum would have been $1,000,000, but Tesla took what was available and went to work immediately. In spite of what he told his investor, Tesla's actual plan was to make a large-scale demonstration of electrical power transmission without wires. This turned out to be a fatal mistake.
For his new construction project, Tesla acquired land on the cliffs of Long Island Sound. The site was called Wardenclyffe. By 1901 the Wardenclyffe project was under construction, the most challenging task being the erection of an enormous tower, rising 187 feet in the air and supporting on its top a fifty-five-ton sphere made of steel.
Beneath the tower, a well-like shaft plunged 120 feet into the ground. Sixteen iron pipes were driven three hundred feet deeper so that currents could pass through them and seize hold of the earth. "In this system that I have invented," Tesla explained, "it is necessary for the machine to get a grip of the earth, otherwise it cannot shake the earth. It has to have a grip... so that the whole of this globe can quiver."
[notice how this narrative moves away from transmission of power to Radio communications...odd?]
As the tower construction slowly increased, it became evident that more funds were sorely needed. But Morgan was not quick to respond. Then on December 12, 1901, the world awoke to the news that Marconi had signaled the letter "S" across the Atlantic from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland. Tesla, unruffled by the accomplishment, explained that the Italian used 17 Tesla patents to accomplish the transmission. But Morgan began to doubt Tesla. Marconi's system not only worked, it was also inexpensive.
Tesla pleaded with Morgan for more financial support, but the investor soundly refused. To make matters worse, the stock market crashed and prices for the tower's materials doubled. High prices combined with Tesla's inability to find enough willing investors eventually led to the demise of the project.
In 1905, after some amazing electrical displays, Tesla and his team had to abandon the project forever. The newspapers called it, "Tesla's million dollar folly."
Humiliated and defeated, Tesla experienced a complete nervous breakdown. "It is not a dream," he protested. "It is a simple feat of scientific electrical engineering, only expensive... blind, faint-hearted, doubting world."
Rapacious? Sure. But 19th century titans Carnegie, Rockefeller and Morgan set the stage for the empire builders of the 20th
BY RON CHERNOW
Staring out from their photographs, they are the archetypal tycoons: one a steely-eyed Scot with a spade-shaped white beard; another a craggy, Ichabod Crane look-alike; the third a fat cat in striped pants with a watch chain strung across an ample paunch.
Today they have the look of fossilized reactionaries, but these turn-of-the-century titans were men who lived in booming, anarchic times and thrived on them. The Gilded Age was a turbulent period of unfettered capitalism and unfathomable wealth for them and their peers--an environment free of income tax, meddling regulators and other curbs on the animal spirits of freewheeling entrepreneurs. Yet these febrile decades, forever decried as the era of the robber barons, forged the tremendous engine of economic growth that propelled the country from rural isolationism in the 19th century to world industrial leadership in the 20th.
Three men--Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and J. Pierpont Morgan--personified this sweeping turn-of-the-century transformation. Imbued with all the greed, guile and enterprise of the age, they exhibited a bullish faith in America's future despite the depressions, strikes and financial panics that punctuated these tumultuous years. In their different ways, each dealt a mortal blow to the small-scale economy of the early republic, fostering vast industries that forever altered the size and scope of the nation's business.
In crafting the first major multinational corporation, Standard Oil, Rockefeller (1839-1937) provided a sneak preview of the 20th century. At his zenith, he refined, distributed and marketed nearly 90% of America's oil. The unlikely offspring of a raffish snake-oil salesman and a strict Baptist mother, Rockefeller grew up in several rustic hamlets in upstate New York and Ohio. He began his career as an assistant bookkeeper in a Cleveland, Ohio, commodity-brokerage house in 1855 and invested in his first refinery during the Civil War.
When he co-founded Standard in 1870, the oil fields of western Pennsylvania--the heart of the new industry--were in a chaotic state as gluts dragged down prices below production costs. Rockefeller then began to employ the tactics that made him a legend. Imposing his own granite discipline on the industry, he bought up rivals, modernized plants and organized the oil industry on an enduring basis.
Never the curmudgeon of myth, Rockefeller had a droll, genial personality that masked supreme cunning and formidable self-control. It is certainly true that he was not the least bit squeamish about tough tactics. He colluded with railroads to gain preferential freight rates, secretly owned rivals, bribed state legislators and engaged in industrial espionage. From Cleveland, he rolled up one refining center after another until his control was absolute. He was still in his 30s, the boy wonder of American business. At the same time, he was a devout Baptist with a ministerial air, who professed to have no less a business expert than the Lord on his side.
Rockefeller believed in a new economic order that he dubbed "cooperation." President Theodore Roosevelt and his trustbusters had another word for it--monopoly--and the Lord proved no help to Rockefeller against T.R. Rockefeller's tough tactics forced America to define the limits of corporate behavior. Since Rockefeller managed to figure out every conceivable anticompetitive practice, the authors of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 simply had to study his career to draw up a reform agenda.
In the end, Rockefeller amassed a fortune that beggared description. When his net worth peaked at $900 million in 1913, it was equivalent to more than 2% of the gross national product; such a share today would be worth $190 billion, or nearly three times as much as Bill Gates' wealth.
Carnegie (1835-1919), the son of a master weaver in Dunfermline, Scotland, saw his boyhood paradise torn asunder when his father's skills were rendered obsolete by the power loom. The Carnegies had to emigrate to the foul Pittsburgh, Pa., slums when Andrew was 12. Quick-witted, shrewd and resilient, he survived a Dickensian adolescence that included working as a bobbin boy in a textile mill.
His first breakthrough came when he landed a job as secretary and telegrapher to Tom Scott, a powerful overlord of the Pennsylvania Railroad. At 23 Carnegie headed Pennsy's Pittsburgh division and began to rake in a small fortune from outside investments ranging from oil to iron bridges. When he was 33, the rich young man privately lectured himself that his continued pursuit of wealth "must degrade me beyond hope of permanent recovery." Yet he couldn't abandon the money chase. "Put all your eggs into one basket," Carnegie once advised, "and then watch that basket." For him that basket brimmed with steel. Fiercely competitive, obsessed with innovation and efficiency--he would unhesitatingly scrap a relatively new plant to erect a more modern one--Carnegie imported the Bessemer forced-air steel process to America. Such innovation permitted him to reduce the price of rails--the product that initially drove the industry--from $160 a ton in 1875 to $17 by 1900. His steel furnished the sinews of America's burgeoning towns and factories.
A prolific writer and autodidact who authored eight books and 70 magazine articles, Carnegie was a voluble, if sometimes naive, adherent of the Victorian faith in mankind's progress. His quixotic ideals often clashed, however, with the brute realities of his steel mills, where men toiled 12-hour days, seven days a week. If Carnegie fancied himself the friend of the workingman, he had to face the ultimate comeuppance in 1892 when his associate Henry Clay Frick brutally suppressed striking workers in Homestead, Pa., in the bloodiest clash in U.S. labor history.
After selling his empire to J.P. Morgan in 1901 to form the centerpiece of the new behemoth, U.S. Steel, Carnegie devoted himself to good deeds. A prodigious philanthropist, he created 2,800 free libraries worldwide. "The man who dies rich dies disgraced," he declared bluntly. Like Rockefeller, Carnegie endowed large corporate foundations with elastic charters that took on an autonomous existence. At his death he had disbursed almost his entire $350 million fortune.
If Rockefeller and Carnegie built the industrial age, then Morgan (1837-1913) financed it. The most imposing personage ever to bestride Wall Street--his nickname was Jupiter--Morgan had a thunderclap voice, a ferocious glare and a grotesquely disfigured red nose that, he once ruefully joked, had become "part of the American business structure." Where Rockefeller and Carnegie endured hardscrabble boyhoods, Morgan came from a well-to-do Hartford, Conn., family, and his appetite for bosomy women, enormous yachts (his 300-ft. Corsair lent him a piratical image) and exquisite art was legendary.
After studying in Switzerland and Germany, the cosmopolitan young Morgan arrived on Wall Street in 1857, serving as agent for his father Junius Spencer Morgan, who had taken over a London merchant bank. Though Pierpont participated in refinancing the Civil War debt in the 1870s, he acquired true imperial status in underwriting America's railroads.
Morgan issued stocks and bonds for railroads (think of them as you would software companies today), brokered deals among them and dominated their boards. He recapitalized so many bankrupt railroads--Morganized them, as wits said--that by the 1890s he controlled one-sixth of America's railway system. Like Rockefeller, Morgan scorned competition as wasteful and ran afoul of federal trustbusters who broke up his railroad holding company, Northern Securities, in the early 1900s. The apex of Morgan's power came in 1901 with the creation of U.S. Steel, the first billion-dollar corporation. This was followed by International Harvester, the farm-equipment trust, and the International Mercantile Marine, the North Atlantic shipping cartel. In fact, Morgan presided over so many large-scale industrial consolidations that he recast the banker's role from that of handmaiden to master of industry.
Between 1836 and 1914, the U.S. lacked a central bank; Morgan stepped boldly, sometimes magnificently, into that breach. When gold reserves backing the country's legal tender dipped perilously low in 1895, he masterminded a bond issue in New York and London that replenished the gold stock--one of many acts he performed that preserved America's credit abroad and evinced a new financial maturity that won the confidence of foreign investors.
During the 1907 Panic on Wall Street, an aging Morgan mobilized the city's bankers in his solemnly ornate library and got them to commit money to a rescue fund that ended the bank runs convulsing the city. It was the last hurrah for a self-regulated financial system: Morgan's dazzling improvisation proved the urgent need for a central bank, setting the stage for the passage of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913.
Rockefeller, Carnegie and Morgan were not the only robber barons, of course. Edward H. Harriman fought Morgan for control of the railroads. Andrew and Richard Mellon founded four major companies, including Alcoa. But the scale on which Rockefeller, Carnegie and Morgan operated was unprecedented, paving the way for a world of global companies and capital flows. And their money built a platform for philanthropy that has grown every bit as much as their corporations.
|Westinghouse versus Edison?
In 1886, George Westinghouse, a wealthy and respected inventor, but a newcomer in the electric power industry, founded Westinghouse Electric in order to compete with Edison. Westinghouses system relied on the discoveries and patents of Nikola Tesla, a Serbian (from Croatia) immigrant who passionately believed in the superiority of alternating current (AC) power. Power loss in transmission depends on voltagethe higher the voltage, the smaller the power loss. Unlike DC, the voltage of AC can be increased (stepped up) with a transformer at the generating station, and then it can be transmitted over long distances. Then, before it is delivered to customers, the voltage can be reduced (stepped down) to safe, usable levels again. Edisons Pearl Street station was enormous, but lit only one square mile of New York City. Lighting up New York would take hundreds of Edison stations. Westinghouses AC system, on the other hand, made it possible to put large generating stations outside of cities and provide power to more customers.
Edison was less than thrilled with the emergence of Westinghouses technology, which threatened his own dominance in a field he virtually created. He also had genuine concerns about the safety of AC. The two men engaged in a public relations battle to determine which system would become the dominant technology. In an attempt to discredit AC power Edison stooped to some low tricks. He paid schoolboys a quarter for each dog or cat they delivered to him and then he electrocuted the animals in deliberately gruesome public experiments. In another desperate attempt to sway public opinion against AC, Edison recommended that the state of New York use electrocution by means of AC power as its method of capital punishment. He even suggested calling the electric chair the Westinghouse Chair and recommended that the verb Westinghoused be used to describe electrocution.
Edisons theatrics notwithstanding, the superiority of AC became increasingly apparent to the public. And although Edison stubbornly defended DC, the use of AC equipment at the huge new Niagara Falls power facility in 1895 marked the rise of AC current.
- virtual museum
Like J.P. Morgan, who had begun his commercial career by selling the U.S. Army some defective guns, the famous
fall carbine affair, John D. Rockefeller also was a war profiteer during the Civil War ; he sold unstamped
Harkness liquor to Federal troops at a high profit, gaining the initial capital to embark on his drive for
His interest in the oil business was a natural one; his father, William Rockefeller had been ``in oil''
for years . William Rockefeller had become an oil entrepreneur after salt wells at Tarentum, near
Pittsburgh, were discovered in 1842 to be flowing with oil. The owners of the wells, Samuel L. Kier,
began to bottle the oil and sell it for medicinal purposes. One of his earliest wholesalers was William
Rockefeller. The ``medicine'' was originally labeled ``Kier's Magic Oil''. Rockefeller printed his own
labels, using ``Rock Oil'' or ``Seneca Oil,'' Seneca being the name of a well known Indian tribe.
The Cartel built on con-men
Rockefeller achieved his greatest notoriety and his greatest profits by advertising himself as ``William
Rockefeller, the Celebrated Cancer Specialist''. It is understandable that his grandsons would become the
controlling power behind the scenes of the world's most famous cancer treatment center and would direct
government funds and charitable contributions to those areas which only benefit the Medical Monopoly.
William Rockefeller spared no claim in his flamboyant career. He guaranteed ``All Cases of Cancer Cured
Unless They Are Too Far Gone.'' Such were the healing powers that he attributed to his magic cancer cure
that he vas able to retail it for $25 a bottle, a sum then equivalent to two months' wages. The ``cure''
consisted of a few well known diuretics, which had been diluted by water. This carnival medicine show
barker could hardly have envisioned that his descendants would control the greatest and the most profitable
Medical Monopoly in recorded history
The archtecture of modern political power
JP Morgans Nazi links:
Chase Manhattan Bank and J.P. Morgan & Co. readily joined the Nazis in plundering millions of dollars in Jewish assets during World War II, according to a federal lawsuit.
The class-action lawsuit filed Wednesday in U.S. District Court in New York against the two companies and seven French banks accuses them of seizing accounts and safe deposit boxes from Jewish customers, then keeping the assets after the war.
Chase Manhattan and J.P. Morgan became the first U.S. institutions to be named in the dozen lawsuits still pending on behalf of Holocaust victims who were exploited or who lost assets during the Nazi era.
Chase Manhattan ''collaborated with the German authorities and displayed an excessive zeal in its enforcement of anti-Jewish laws,'' the suit alleged. A similar attitude by J.P. Morgan earned it the reputation of an ''international Aryan organization,'' it adds.
The suit does not seek specific damages. But it accuses all the banks of being involved in ''the systematic plunder'' of ''countless millions of dollars.''
A plaintiffs' attorney, Kenneth McCallion, said he hoped the banks would open their books, verify the losses and settle the claims out of court. Last week, Barclays Bank agreed to settle its part of the same class-action suit by paying $3.6 million to Jews whose assets were frozen.
In a statement, Chase called the suit unnecessary. It said the bank is already working with Jewish leaders to investigate records and reimburse, with interest, any customers -- or their heirs -- who lost money. Fewer than 100 accounts are at issue, it added.
JP Morgans nazi links
ROCKEFELLER, John Davison (1839-1937), American industrialist. Rockefeller was born in Richford, N.Y., on
July 8, 1839, and educated in the public schools of Cleveland, Ohio. He became a bookkeeper in Cleveland
at the age of 16.
In 1862 he went into business with Samuel Andrews, the inventor of an inexpensive
process for the refinement of crude petroleum. After rapid expansion, the firm was superseded in
1870 by the Standard Oil Co., organized by Rockefeller, his brother William (1841-1922), and
In early 1872 Rockefeller helped form the South Improvement Co., an
association of the largest oil refiners in Cleveland, arranging with the railroads for
substantial rebates on shipments by members of the association. The arrangement was
cancelled in three months, after popular protest, but most of Rockefeller's competitors
in Cleveland had already been forced to sell out to his combine.
By 1878 Rockefeller
had control of 90 percent of the oil refineries in the U.S. and soon afterward a
virtual monopoly of the marketing facilities.
German American heritage
"We are grateful to the Washington Post, the New York Times, Time Magazine and other great publications whose directors have attended our meetings and respected their promises of discretion for almost 40 years.
It would have been impossible for us to develop our plan for the world if we had been subjected to the lights of publicity during those years. But, the world is more sophisticated and prepared to march towards a world government.
The supernational sovereignty of an intellectual elite and world bankers is surely preferable to the national autodetermination practiced in past centuries."
Rockerfeller Aids the Nazi war
Machine via Synthetic fuel - OIL & Gas from coal
The Standard Oil group of companies, in which the Rockefeller family owned a one-quarter (and controlling) interest, was of critical assistance in helping Nazi Germany prepare for World War II. This assistance in military preparation came about because Germany's relatively insignificant supplies of crude petroleum were quite insufficient for modern mechanized warfare; in 1934 for instance about 85 percent of German finished petroleum products were imported.
The solution adopted by Nazi Germany was to manufacture synthetic gasoline from its plentiful domestic coal supplies. It was the hydrogenation process of producing synthetic gasoline and iso-octane properties in gasoline that enabled Germany to go to war in 1940 ? and this hydrogenation process was developed and financed by the Standard Oil laboratories in the United States in partnership with I.G. Farben.
Evidence presented to the Truman, Bone, and Kilgore Committees after World War II confirmed that Standard Oil had at the same time "seriously imperiled the war preparations of the United States."
Documentary evidence was presented to all three Congressional committees that before World War II Standard Oil had agreed with I.G. Farben, in the so-called Jasco agreement, that synthetic rubber was within Farben's sphere of influence, while Standard Oil was to have an absolute monopoly in the U.S. only if and when Farben allowed development of synthetic rubber to take place in the U.S.
Antony C Sutton
Too costly for UK and Australia
cannnot keep up with the German War machine
In 1926, Sir Lennon Raws, Chairman of ICI Australia, had samples of Australian brown coal evaluated in the
UK. Others became interested. Under his chairmanship, ICI Australia, BHP, Howard Smith, BHAS and EZ formed
a joint company 'Synthetic Coal Oil Products' and had a number of Australian coals tested in the UK.
The world at that stage had little experience in large-scale petrochemistry; naive optimism almost led
to a project that far exceeded Australia's resources. Negotiations and mainly technical evaluations
dragged on. Progressively, cost estimates escalated, both in the UK and in Australia.
The Bergius-I. G. Farben process had looked less complex than it was; at high pressure and high
temperature solids handling of vast quantities of solids posed major difficulties. In addition,
the process had to be adapted from German brown coal to UK black coal. Australian brown coal really
looked best. Yet, re-estimated in 1936 for Australia, synthetic petrol was to cost three times the
market price and 'Synthetic Coal Oil Products' abandoned the project.
Finally, it was the political climate which tilted the balance. With the clouds of German rearmament under
Hitler on the horizon, the British Government decided to subsidise the process. This proved to be a wise
decision; soon, during the Second World War the high aromatics from the process were vital to aircraft
fuel for Britain's fighters. Germany accelerated the process for its war effort on an unprecedented scale,
with thousands of forced labourers brought from all over Europe to work on the liquefaction plants. After
the war, with availability of cheap petrol restored, the German and English coal liquefaction plants were
shut down. Only South Africa, wary of its political isolation, persisted with the conversion of coal to
petrol and revived and perfected the Fischer-Tropsch process and operates it to this day, at marginal
economics. - source
|The Bergius Process
The Bergius Process is a very simple process for converting brown coal completely into crude oil invented by Dr. Friedrich Bergius. The brown coal, also known as lignite, is ground into a fine powder and placed into a high pressure reactor where it is reacted with hydrogen gas at high temperature and pressure. Initially, problems with large scale production made industrial use impossible. After the development of catalysts, and with assistance from the Standard Oil (NJ) Company the process became commercially viable. Dr. Bergius received the Nobel Prize in 1931 for this contribution to industrial science.
Let's go back to that frustrating time right after World War I. The German chemical company Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik, more commonly known today as BASF, begins distilling oil from brown coal, or lignite. Germany has no oil, and under the government's Four Year Plan, the chemists are forced to try and come up with a way to make oil and gasoline from the one natural resource they have plenty of, coal. Well, distilling the oil from the coal is not producing enough for the country's needs.
Just before the first World War, Dr. Friedrich Bergius invented a process to convert the brown coal directly into oil, which he humbly named the Bergius Process. It was a great idea, but there were many practical difficulties which made it impossible to operate on an industrial scale.
In the spring of 1925, the directors of BASF come to the United States to tour some industrial plants. One of the stops on the trip is to the New Jersey oil refineries of the Standard Oil company,the largest in the country. The Germans are quite impressed, and in 1926, BASF and Standard join to buy Gasolin A. G., a company in Germany that produces and distributes gasoline. Having an interest in the company, Frank Howard, an executive of the Standard Oil (NJ) Company, visits the BASF facility in Ludwigshafen, Germany.
Types of coal:
are the "youngest" coals, which have high water content and low heating values. The heating value of a fuel is used to quantify the useful energy content of different fuels. Lignite often has many impurities and is therefore not a preferable type to use.
is cheaper to mine because it is not as deep as bituminous coal and contains less sulfur than lignites.
is the most abundant type of coal. It has a high heating value, but it also has a high sulfur content.
is a very hard coal which burns longer, with more heat and with less dust and soot than the other types of coal. These qualities make anthracite a popular home heating fuel.
Coal gasification is a process by which coal is converted into a synthetic fuel, natural gas. The process
basically adds hydrogen to the carbon in coal. In order to change the carbon to hydrogen atomic ratio from
12 to 1 in coal to 1 to 4 in natural gas, several steps must be carried out. First the coal is brought into
contact with high-pressure, high-temperature steam in the gasifier. The heat for the reaction from coal to
"synthesis gas" is provided by introducing some oxygen, which causes some of the coal to burn. In the
second stage, the C:H ratio is increased by further addition of steam, which increases the heating value
of the fuel. The resulting mixture is then purified and converted to methane in the presence of a nickel
catalyst. The methanization is an exothermic reaction, in which lots of low temperature heat is lost,
therefore making the process inefficient. Synthetic methane is the resulting fuel.
Coal liquefaction converts coal into synthetic crude oil, or syncrude. This process also involves adding hydrogen to heated coal and then separating the gas and liquid product. The hydrogen is added to coal in a slurry at elevated temperatures and pressures. The high temperature breaks the carbon bonds, which produces a liquid phase product due to the high pressure.
Economical considerations hinder the further development of coal gasification and liquefaction systems. It has been neither economical nor efficient to produce synthetic fuels from coal on a large scale basis. The production facilities are more expensive to run and maintain than simply buying the oil or natural gas itself. It is important, however, that the processes are maintained and improved even at a slow rate. As our reserves of crude oil are depleted, the price of oil will probably increase dramatically, making the use of synthetic fuels more economical.
The private sector has not yet been willing to invest the approximately $2 billion necessary to build a
synfuel plant of sufficient size to take advantage of the economies of scale common to such processes.
The various risks are just too high. First, while it is almost certain that synthetic fuels can be produced,
specific processes have not been demonstrated on a sufficiently large scale to offer businessmen the level
of certainty that they traditionally desire regarding cost and technology. Second, regulatory uncertainties
complicate both the cost and technological problems. For example, synfuel plants quite commonly require
25,000 tons of coal per day for feedstock; consequently, a change in surface mining regulations or in
Interstate Commerce Commission transportation rates could create havoc with the financial viability of
a synthetic fuel project. Finally, it is possible that future world oil prices will not increase as
rapidly as they have in the last few years or that they may, in fact, fall in real terms, thus
increasing the relative cost of synfuels.
Using Gas to make synthetic oil
Much of the world's natural gas is going to waste. Wouldn't it be terrific to turn it into liquid fuel? Every day natural gas flares blaze across swaths of Africa, Russia, Asia and the Middle East, burning off 10 billion cubic feet of energy--the equivalent of 1.7 million barrels of oil. There's more gas where that came from. Reserves of "stranded" natural gas--the stuff that's abandoned because there's no economical way to transport it--come to maybe 2,500 trillion cubic feet. If captured and converted, the gas would make (after conversion losses) 250 billion barrels of synthetics, from clean-burning diesel to jet fuel. That's like finding another Saudi Arabia. My kingdom for a synfuels catalyst! For a century the world has been looking for economical ways to convert undesirable fossils like coal and methane into desirable ones like diesel. Success may finally be at hand. One aspirant to this royal achievement is a tiny R&D company in Tulsa, Oklahoma called Syntroleum Corp. In 20 years of struggling Syntroleum hasn't made a dime (last year it lost $34.6 million on revenues of $19.2 million). But it says it has refined a gas-to-liquids process to the point that it's now cheap and safe. "Every technology has its day," says company founder Kenneth Agee. "But there was no reason for GTL until now."
NEW DELHI: GAIL (India) Limited is working jointly with Shell International to develop a technology to produce synthesis gas or Syngas (CO+H2) by using the Shell Coal Gasification Process for the first time in India. GAIL officials claimed that the initial studies indicate the availibility of gas at less than $3 per mmbtu, significantly lower than the price at which gas is sold by private companies or LNG. The only proposal to sell gas at such a competitive rate has come recently from Reliance when they bid for NTPC's power projects at Gujarat.
09-12-03 Almost 100 years after Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch figured out how to squeeze synthetic fuels from coal, the world's biggest energy companies are pouring billions of dollars into using the same method to get diesel from natural gas. In the past six months South African-based Sasol, Shell, the world's third largest energy group, and ConocoPhillips of the US have announced gas to liquids (GTL) projects in Qatar worth more than $ 10 bn.
GTL is the process by which methane, natural gas's main component, is turned into synthetic gas, which is then turned into condensates and waxy synthetic crude before being upgraded to diesel and naphtha. The product contains almost no sulphur, which poisons the tailpipe equipment that reduces diesel's toxins, or aromatics, potentially carcinogenic toxins.
The resulting clear and odourless liquid is so "clean" that one expert said you could drink it without much more effect than eating a large packet of prunes. More importantly to the success of the product, GTL can be poured directly into a modern diesel engine.
"We can use the existing infrastructure completely, from pipelines to tankers to gasoline stations," says Patrick Davies, executive director at Sasol, which became a leader in GTL technology after it perfected the Fischer/Tropsch method to create fuel for coal-rich South Africa, which was barred from importing oil under apartheid. source
Diamonds are hydrocarbons
The diamond synthesizing program at GE is alive and well. The business
is profitable and diamond synthesis research has been active at GE for
over 40 years. The successful production of industrial diamonds was
first announced at the General Electric Research Laboratory in 1954. A
factory was built in Ohio shortly thereafter and is still in
DeBeers of course is also a major player in the manufacture of
"man-made" industrial diamonds and I suspect that the industrial
diamond market far exceeds the gem market.source
china daily news report
The New Diamond Age
Currently we are discussing collaborative projects of mutual interests, including the production of perfect diamonds.
After the success of GE in synthesizing large single crystals of diamond with high purity unmatched by any natural diamonds, we have initiated a program of testing synthetic single crystal diamond for anvil use at ultrahigh pressures.
As demonstrated by S. Vohra, the chemically pure, strain-free, perfect diamonds provide an ideal solution to the serious fluorescence problem above 200 GPa as well as for reaching higher pressures. However, due to business considerations, the synthesis project has been terminated and such diamonds are unavailable commercially. GE has supplied us with some residual perfect diamonds from the original pilot project at low cost, and opened the possibility to continue the supply on experimental basis. The need of synthetic diamond is a major new finding that will make possible the next breakthroughs in the field.
Experimental confirmation of posibility of synthesis of diamond single crystals similar to natural
Carbon is available in nature as graphite and (to a much lesser extent!) as diamond. Artificial graphite is made by the reaction of coke with silica (SiO2).
SiO2 + 3C (2500C) "SiC" Si (g) + C(graphite)
Artificial diamonds are made by the application of heat and pressure (> 125 kBar) in the presence of a catalyst such as iron, chromium or platinum. It seems that the metal melts on the carbon surface, the graphite dissolves in the metal film, and the less soluble diamond precipitates out. The introduction of nitrogen as an impurity gives yellowish diamonds while boron impurities give bluish colours.
A new form of carbon, buckminsterfullerene with formula C60 is formed in the treatment of graphite by lasers and is now commercially available in small quantities.
Edward Goodrich Acheson was American inventor who discovered the abrasive Carborundum and perfected a method for making graphite. Acheson was key in successfully establishing at least five industrial corporations dependent on electrothermal processes.
Acheson became interested in the electrical field and decided to work for a manufacturer of electrical equipment. He first applied to Edward Weston who made electroplating dynamos but was turned down. However, one product of his labors was an electric pile, which he brought hopefully to the attention of Thomas Edison. Edison put him to work on September 12, 1880 at his Menlo Park, NJ laboratory under John Kruesi (father of Paul Kruesi ECS Pres. 1928-1929). Acheson experimented on making a conducting carbon that Edison could use in his electric light bulbs. He contributed toward production of the first truly durable incandescent light bulb.
if you can artificially grow carbon crystals - why not coal?
Could Coal be grown artificially - synthetic coal-for synthetic gas & oil?
Why Oil is an energy resource:
When oil or gas is burnt, their surroundings become warmer. Heat energy is transferred from the chemicals
contained in the oil or gas to the surroundings.
Do you know that the original source of this energy is
actually the Sun?
How did the energy get trapped in the oil or gas? Well it all started from the plants,
which use the Sun's energy to produce sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water, in a process
This energy is stored in the chemicals produced by the plants. Animals then
eat the plants and the energy is transferred to their bodies.
The plants and animals died and decayed
in the conditions that existed on Earth millions of years ago, and the organic chemicals their bodies
were made of became the source of fossil fuel we now use.
is this seriously suggesting that plants contain more energy after the process of an animal eating them?
I thought animals needed that energy to survive..and thus it would have been released...transferred through it's physiological functions
you see energy can never be destroyed, it can only be transferred.
Are we to seriously believe that the energy stored in millions of year old fossils from animals and thier DUNG, as organic chemicals have more energy than plants that are under the massive energy giving properties of our sun...RIGHT NOW!
see hemp for fuel & Biodeisel
Have the like of the Rockerfellers been selling us SHIT, again?
Methane is the simplist Hydrocarbon, otherwise known as natural gas. Pure (refined) Methane would be the cleanest burning Hydrocarbon, producing only Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide as reaction byproducts, as it is not a polymer. Natural gas is generally not refined to any great extent, and it is produced and transported at great Environmental Cost and Consequences, however.
Actually, most of it is just wasted away by burning it off at the well head. Let's talk about Stupidity. Are Human Beings just morons, or what? I don't get it. You chop down all the trees and kill all of the wildlife, burn all the oil and pave everything over with asphalt, and then build poorly designed and constructed dwellings, and you complain you are cold and hungry? Jesus help us. God we are dumb.
Let's see if I got it straight, you burn all your food, then burn your furniture, then burn your insulation, and finally burn your house down. Hell, just burn the whole Planet down. Who gives a shit anyways.
Japanese researcher turning cattle dung into motor fuel
Sat, March 4, 2006 - By AP - TOKYO -- Scientists in energy-poor Japan said yesterday they have found a new source of motor fuel -- cattle dung.
Sakae Shibusawa, an agriculture engineering professor at the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, said his team has extracted 1.4 millilitres of a gasoline-like liquid fuel from every 100 grams of cow dung by applying high pressure and heat.
"The technology will be a boon for livestock breeders" to reduce the burden of disposing of large amounts of waste, Shibusawa said. Japan produces about 500,000 tonnes of cattle dung a year, he said. The team hopes to improve the technology so that it can be used commercially within five years, Shibusawa said.
Liquid fuel from cow dung is unheard of, said Tomiaki Tamura, an official of the Natural Resources and Energy Agency. Japan relies almost totally on imports for its oil and gasoline needs. - London Free Press
Spanish test out olives as energy source
Sun Mar 5, MADRID (AFP) - More than 300 buildings in Madrid now run on energy extracted from olive cores, raising hopes that olives -- of which Spain is the world's largest producer -- will become an alternative source of cheap power.
But ecologists have questioned the merits of the scheme.
Behind the cellar door at number 12 Paseo de La Habana in the centre of the Spanish capital, a bitter smell of olives permeates the stuffy atmosphere. An aluminium heating system continuously sucks tonnes of olive cores from a silo to a stove where they are transformed into embers that give off sufficient energy to heat 16 apartments and offices.
"The quality of the heating is higher and more constant than natural gas or carbon, it's less dirty and less ugly than coal, the costs are lower and it is a national product which does not leave us dependent on fuel (price) fluctuations," says Jorge Tudel, chairman of the flat-owners association.
The scheme came into being when the association found itself confronted by the need to renovate the old carbon-based heating system. The firm it contacted, Calordom, which relies on olive cores, almond skins or grape pips for its own energy needs, proposed its services to homeowners who were immediately enthusiastic. The possibility of receiving financial help from regional authorities, who over the past two years have provided assistance for the installation of renewable energy sources, was a factor behind Calordom's decision to invest 100,000 euros (120,000 dollars), of which 20 percent was public money, in the conversion project.
In 2005, the first year of the scheme, heating costs for the whole building came to 17,000 euros, compared with 23,000 euros under the old carbon-based system, a 30 percent saving. The building is one of 300 in the Spanish capital that has been converted to olive-fuelled energy, says Calordom head Juan Cabello. When the firm launched its operations in 2001 it had just one employee, compared with 15 today.
"The energy is 100 percent non-polluting, a kilo (2.2 pounds) of burnt olive cores, in reality wood compressed in a natural fashion, emits the same quantity of carbon gas as they would if you just left them to rot," insists Cabello. "The use of compressed wood ...has existed in Austria for 15 years and also in Germany and France. "In Spain, environmental consciousness remains little developed," he added. Cabello notes that "you find olives from the Pyrenees to the Bay of Cadiz," easily making Spain the world's top producer.
But energy from the crop remains "insignificant" in the country compared with natural gas, fuel or coal. And ecologists say that must remain the case as they fear the process has flaws that would clearly emerge if the process were to become more widespread.
In that case, energy cultures would become "intensive, which would presuppose a high utilisation of fuel-derived fertiliser, utilisation of high fuel consumption machines and, in that case, the energy balance is no longer positive," explains Sara Pizzinato from Greenpeace. Pizzinato says that "the carbon gas emitted to produce this energy must not be greater than that which it is then going to emit and that the energy generated by this combustible (product) must be superior to the energy utilised in creating this combustible."
Excessive use of the biomass burned on a large scale could have effects that would be in inverse proportion to those banked on in environmental terms.
It could lead to a drop in the quality of the land, desertification and climate change, ecologists warn.
- Yahoo News
|Shadow of the swastika
If, before you finished reading this publication, you ever wondered why the U.S. federal government refuses to consider the medicinal and industrial value of cannabis hemp, despite widespread and growing support from the public, medical experts, industry leaders, and a growing number of state legislators across this nation . . . you now have the answer.
For the past several generations, Americans have been systematically deceived about the true nature of cannabis hemp. Many Americans have died - victims of political murders. Millions have been imprisoned, their children and their property taken away, their futures destroyed. The history of my own state - Kentucky - and others as well, have been "sanitized," rewritten, our heritage deleted, our citizens defrauded and impoverished to bury the truth.
And if, before you finished reading this publication, you ever wondered why the U.S. federal government would train and finance Central American death squads; or why, while waging the so-called "war on drugs," the U.S. federal government would operate cocaine and heroin smuggling operations around the world, bringing in tons of drugs to places like Mena, Arkansas; or why the U.S. federal government would "spread democracy" throughout the world by assassinating democratically elected politicians - both at home and abroad - replacing them with right-wing dictators and training their secret police in the latest techniques of torture, terrorism, and mind control; or why the U.S. federal government would conduct deadly medical and radiation experiments on unsuspecting citizens - including pregnant women, the mentally impaired, and children . . . you now have the answer.
The last question is "what are we going to do about it?"
Shadow of the swastika The Real Reason the Government Won't Debate Medical Cannabis and Industrial Hemp Re-legalization - An Open Letter to All Americans By R. William Davis