NOAA involved in weather control
Free Press International
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a part of the US Dept of Commerce,
has been involved in weather control since 1973 and possibly before.
In an unclassified 1973 document, NOAA is mentioned in regards to weather control operations in Niger, Africa.
The message says, "convective activity combined along and to the south of southern border of Niger - - no convective
activity north of fifteen degrees North or to East of Niger. The document is signed by, "Kissinger."
In 1974, Great Lakes weather modification experiments were being directed from NOAA'S
Also in 1974 there was a US-USSR weather modification exchange of specialists that took place with a
visit to NOAA headquarters. The USSR was a communist state in 1974.
In a statement on meteorology and hydrology the US placed a note that said, The US government prefers not to have reference
to weather modification in the text.
NOAA is the Official US Weather Service, but it's also involved in making the weather.
Notice the use of NOAA, as in NOAH.
Great Lakes weather modification experiments
US-USSR weather modification exchange
US government weather modification
1974 message text talks of using weather modification as a weapon of war
Free Press International - April 26, 2006
A message text was drafted and sent to the American Consul in Jeruselem, by the US Department of State, on January 16, 1974.
The message [sourcefile] reads:
1. HERMAN POLLACK, DIRECTOR OF SCI, HAS BEEN INVITED TO TESTIFY JAN. 25 BEFORE SENATOR PELL'S SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE SENATE RESOLUTION PROPOSING AN INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION TO PROHIBIT WEATHER MODIFICAION AS A WEAPON OF WAR.
2. YOU MAY BE RECEIVING THROUGH NSC CHANNELS A RECOMMENDATION THAT YOU REACH AN EARLY DECISION AS TO WHETHER OR NOT YOU WILL REQUEST AN INTERAGENCY REVIEW OF WEATHER
MODIFICATION, INCLUDING ITS USE AS A WEAPON OF WAR. WE UNDERSTAND THAT AN NSC STAFF PROPOSAL ON THIS SUBJECT WAS INCLUDED IN PAPERS TAKEN WITH YOU.
3. IN YOUR LETTER TO SENATOR PELL OF NOVEMBER 5 YOU REPEATED THE REMARK YOU MADE TO HIM DURING YOUR CONFIRMATION HEARINGS THAT HIS RESOLUTION ON WEATHER MODIFICATION MUST BE TAKEN QUOTE EXTREMELY SERIOUSLY UNQUOTE.
YOU ALSO ASSURED HIM THAT YOU WOULD QUOTE LOOK CLOSELY INTO THIS MATTER TO DETERMINE HOW WE MIGHT BE RESPONSIVE TO THE RESOLUTION'S RECOMMENDATIONS UNQUOTE.
4. AS MATTERS NOW STAND THERE ARE TWO OPTIONS OPEN TO US.THE FIRST WOULD FOLLOW FROM AN IMMEDIATE DECISION TO REQUEST AN INTERAGENCY STUDY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION. IF YOU WERE TO MAKE SUCH A REQUEST, THIS ACTION WOULD GIVE SUBSTANCE TO YOUR ASSURANCES TO SENATOR PELL.
5. THE SECOND OPTION WOULD FOLLOW FROM A DECISION NOT TO REQUEST AN INTERAGENCY STUDY. IN THAT CASE I BELIEVE WE SHOULD TELL THE SUBCOMMITTEE THAT WE HAVE CONCLUDED THAT THERE IS TOO MUCH UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE STATE OF THE ART BEARING ON POTENTIAL MILITARY UTILITY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION TO FOREGO IT AND FOR THAT REASON THE US SHOULD NOT NOW TAKE AN INITIATIVE FOR OR SUPPORT AN INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT PROHIBITING THE USE OF WEATHER MODIFICATION AS A WEAPON OF WAR. APART FROM THE TECHNICAL WEAKNESS OF SUCH A POSITION, IT IS NOT RESPONSIVE TO SENATOR PELL'S ARGUMENT THAT GEOPHYSICAL WARFARE SHOULD BE PROSCRIBED BEFORE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS LEAD TO FURTHER ESCALATION. FURTHERMORE,THIS POSITION WOULD BE DIFFICULT TO DEFEND AGAINST THE TESTIMONY WE CAN EXPECT FROM THOMAS MALONE, GORDON MACDONALD AND OTHER EXPERTS WHO ARE ALSO SCHEDULED TO TESTIFY AT THE HEARINGS. THEY MAY WELL MAKE THE TECHNICAL ARGUMENT THAT NOT ONLY IS ENOUGH NOW KNOWN ABOUT THE STATE OF THE ART TO PERMIT HARD DECISIONS ON THE UTILITY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION AS A MILITARY WEAPON, BUT THAT ITS UTILITY IS QUITE LIMITED. HOWEVER, IF IT IS NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN THIS POSITION, IT CAN BE DONE BY A PHLEGMATIC AND STOLID PERFORMANCE ON THE WITNESS STAND.
6. ACDA STRONGLY SUPPORTS MY VIEW THAT AN INTERAGENCY STUDY ON WEATHER MODIFICATION SHOULD PROCEED IMMEDIATELY.
Early 21st Century: Are we witnessing Electro-magnetic weather warfare?
Severe Storms: Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina exploded into a Category 5 storm on August 28 as it moved north through the Gulf of Mexico towards the United States. It is one of the most powerful storms on record for the Atlantic Basin. 10 Images, Updated: September 02, 2005
Severe Storms: Hurricane Hilary
Hilary is a Pacific hurricane which formed off the coast of Mexico and has been gradually moving farther offshore as it gains strength. The storm is expected to lose strength in the coming days and is not projected to make landfall. 1 Image, Posted: August 23, 2005
Severe Storms: Hurricane Irene
Irene became the third hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season on August 14. 3 Images, Updated: August 16, 2005
Severe Storms: Tropical Storm Harvey
Tropical Storm Harvey formed in the Atlantic Ocean well offshore from the U.S. mainland in early August 2005. It made a grazing pass by Bermuda and was heading north and east into the mid-Atlantic. 2 Images, Updated: August 05, 2005
China / Asia
Severe Storms: Typhoon Talim
Typhoon Talim was building strength in the western Pacific Ocean in alte August as it bore down on Taiwan and mainland China. 5 Images, Updated: September 02, 2005
Severe Storms: Super Typhoon Nabi
Super Typhoon Nabi formed in the western Pacific near Guam at the end of August and slowly built up strength as it veered towards southern Japan and Korea. 2 Images, Updated: September 02, 2005
Severe Storms: Typhoon Mawar
Typhoon Mawar is a strong typhoon in the northwestern Pacific. The storm was predicted to make landfall on Honshu (the main island of Japan) on August 25, with Category 4 strength winds and heavy rainfall. 4 Images, Updated: August 30, 2005
Severe Storms: Tropical Storm Sanvu
Tropical Storm Sanvu swept ashore over China on August 13, 2005. 1 Image, Posted: August 15, 2005
Severe Storms: Typhoon Matsa
Typhoon Matsa began forming in the northwestern Pacific off the Philippines and is gradually forming into a full fledged typhoon as the storm system travels north into the Yellow Sea. 4 Images, Updated: August 05, 2005
Severe Storms: Tropical Storm Banyan
Tropical Storm Banyan formed in the Northern Mariana Islands on July 21, 2005, and has gradually developed into a substantial tropical storm while moving gradually towards Japan. 1 Image, Posted: July 26, 2005
Doppler Radar - a pulse of energy
NEXRAD spends the vast amount of time "listening" for returning signals it sent. When the time of all the pulses each hour are totaled (the time the radar is actually transmitting), the radar is "on" for about 7 seconds each hour. The remaining 59 minutes and 53 seconds are spent listening for any returned signals.
The phase of the returning signal typically changes based upon the motion of the raindrops (or bugs, dust, etc.).
The National Weather Radar Testbed allows NSSL and other meteorologists to determine if phased array radar will become the next significant technology advancement to improve our nation's weather services.
Isn't another very popular scientific maxim being avoided here? Cause & Effect
A pulse of energy - signs of deliberate 'Storm management'?
Hey! it's Just a book! State of Fear
Dr John Kenner, the main character in Michael Crichton's latest thriller State of Fear, accuses the US of creating artificial hurricanes, explosions and earthquakes in some isolated islands to substantiate the claims of climate scientists that global warming is a real phenomenon. He has also blamed climate scientists for predicting temperature data in 1988 that are 300 per cent exagerrated. The book has been heavily criticised by many, including the environmentalists who have accused him for distorting and ignoring the findings. - telegraph india
"We have a responsibility to help clean up this mess," "It's as if the entire Gulf Coast were obliterated by the worst kind of weapon you can imagine."
Bush after meeting with the leaders of some Gulf Coast states in Mobile, Ala.
Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer Authorization Act of 2005
(Introduced in Senate)
S 517 IS
To establish the Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, and for other purposes.
IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
March 3, 2005
Mrs. HUTCHISON introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
To establish the Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the `Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer Authorization Act of 2005'.
SEC. 2. PURPOSE.
It is the purpose of this Act to develop and implement a comprehensive and coordinated national weather modification policy and a national cooperative Federal and State program of weather modification research and development.
SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.
(1) BOARD- The term `Board' means the Weather Modification Advisory and Research Board.
(2) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR- The term `Executive Director' means the Executive Director of the Weather Modification Advisory and Research Board.
(3) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT- The term `research and development' means theoretical analysis, exploration, experimentation, and the extension of investigative findings and theories of scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes.
(4) WEATHER MODIFICATION- The term `weather modification' means changing or controlling, or attempting to change or control, by artificial methods the natural development of atmospheric cloud forms or precipitation forms which occur in the troposphere.
SEC. 4. WEATHER MODIFICATION ADVISORY AND RESEARCH BOARD ESTABLISHED.
(a) IN GENERAL- There is established in the Department of Commerce the Weather Modification Advisory and Research Board.
(1) IN GENERAL- The Board shall consist of 11 members appointed by the Secretary of Commerce, of whom--
(A) at least 1 shall be a representative of the American Meteorological Society;
(B) at least 1 shall be a representative of the American Society of Civil Engineers;
(C) at least 1 shall be a representative of the National Academy of Sciences;
(D) at least 1 shall be a representative of the National Center for Atmospheric Research of the National Science Foundation;
(E) at least 2 shall be representatives of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the Department of Commerce;
(F) at least 1 shall be a representative of institutions of higher education or research institutes; and
(G) at least 1 shall be a representative of a State that is currently supporting operational weather modification projects.
(2) TENURE- A member of the Board serves at the pleasure of the Secretary of Commerce.
(3) VACANCIES- Any vacancy on the Board shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment.
(b) ADVISORY COMMITTEES- The Board may establish advisory committees to advise the Board and to make recommendations to the Board concerning legislation, policies, administration, research, and other matters.
(c) INITIAL MEETING- Not later than 30 days after the date on which all members of the Board have been appointed, the Board shall hold its first meeting.
(d) MEETINGS- The Board shall meet at the call of the Chair.
(e) QUORUM- A majority of the members of the Board shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may hold hearings.
(f) CHAIR AND VICE CHAIR- The Board shall select a Chair and Vice Chair from among its members.
SEC. 5. DUTIES OF THE BOARD.
(a) PROMOTION OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT- In order to assist in expanding the theoretical and practical knowledge of weather modification, the Board shall promote and fund research and development, studies, and investigations with respect to--
(1) improved forecast and decision-making technologies for weather modification operations, including tailored computer workstations and software and new observation systems with remote sensors; and
(2) assessments and evaluations of the efficacy of weather modification, both purposeful (including cloud-seeding operations) and inadvertent (including downwind effects and anthropogenic effects).
(b) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE- Unless the use of the money is restricted or subject to any limitations provided by law, the Board shall use amounts in the Weather Modification Research and Development Fund--
(1) to pay its expenses in the administration of this Act, and
(2) to provide for research and development with respect to weather modifications by grants to, or contracts or cooperative arrangements, with public or private agencies.
(c) REPORT- The Board shall submit to the Secretary biennially a report on its findings and research results.
SEC. 6. POWERS OF THE BOARD.
(a) STUDIES, INVESTIGATIONS, AND HEARINGS- The Board may make any studies or investigations, obtain any information, and hold any hearings necessary or proper to administer or enforce this Act or any rules or orders issued under this Act.
(b) PERSONNEL- The Board may employ, as provided for in appropriations Acts, an Executive Director and other support staff necessary to perform duties and functions under this Act.
(c) COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES- The Board may cooperate with public or private agencies to promote the purposes of this Act.
(d) COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS- The Board may enter into cooperative agreements with the head of any department or agency of the United States, an appropriate official of any State or political subdivision of a State, or an appropriate official of any private or public agency or organization for conducting weather modification activities or cloud-seeding operations.
(e) CONDUCT AND CONTRACTS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT- The Executive Director, with the approval of the Board, may conduct and may contract for research and development activities relating to the purposes of this section.
SEC. 7. COOPERATION WITH THE WEATHER MODIFICATION OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH BOARD.
The heads of the departments and agencies of the United States and the heads of any other public or private agencies and institutions that receive research funds from the United States shall, to the extent possible, give full support and cooperation to the Board and to initiate independent research and development programs that address weather modifications.
SEC. 8. FUNDING.
(a) IN GENERAL- There is established within the Treasury of the United States the Weather Modification Research and Development Fund, which shall consist of amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection (b) or received by the Board under subsection (c).
(b) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There is authorized to be appropriated to the Board for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of this Act $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2014. Any sums appropriated under this subsection shall remain available, without fiscal year limitation, until expended.
(c) GIFTS- The Board may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or donations of services or property.
SEC. 9. EFFECTIVE DATE.
Prior to the work done in the area of storm modification by the South Florida company Dyn-O-Mat, there had not been any attempts to modify hurricanes since 1980, when the NOAA decided to end Project Stormfury.
However, for a period of over 30 years, scientists attempted to find a solution to the hurricane problem through storm modification. Early projects included one led by Dr. Irving Langmuir and a group of scientists at General Electric. The project, called Project Cirrus, focused on seeding hurricanes with dry ice.
Despite some apparent success with the project, not a lot of research done until after the stormy years of 1954 and 1955 when President Eisenhower appointed a special committee to look into storm modification.
Overcoming a lack of enthusiasm and interest in the subject from some scientists, the program took off in the early 1960s with Project Stormfury, which was headed by Dr. Robert H. Simpson, director of the National Hurricane Research Labs. - project stormfury
sonic blasts to cool down a storm?
A New Approach to Hurricane Reduction
An entirely unique method might be effective in either stopping hurricanes from first forming or reducing their power once they exist, or both. A method based on the Physics principle of Resonance, and specifically a second order Quadrupole Resonance seems certainly worth investigating! The concept is very similar to inducing vibrations in a wineglass to cause it to shatter due to music!
As indicated below, this concept was developed by the beginning of 2001, but in early 2004, two new (simpler) mechanisms have been recognized to create the necessary shock waves in the perimeter of a hurricane. One is a precise (due to GPS) repetition of a vertical stack of "percussion bombs" to create a vertical-source shock wave to disrupt the circulation flow of the outer hurricane winds. The other is the sequential use of several supersonic aircraft a few miles outside the 50 mph winds of the outer circulation. The sonic boom caused by supersonic objects like aircraft or bullets is actually a shock wave propagating through the air. An aircraft with a nose cone angle of 10°, traveling at Mach 1.1, creates an extremely intense pressure shock wave, as much as 4 PSI, or 8" of barometric pressure, around 68° out away from the tail centerline. If a supersonic aircraft followed a fairly tight smooth level (logarithmic spiral) turn, the resulting continuous shock waves become closer together in the air inward along the radius of the turn. It is possible to plan it so that the sonic boom shock waves from an extended distance of the aircraft flight can all arrive at a desired location a few miles to the side at the same instant, creating an extremely intense (vertical line) shock wave at that single location. It is also possible for the aircraft to follow a course of slightly greater radius turn, or a possibly a horizontal somewhat hyperbolic path, to cause a broader (in time) shock wave to appear there, which has the effect of being at a lower frequency. This sudden blast of hurricane-radially-inward wind would act to drive some of the hurricane's winds farther inward, disrupting the normal circular flow, causing ripples to form in the circulation, and somewhat de-stabilizing the hurricane. Several such aircraft would be flown to create repetitive sonic boom disruptions in the same position in the hurricane, to inspire the wineglass-like self-destruction of the hurricane. - cahed source
CESAR GROUP - Weather Modification?
Our organization has been experimenting with weather modification and
now offers our services to countries as an alternative to Natural
Disasters such as Tropical Cyclones. Regardless of our precautions and
strict protocols only a few developing countries will use our service.
More to your point as of yet our research division has not yet observed
any short term collateral natural disasters that could be explained or
coupled with our projects. Weather Modification is here and we are
proud to be at the forefront of this science.
the source page of this quote get its CESARs mixed up
Which CESAR group is really involved with Weather modification / simulation?
Scientific Overview of Cloud Electrification Studies using Aircraft and Radars (CESAR), 2000
more storm studies
was the storms change in strength & direction due to warmer waters in the gulf?
Super Typhoon IMBUDO Requested Intercedence results in Sea Surface Temperatures
CESAR Group was requested on July 18, 2003 to intercede on behalf of a Government in regards to the Super Typhoon named IMBUDO. The project began at 1800EDT or 2200 Zulu time. Two pieces of equipment were initiated at the commencement of the project (Biodynamic Technology) the first piece of equipment was to control the storms path and the second was to cool the Storm's core and to reduce the Atmospheric Vapour being drawn into the convection cycle or strengthening of the storm.
Temperatures recorded by a validated site registered +32ºc and at the point of Intercedence the storm was a Typhoon with winds of 75Mph > 33.52 m/s or 65.17 Knots per hour (based on the WMO standard of 1 minute sustained) at the Longitude and Latitude of N10.5º > E 135.4.
Research and Technical Operations agreed that this storm was projected to be difficult because of our former experience in the Bay of Bengal TC01B because of distance in pathing for the storm and specifically the Sea Surface Temperatures measured at 1 meter with a freshwater lens depth of additional .5 to 1 meter temperatures to +32ºc.
The following is the example of pathing, SST on commencement and completion.
a)SST commencement based on a 3 day average
Position and Expected Pathing of IMBUDO
NOTE: Although the expected path was not altered it was shaped in such a manner that the Typhoon would create minimal damage to the Nations being protected.
Completion of Project and Sea Surface Temperatures
Although it may be argued that Super Typhoon IMBUDO unto itself created the cooling trend the reports from the Meteorology Department for the nation and Near Real Time Weather Reports dismiss this theory. In addition our natural coolant has a temperature of 270 Kelvin and the storm is saturated with approximately 4.2 to the power of 6 of coolant every 24 hours.
As this report is being written there are 2 Storms that have formed in the general vicinity and outside of our project area as with the Bay of Bengal. No storms have formed in the Bay since our project TC01B
heres another graphic showing the actual path Imbudo took
It headed directly towards Hong Kong
20 people were reported killed, 20 were injured...with over $37 million estimated in crop damages - more
The act of interceding; intercession; intervention,
results in changed sea temperatures?
Were the Gulf waters made warmer to deliberately brew a Hurricane?
but looking at the diagram [left] it seems to have made a sharp left hand turn, just before it hit Florida...why?
Hurricane intensity linked to warmer oceans
16 March 2006
Higher surface temperatures of the world's oceans could be responsible for the big rise in the strength of hurricanes, say US scientists. Using data from six ocean basins in the last 35 years, Carlos Hoyos and colleagues at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta have identified higher surface temperatures as the single most important variable in the increased frequency of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes. The result will doubtless lead to renewed debate over whether global warming is responsible for such extreme weather events (Sciencexpress 1123560).
A number of studies have shown that hurricanes have steadily become stronger over the last 25 years, particularly in recent years (figure 1). Indeed, 2005 was a record year in terms of the number of severe hurricanes, with hurricane Katrina alone claiming 1300 lives and causing over 100 billion dollar's worth of damage.
Some researchers think that this rise is due to higher sea surface temperatures providing "fuel" for the hurricanes (generally, the sea surface temperature must be above about 26°C for hurricanes to form and intensify). Others, however, believe that higher surface temperatures do not necessarily mean stronger hurricanes, and that additional variables -- such as wind shear and humidity -- could also be responsible.
The new Georgia Tech study has now clarified this issue, showing that while hurricane intensity may be substantially influenced by these other factors for an individual storm or storm season, only an increase in sea surface temperatures can account for the long term increase in hurricane strength.
Hoyos and co-workers analysed how four different climatic factors -- sea surface temperatures, humidity in the lower troposphere, vertical wind shear and the changes in "zonal" winds with longitude -- varied between 1970 and 2004, based on satellite data for the North Atlantic, West Pacific, East Pacific, South Pacific, South Indian and North Indian oceans. The team used information theory to analyse the relationship between the variables and the number of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes observed, and employed time series analysis to distinguish long-term trends from shorter-term variations. The results showed a clear, positive increase in global sea surface temperatures since 1970, and no sign of any global trends in humidity, wind shear or zonal wind change.
"This research supports the hypothesis that the worldwide increase in sea surface temperatures since 1970 is contributing to increase in global hurricane intensity," team member Judith Curry told PhysicsWeb. "The current consensus is that the increase in tropical sea surface temperatures during the last 35 years is attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse warming."
About the author - Belle Dumé is science writer at PhysicsWeb
Nature and Scope of NASA's Earth Science Applications Program
Consistent with the NASA Earth Science mission, the Applications Program works to: Expand and accelerate the realization of societal and economic benefits from Earth science, information, and technology. The overarching goal for the Applications Program is to bridge the gap between Earth system science research results and the adoption of data and prediction capabilities for reliable and sustained use in decision support. The program planning strategy for accomplishing this goal focuses on identifying and selecting the highest priority national needs and opportunities. Implementing the Applications Program mission and realizing societal and economic benefits requires NASA and its partners to focus on solutions that are citizen-centered, results-oriented and market-driven.
The ESE is already making significant progress in enhancing applications of NASA Earth science data. For example, NASA has provided recovery support to disasters associated with the World Trade Center, Hurricane Andrew, Montana wildfires, Hawaiian tsunamis, the Mount Etna volcano erupting, lost aircraft in Montana and California, floods on the Mississippi River, and numerous other events. These capabilities provide threat and damage assessments and determination of secondary impacts.
NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) researchers have recently shown that remotely sensed wind speed and direction from the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) satellite can help detect tropical depressions and hurricanes up to 46 hours earlier than current methods. Hurricane cloud monitoring and wind profile and prediction products from QuikSCAT, Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), Topex/Poseidon, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Landsat, Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS), Airborne Visible and Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) could help predict candidate locations for hurricane landfall and surge, and provide assessments of damage and secondary impacts.
- Statement of Mr. Ronald Birk Director, Applications Division, Earth Science Enterprise, National Aeronautics and Space Administration May 20th 2002
The Electronics Subsystem is the heart of the scatterometer and it contains a transmitter, receiver and digital signal processor. It generates and sends high radio frequency (RF) waves to the antenna. The antenna transmits the signal to the Earth's surface as energy pulses. When the pulses hit the surface of the ocean it causes a scattering affect referred to as backscatter. A rough ocean surface returns a stronger signal because the waves reflect more of the radar energy back toward the scatterometer antenna. A smooth ocean surface returns a weaker signal because less of the energy is reflected. The echo or backscatter is routed by the antenna to the SES through waveguides (rectangular metal pipes that guide RF energy waves from one point to another). The SES then converts the signals into digital form for data processing. - winds.jpl.nasa.gov
NASA awarded its first rapid spacecraft acquisition (RSA) contract to Ball Aerospace for the QuikSCAT. RSA provides NASA a faster, better, cheaper method for the purchase of satellite systems, allowing for shorter turnaround time from mission conception to launch.
The QuikSCAT mission employs a variation of the Ball Aerospace Commercial Platform 2000 (BCP 2000) bus. The BCP 2000 provides NASA with the stable and highly accurate Earth remote-sensing platform it sought to replace the data lost by the failure of Japan's Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) in June 1997.
Launched on June 19, 1999, Ball Aerospace's BCP 2000 carries the SeaWinds scatterometer sensor, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to record sea surface wind speed and direction data for global climate research. Winds over the oceans affect air-sea changes in heat, moisture, gases, and particulates that are important for weather predictions.
In addition to building the spacecraft bus, Ball Aerospace was responsible for the integration and test of the total space segment consisting of the BCP 2000 bus and the scatterometer payload. We facilitated the spacecraft-to-launch vehicle integration and provided launch support and continues to provide mission control and operations. - ballaerospace.com
QuikSCAT operates in a near polar orbit. Its angle of inclination is about 98 degrees, which means that according to a compass it is flying north by north-west at a directional angle of 352 degrees when it is ascending (i.e. south to north). It flies in a circular orbit at an altitude of approximately 800 km above sea level. It completes a full orbit in about 101 minutes, which translates to a little more than 14 orbits per day.
The Instrument. SeaWinds is the main instrument on the QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is an active radar scatterometer. This scatterometer operates by transmitting high-frequency microwave pulses to the ocean surface and measuring the echoed radar pulses bounced back to the satellite. The scatterometer estimates wind speed and direction over the Earth's oceans at 10 m above the surface of the water by analyzing the backscatter from the small wind-caused ripples, called cat's paws, on the surface of the water. When the microwave pulses strike the ocean surface, it causes a scattering affect referred to as backscatter. A rough ocean surface returns a stronger signal because the waves reflect more of the radar energy back toward the scatterometer antenna. A smooth ocean surface returns a weaker signal because less of the energy is reflected. QuikSCAT can acquire hundreds of times more observations of surface wind velocity each day than can ships and buoys, and can provide continuous, accurate and high-resolution measurements of both wind speeds and direction regardless of weather conditions.
SeaWinds uses a rotating dish antenna with two spot beams that sweep in a circular pattern. It actively transmits 13.4 GHz microwave pulses (Ku-band radar) at a rate of 1 pulse every 5.4 ms. The pulses are alternately polarized, vertical and horizontal. It uses the same parabolic antenna for both pulses, with different feeds. The antenna rotates at a rate of 18 rotations per minute. The feeds on the antenna are set up so that the vertical polarized beam has an elevation angle of 45 degrees and the horizontal polarized beam an elevation of 39 degrees. This creates an outer and an inner beam.
As the antenna rotates, the instrument pulses form a circular footprint on the ground. The outer beam covers a circle on the surface of 1800 km diameter while the inner beam covers about 1400 km. When the circular rotation of the antenna is combined with satellite movement of approximately 25 km per rotation, a helical shape is traced out on the ground. This type of coverage pattern allows the instrument to cover 90 percent of the earth every day. The instrument is currently collecting data over ocean, land, and ice in a continuous, 1,800-kilometer-wide band that results in twice per day coverage. Because of the twice per day coverage, one day's worth of data can be displayed on a global map for the ascending paths separately from the descending paths. - newmediastudio.org
The four states of matter are as follows: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. This last term is relatively unknown outside of the scientific world. What is plasma? How does it get the distinction of a state of matter? This article will address the nature and expanding science of plasma.
Plasmas were identified by the English scientist William Crookes in 1879. He noted that plasmas are mixtures of particles and fields. They are found in everything from the sun to quarks, the smallest particles in the universe. Plasmas can generate explosions, freeze, carry electrical currents and support magnetic fields within themselves. Almost the entire universe is made of plasma, and it existed before any other forms of matter came into being. Space plasmas can contain enough heat to melt the earth thousands of times over. Crystal plasmas can freeze the earth at least a hundred times, one after the other. (The northern lights are one example of cooler plasma, or the interaction of the earth's atmosphere with solar winds.) And plasma can actually exist in a state about the size of a cell nucleus-an incredibly dense pinpoint of matter.
The term "plasma" was initially applied to ionized gas. Plasma is actually what fills the so-called "empty" space between the sun and the earth, and also most nebulae and stars. The space it fills between the earth and the sun is actually most characterized by the "solar wind," or the plasma emissions of the sun. Imagine heated waves moving from the sun, and the Big Bang, through the universe. This is plasma's common form in space. The key to this concept is the idea of movement. Plasmas consist of electrons and ions moving around in a contained space. Often, the ions are trying to return the neutral state of a Noble gas by filling their electron levels. Plasmas can come together into a neutral gas, but can never stay in this state due to the ions within them. We are just now learning to control plasma by using the electric and magnetic fields within them to steer them. Looking at the idea of plasma, one can see that it is possible that the universe is shaped and controlled by plasma's magnetic and electric fields.
So in a nutshell, plasma is made of atoms. Atoms contain a balance of positive and negative charges, brought on by negatively-charges electrons moving around a positively-charges nucleus. Plasma occurs when this balance is set to heat, or another form of disruption. Ions an negatively charged electrons make it different from a solid, liquid or gas.
Some of the areas of human research on plasma include plasma-based heating, technology, and wave and electric beams found in plasma fields. Superconductors are being improved with information gained from plasma. A fusion reactor is in the making, the will use plasma to create a source of electric and magnetic energy. Plasma is confined, then heated, to produce an extremely volatile source of potential energy. It is hoped that plasma will eventually provide a boundless energy source for the solar system. - essortment.com
Inverse Faraday Effect in a Plasma
J. Deschamps*, M. Fitaire*, and M. Lagoutte*
Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Faculté des Sciences, 91 Orsay, France
Received 18 September 1970
We have shown experimentally that a magnetic field is created by the electrons of a plasma subjected to high-power pulses of circularly polarized microwaves. The experimental results confirm the predictions concerning this phenomenon, known as the inverse Faraday effect.
is magnetization of any material by an electromagnetic
beam at any frequency which contains a degree of circular
polarization. It is rigorously reproducible and repeatable.
It was first inferred theoretically by Piekara and Kielich
in articles in Acta Physica Polonica of the mid to late
fifties. It was reinferred in a different way by Pershan
at Harvard in the early sixties and first observed
experimentally in about 1965 by van der Ziel, Pershan and
Malmstrom at Harvard in a variety of materials at visible
frequencies. It was confirmed experimentally in plasma at
3.0 GHz in 1970 by Deschamps, Fitaire and Lagoutte.
Recently B(3) fields of millions of gauss (tens of tesla)
have been oberved with VULCAN by the Imperial College / Rutherford
Appleton Group and many observations of the effect are
reported in the literature
FINISHED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVERSE FARADAY EFFECT
In this contract under the Naval Research Center (a part of the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program), the University of Florida is studying the "Sensory Consequences of Electromagentic Pulses Emitted by Laser Induced Plasmas." In other words, how much pain can be induced by these directed energy weapons without causing physical damage?
The document has a fairly high level of redaction, including - unbelievably - almost half of its bibliography. Still, it reveals some interesting things, including a detailed look at inducing agony by directly activating the skin's receptors that encode pain without means of heat, chemicals, or physical contact.
so...if these weapons can heat up the surface of your skin...
can they heat the surface of the ocean?
Current Research - Laser Array for Directed Energy Applications
We seek to design a laser array source that will be capable to significantly increase the energy deposited per unit area on a target together with a decrease in the power consumption of the laser array. By combining lasers into N-laser array it is possible to reduce the beam divergence N times (N is the number of lasers in the array). Thus, much better focusing and concentration of the emitted power are achieved. In addition, by manipulating the phases of each laser, the beam shape as well as the intensity strength and profile can be controlled.
Non-coherent addition of laser beams provides only marginal increment in power concentration. The real challenge is to synchronize lasers and to combine them into a coherent unit. The proposed effort discusses a novel scalable laser-array concept that utilizes the nonlinear dynamics of the array with the focus on pulsed solid state lasers. This revolutionary concept translates to considerable improvement in energy that can be deposited on a target, and consequent savings in laser dimensions and power requirement. - cesar.ornl.gov
(COIL) System Description:
The high-energy chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) carried aboard a modified Boeing 747-400F freighter is capable of autonomous operation at altitudes above the clouds. The Airborne Laser (ABL) will locate and track missiles in the boost phase of their flight, then accurately point and fire the high-energy laser, destroying enemy missiles near their launch areas. - boeing.com
US preps airborne laser weapon
By Lester Haines
Published Friday 26th August 2005 10:02 GMT
Those clever chaps at the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) have apparently overcome the traditional impediment to a useful airborne laser weapon - it's so big you need an airliner to carry it.
The spawn of DARPA's High Energy Laser Area Defense System (HELLADS) programme, on the other hand, come in a handy fridge-sized format, weighing in at just 750 kg (1,650 lb). Although the prototype - inevitably dubbed the "HEL weapon" by its chuckling developers - generates just one kilowatt, they're looking to ramp up the power to 150kW by the end of the year, and have an operational prototype in the air by 2007.
The DARPA secret behind the relatively diminuitive HEL is, according to New Scientist, to take the best of liquid lasers (continuous beam but plenty of cooling), and solid-state lasers (plenty of output but short bursts only to prevent meltdown).
The Air Laser program will investigate the potential for a high energy laser (HEL) concept based on direct diode pumping of liquid oxygen. If successful, the Air Laser could provide a safe, efficient kilowatt-class HEL which combines the advantages of chemical and solid state lasers and minimizes the disadvantages: it operates in the eye-safe wavelength regime; it uses liquid air as the gain medium and as the diode array coolant, resulting in the reduction or elimination of a separate thermal control system; the use of efficient, high energy density diode pump sources, results in a compact device much smaller than either chemical or solid state lasers; and its pulse length is variable from continuous to sub-picosecond, allowing flexibility in weapons effects.
And if you like the sound of the HEL weapon, try DARPA's MAgneto Hydrodynamic Explosive Munition ,
or as the highly inventive DARPA acronyms department has it, MAHEM. Boom boom!:
The MAgnetoHydrodynamic Explosive Munition (MAHEM) program will demonstrate compressed magnetic flux generator (CMFG)-driven magnetohydrodynamically formed metal jets and self forging penetrators with significantly improved performance over explosively formed jets and fragments. Explosively formed jets (EFJ) and self forging penetrators (SFP) are used for precision strike against targets such as armored vehicles and reinforced structures. Current technology uses chemical explosive energy to form the jets and fragments.
Nice one. We look forward to seeing both HEL and MAHEM let loose in Iraq in the near future. -the register.co.uk
Too many in the Western Nations Dr. Eastlund is also associated with the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) project, but this has never been so, and as stated by them, "But on close scrutiny the veil of criticism becomes thin and you see that the criticism of HAARP is based more on fantasy than reality. This is because Begich, Manning and others compare HAARP to a 1980's plan by an ARCO physicist, Bernard Eastlund, to build a transmitter similar to, but many times larger and more powerful than the HAARP facility. This transmitter was never built. It exists only on paper."
Like HAARP, Eastlund's transmitters would have been located in Alaska, and would have functioned as an ionospheric heater. But the Eastlund project would have been more than 30,000 times larger than HAARP with power to distort the upper atmosphere through brute force. His transmitter and antenna site would have covered 1600 square miles (more than a million acres.) "You can [with my plan] lift part of the upper atmosphere," Eastlund said. "You can make it move, do things with it." Eastlund described how he could "surgically" distort the ionosphere to disrupt global communications. He told how he could generate enough turbulence in the ionosphere to destroy middles in flight. By lifting and moving regions of the ionosphere, Eastlund theorized that he could redirect the jet stream to alter global weather patterns, incinerate airborne pollution, and repair the ozone layer.
Eastlund patented the processes that he envisioned for his Frankenstein-like creation. The patent for altering the Earth's atmosphere reportedly was sealed in secrecy by the government.
But not just 'sealed in secrecy' by the Military Government of the United States, Dr. Eastlund's works were combined with the American Physicist Dr. Tai-Yin Huang, and who says about her research, "Imagine when you throw a stone in water," said Huang, when asked to describe her work. "You will see ripples forming wave fronts propagating on the surface of the water. The stone is the source that generates the wave. The water is the medium that carries the wave. By the same token, it is similar in the atmosphere. The underlying physics is the same; that is, they are all governed by fluid dynamics. Instead of water, the fluid is the atmosphere. There are a lot of different kinds of waves moving through the atmosphere: internal gravity waves, planetary waves, sound waves, tides. Gravity waves can be generated by sources like thunderstorms, jet streams, nuclear explosions, and earthquakes."
In the combining of the research efforts by both Dr.'s Eastlund and Huang they had fulfilled the theories of Dr.'s William L. Donn and Stanley D. Gedzelman that had been explained in their research paper titled "Atmospheric Gravity Waves and the Energy of the Jet Stream".
This basic theory claims that the heating of the earth's mesosphere by 'violent' means could produce gravity waves that would propagate down to the troposphere and thusly effectuate a change in the jet stream, and which lies just below the troposphere.
Japanese scientists have further validated these theories, and as we can read from the Japanese science organization Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH) on their research findings, "The generation of atmospheric gravity waves at the strong jet stream (dots) just below the tropopause (solid line), and their propagation upward and downward are clearly observed with the MU radar. The gravity waves in the lower stratosphere, most of which are propagating upwards, show a clear annual variation with the peak intensity in winter, when the strength of the tropopausal jet also maximizes."
- Sorcha Faal
The Microwave Bomb
A Short Primer on Gravity Waves
Mesoscale weather systems