What is remote sensing?
If you have heard the term "remote sensing" before you may have asked, "what does it mean?" It's a rather simple, familiar activity that we all do as a matter of daily life, but that gets complicated when we increase the scale. As you view the screen of your computer monitor, you are actively engaged in remote sensing.
A physical quantity (light) emanates from that screen, which is a source of radiation. The radiated light passes over a distance, and thus is "remote" to some extent, until it encounters and is captured by a sensor (your eyes).
Each eye sends a signal to a processor (your brain) which records the data and interprets this into information. Several of the human senses gather their awareness of the external world almost entirely by perceiving a variety of signals, either emitted or reflected, actively or passively, from objects that transmit this information in waves or pulses.
Thus, one hears disturbances in the atmosphere carried as sound waves, experiences sensations such as heat (either through direct contact or as radiant energy), reacts to chemical signals from food through taste and smell, is cognizant of certain material properties such as roughness through touch, and recognizes shapes, colors, and relative positions of exterior objects and classes of materials by means of seeing visible light issuing from them. In the previous sentence, all sensations that are not received through direct contact are remotely sensed. - Remote sensing tutorial - NASA
Rent this space - GPS - The U.S. governments military/economic control grid
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based radio-navigation
system consisting of a constellation of satellites and a network of ground stations used for monitoring
and control. A minimum of 24 GPS satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 11,000 miles
providing users with accurate information on position, velocity, and time anywhere in the world and in
all weather conditions.
GPS is operated and maintained by the Department of Defense (DoD). The Interagency GPS Executive Board
(IGEB) manages GPS, while the U.S. Coast Guard acts as the civil interface to the public for GPS matters.
The Federal Aviation Administration is investigating and applying the use of GPS as it pertains to aviation.
National Airspace system
The objective of NAS Implementation is to develop the operational
infrastructure to support the certification process for satellite navigation and provide the technical
basis for the development of GPS operational procedures for all phases of flight. NAS Implementation
communicates and cooperates with numerous governmental and non-governmental agencies to pave the way
for a smooth transition to satellite navigation.
Global Positioning System - History
The launch of the Sputnik satellite in 1957 was actually the beginning of GPS.
Scientists studying the orbit of the satellite realized they could track the satellite by its radio signal.
This in turn would mean that a person on earth could obtain his position on the globe if he could read the
signal from the satellite in conjunction with knowing the exact orbit of the satellite.
Historical Timeline of Radionavigation Systems
History of GPS
The Global Positioning System (GPS) program began in 1973 as a joint United States Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) effort. The goal was development of a space-based, highly accurate navigation system. The enterprise has since gained the interest of the U.S. Army to become a full Department of Defense initiative. GPS achieved full operational capability with a complete constellation of satellites in 1994.
Developed - New Missile Beam - Area Man In Strategic Role
Trenton Evening Times
Trenton, N.J., Friday, September 18, 1964... Front page
Two new United States defense systems which can detect, intercept and destroy enemy missiles far out in space, have been revealed by President Johnson. One of the systems, a radar-like beam, which bends around the earth's surface, and upon which the new missile-destroying system depends, was developed under the direction of a 29-year-old Pennington man, Martin Kaiser, of 418 Hale Street.
The President said: "We now have developed and tested two systems with the ability to intercept and destroy armed satellites circling the earth in space. I can tell you today that these systems are in place, they are operationally ready and they are on the alert to protect this nation and the free world. Kaiser said he worked for Radio Corporation of America Laboratories in Dutch Neck when, in 1962, an RCA engineer discovered the principle of the bending beam. Kaiser was appointed field manager and engineer for the project, known as CAMEBRIDGE, at an RCA Lab in Burlington, Mass. After three months, at the end of 1962, all equipment was taken to Barbados, West Indies, and Kaiser managed the work until June, 1963. The young scientist hails from Wilkes Barre, Pa. He is presently at Rider College, studying for a degree in management, which he hopes to attain in June, 1965.
Johnson revealed the new "over-the-horizon and thus detect hostile missile launches within seconds.
"This means more time to prepare for our retaliatory strike and more time to decide - prudence and reason - the scope of our retaliatory strike" he said.
Relocatable Over-the-Horizon Radar (ROTHR)
The Relocatable Over-the-Horizon Radar (ROTHR) is a proven long range surveillance radar in service with the U.S. government, deployed to detect and track aircraft and ship targets at ranges to 2500 nautical miles.
The ROTHR system has been operational with the U.S. government for over 15 years, supporting the counter drug mission in the Caribbean Sea and South America, and early warning detection for Navy vessels at sea. Each radar provides in excess of 2.5 million square miles of coverage area resulting in extremely low operational costs. Each ROTHR system operates 24/7/365 and detects in excess of 350,000 targets per year. It is currently the U.S. government's primary surveillance system for the counter drug mission.
The ROTHR system uses ionospheric propagation to detect and track targets at all altitudes and on the surface. The extremely long detection ranges permit a large amount of flexibility in the siting of each individual system to accommodate performance while achieving mission requirements. Each system can be remotely deployed and controlled by a single Consolidated Operations Control Center (OCC) that is located at the user's convenience. All systems data is shared to provide a seamless transition of tracking information. The OCC can provide individual radar tracks that are fused, processed and reported to higher command levels or to a fully integrated sensor network. Raytheon is currently evaluating the use of ROTHR to provide Wide Area Surveillance for a National Coastal Surveillance System for Homeland Defense. As an operational and deployed asset with ground-based results, ROTHR is a low risk and cost effective, proven solution for improving the security of the U.S. coastline.
- Former Naval Intelligence Officer Marty Kaiser
Haarp is a phased array antennea system, used to heat the ionosphere -
"If radio transmissions are long and powerful enough, the beams actually
change the distribution of electrons in the ionosphere,
altering for a brief time literally the way the sky is put together. "
Military Studies Altering Earth's Ionosphere
Electromagnetic Scalar technology -
'sky-wave' (ionospheric propagation)
Area Surveillance Technology Program
Program Leader: Professor Yuri Abramovich
The Area Surveillance Technology Program is focused on over-the-horizon radars (OTHR's). The ability of such radars to provide wide area surveillance makes this technology especially suitable for Australia and its development has driven much of CSSIPs research with Telstra Applied Technologies and DSTO.
Both sky and surface-wave OTHRs provide the potential for increased surveillance capabilities that have significant defence and commercial application. Relatively low cost surface wave radar can provide reliable coverage of coastal regions out to ranges of several hundred kilometres with the potential to monitor Australias exclusive economic zone and detect intruders. The development of both types of radars requires an understanding of the fundamental propagation and noise characteristics of the radars and the use of this information in the design of the radar antennas, receivers and signal processing software. CSSIPs research will optimise the performance of such radars by designing, building and experimentally measuring their performance under a range of operating parameters. It is expected that this work will lead to a major new class of radars for coastal surveillance.
A high frequency surface-wave radar receiving array and processing system has been built, deployed and tested by CSSIP on experimental trials in Northern Australia under contract to Telstra Applied Technologies. The trials of adaptive multi channel calibration and novel antenna architectures for reliable surface wave OTHR target detection have been completed and the signatures of sky-wave (ionospherically propagated) signals measured. The best antenna array candidates have been selected for future experimental work.
Communications & Defense
Beyond the line of sight HF communications propagate via the ionosphere. Many different modes of propagation may be supported and each may arrive at different time delays, and may be subjected to Doppler shift and spread due to bulk motion and turbulence in the ionosphere.
All of these parameters, and the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), can have an effect on HF communications systems. By measuring the HF channel, we provide data to facilitate HF simulator and modem development, with the goal of developing communications systems that are more reliable and can use increased data rates.
Ionospheric tomography provides a high-resolution image of the electron density distribution in the vertical, meridional plane using only a small number of satellite receivers on the ground. Polar orbiting satellites of the Naval Ionospheric Measuring System (NIMS) transmit phase-locked radio carrier waves at 150 MHz and 400 MHz and these signals are measured at five ground stations along the length of the UK. The total electron content (TEC) along each ground-satellite path is calculated. A computerised algorithm then reconstructs an image of the ionospheric electron distribution from the TEC measurements.
The tomographic technique is particularly useful in regions where the ionosphere is highly structured (e.g. in the mid-latitude trough, auroral and equatorial zones).
In the HF (3-30MHz) range applications include:
over-the horizon radar (OTHR)
single-station location direction finding
frequency planning and broadcast coverage predictions
jamming and interception vulnerability estimation
In the VHF/UHF (30-3000MHz) range applications include:
tracking of satellites/orbiting debris/ballistic projectiles
satellite geolocation of transmitters
ionospheric corrections to (single-frequency) satellite navigation systems
Stealth Anti radar deflection / absorbsion systems
The goal of stealth technology is to make an airplane invisible (Low Observable) to radar. Following are some
ways to create invisibility (Low Observability): The airplane can be covered in materials that absorb radar
The airplane can be shaped so that any radar signals it reflects are reflected away from the radar equipment
viz passive stealth. (Passive Stealth)
Use of Fibre RadioOptics ARCS (Active Stealth)
The body of the aircraft can be cloaked with real time cloud of plasma (ionized gas), which, as an inherent
property, absorbs all the microwave radiation in the region. (Active Stealth)
Since, Stealth Tech has been broadly classified into two categories,
Most conventional aircraft have a rounded shape. This shape makes them aerodynamic, but it also creates a
very efficient radar reflector. The round shape means that no matter where the radar signal hits the plane,
some of the signal gets reflected back:
A stealth aircraft, on the other hand, is made up of completely flat surfaces and very sharp edges.
When a radar signal hits a stealth plane, the signal reflects away at an angle, see stealth bombers shape:
In addition, surfaces on a stealth aircraft can be treated so they absorb radar energy as well, with the use
of RAM (Radar Absorbent Material). The overall result is that a stealth aircraft like an flying wing
B-2 [see pic] or an F-117A can have the radar signature of a small bird rather than an airplane.
The only exception is when the plane banks -- there will often be a moment when one of the panels of the plane will perfectly reflect a burst of radar
energy back to the antenna.
Another important factor is the engine turbine blades, which are huge reflectors of microwaves and infra-red
signature. In aerodynamic shaping, the engine is hidden is S-bends, which does not directly exposes the turbines. F-22 as well as other stealth or LO incorporate this very important feature.
Couple of things to keep in mind: plasma is ionized gas particles. Therefore, plasma flow is a flow of ionized
gas particles. Ion is an electrically charged particle or group of atoms. Plasma cloud is a quasineutral
(total electrical charge is zero) collection of free charged particles. The vast majority of matter in
the universe exists in plasma state. Near the Earth plasma can be found in the form of solar wind,
magnetosphere and ionosphere. The main property of plasma (for our purposes) is its frequency,
which is equal to a square root of a ratio of 4 * Pi * square of ion charge * concentration of
ions to the mass of ion:
SQRT ( (4 * Pi * n * e^2) / m ),
where e is electron or ion charge, n is concentration of ions per volume of plasma and m is mass of ion.
There are several types of oscillations in plasma: low frequency (ion-sound waves), high frequency
(oscillations of electrons relative to ions), spiral waves (in the presence of a magnetic field -
"magnetosound"), and cross waves propagating along a magnetic field. A device for generating plasma
is called plasmatron. This device generates the so-called low-temperature plasma. -
Fibre RadioOptical ARCS
It has been very interesting question that why does the F-22 or B-2 cost so damn much when other aircraft
embodying similar equipments are behind by a staggering margin.
Obviously the question as of yet isn't answered, but yes, certain hints are available.
Fiber Radio Optical ARCS (Active Radar Cancellation System)
[Original articles Authors note: This is one suggested answer. I'm sorry no extensive details as of yet, but I will try and tip you off on
As is well evident, the Raptor sacrifices very less aerodynamics to Stealth. Though what is suggested,
that apart from the Passive stealth features similar to that the F-117A possessed, this aircraft
also uses an ARCS, similar in output to the Russian Plasma Stealth, but more advanced, reliable and costly.
When the microwaves from other radars fall on to the RAM coated surfaces of the Raptor, they are absorbed
by the RAM. On being absorbed, they are channeled through the fiber optic cables and dissipated throughout
the body of the aircraft and dispersed in form of heat. This provides extensive low observability.
One disadvantage of the system maybe the cost involved in research and production as compared to the
Russian Plasma Stealth system. -
flashback 1999 - Russians offer radical stealth device for export
"A Russian scientific research organisation is to offer for export a 'bolt-on' stealth device that it claims renders non-stealthy aircraft practically invisible to radar. The system, which envelops the aircraft in a cloak of ionised gas known as a plasma, is said to be fully developed, with work on a "third-generation visibility-reduction system" under way.
Keldysh NITs (Nauchno-Issledovatelskiy Tsentr or Scientific Research Centre) is making the claims. According to its director, Anatoliy Koroteyev, the system weighs less than 100kg and consumes little more than several dozen kW of power.
Given the state of the Russian economy, analysts consider it unlikely that any of NITs' work has been applied to Russian Air Force aircraft. According to Koroteyev, however, the system will soon be offered for export.
By installing the system, a typical aircraft radar cross-section (RCS) might be cut "by more than 100 times", Keldysh NITs officials said. This would be much the same RCS as dedicated US stealth aircraft such as the Lockheed Martin F-117 stealth fighter and the Northrop Grumman B-2 stealth bomber.
The claims are given credence by corroborating information on the status of Russian aerospace plasma research acquired by Jane's Defence Weekly last year. Russian work in the use of plasmas that purported to reduce aircraft drag by as much as 30% was collated by British Aerospace (BAe) in the mid-1990s. BAe has since been trying to verify the Russian claims in experiments carried out jointly with the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA) and the UK Ministry of Defence (JDW 17 June 1998).
One of the spin-offs of 'plasma aerodynamics', Russian officials told BAe, was that it vastly reduced an aircraft's RCS. The absorption of radio waves by plasmas is well known as the communications black-out that a space vehicle encounters on re-entry is caused by the shielding effects of plasma. This builds naturally in front of the spacecraft as it hits the Earth's atmosphere and shocks the air to high temperature.
The same principle applies to the absorption of radar energy. Although the aircraft would appear to glow like a lightbulb, using plasma generators all around the airframe, it would be almost invisible on a radar screen, Russian officials maintain.
In the opinion of designers at Mikoyan and Sukhoi, the expense of all-embracing low-observable technology as applied in the US Air Force's F-117 and B-2 outweighs its effectiveness. Russians prefer to stress the 'balance' achieved in their latest-generation of fighter designs between aerodynamic efficiency and stealth. The Mikoyan 1-44 and Sukhoi S-37 technology demonstrators, both of which have been rolled out in the past 18 months, are supposed to make use of radar-absorbent paint and materials but are short of inherent stealth features.
Keldysh NITs said that "first- and second-" generation plasma-generators had been tested on the ground and in flight. The centre is working on a third-generation system "based on new physical principles", a possible reference to the use of electrostatic energy around an airframe to reduce RCS. Others believe the Russians could be attempting to duplicate secret work under way in the USA to make aircraft invisible to the human eye by using 'smart skins' that mimic their background."
source: Jane's Defence Wekly, March 17, 1999
story still the same 6 years later:
Russia Develops Stealth Aircraft Using Plasma Screen Technology
19.10.2005 - The Russian aircraft industry has developed and will soon start producing stealth aircraft which will radically differ from existing U.S. models. The Russian version uses plasma screens to cushion and disperse radar waves, the Novye Izvestia daily reports.
The newspaper quoted Anatoly Koroteyev, the head of the Keddysh Research Center as saying that the plasma screen technology can be used on any vehicle - from automobiles to combat aircraft. However, it is most effective at high altitudes and thus is best used by the air force.
Koroteyev said that the new technology employs a different physical principle than the one currently used by existing U.S. stealth aircraft - the F-117 and B-2. Instead of reflecting the radar wave the Russian technology completely disperses it by means of a plasma screen created by a mobile plasma generator.
The generator is small and light. The device emits powerful electron beams that ionize the air around the aircraft effectively creating a plasma cloud around it.
The head of the Russian research institute said that initially the plasma generator disrupted the work of on-board electronic systems and prevented radio communication with ground control, but the problems have been solved and the system has already passed tests set by a Russian governmental commission.
Koroteyev added that the new technology can be used on any aircraft, including older models and that it is radically cheaper than the technology employed by U.S. stealth planes while being just as effective, if not more so. He said that the aircraft equipped with the Russian system will also be far superior to U.S. models in their flight and combat capabilities - as the use of the plasma screen makes it unnecessary to alter the shape of the aircraft.
The newspaper writes that similar research is being conducted in the U.S., but the Russian version is so far the only plasma screen technology in the world. - mosnews
a fleet of stealth fighters?
there's much more to UFO's than meets the eye
from Radar matrix
Echelon [phase I], Star Wars [phase II] and the control grid [phase III]
The five Intelligence Agencies form the "Accuser" pact. They are bound by a secret agreement signed in the forties. The clandestine UKUSA agreement provides for sharing facilities, staff, methods, tasks and product between the participating governments. Due to a fast-growing UKUSA system called Echelon, millions of messages are automatically intercepted every hour, and checked according to criteria supplied by intelligence agencies and governments in all five UKUSA countries. The intercepted signals are passed through a computer system called the Dictionary, which checks each new message against thousands of "collection" requirements. The Dictionaries then send the messages into the spy agencies' equivalent of the Internet, making them accessible all over the world.
Plucky Australians Spoil World Conspiracy
The Echelon network
"With its 40,000 staff, NSA is the world's largest electronic spying organisation. Its key base in Europe is at Menwith Hill, a windswept, high-security facility near Harrogate in the North of England. Its futuristic radar domes are linked to NSA satellites spinning in outer Space or geo-positioned halfway to the moon. The listening station can intercept two million phone calls an hour from satellites.
Menwith Hill is linked to GCHQ by secure lines. Its 7,000 staff are regularly "tasked" by Britain's two main intelligence services, MI6 and MI5. Its computers trawl millions of phone calls and emails every day.|
[Menwith Hill.] Its state-of-the-art computers were at the core of the station's Echelon system. At the heart of Echelon is a system called the Dictionary: its computers can target specific telephone numbers, words and "voice prints".
A segment of [a] voice is fed into the Dictionary computers. These are linked to the worldwide network of NSA satellites in Space. The Dictionary was programmed to track every word [...]
UN Ambassadors know their missions are bugged by a number of spying weapons. One is a laser beam fired at a window to detect minute vibrations in the glass caused by people speaking. Another is a computer system known as "Tempest" which also deciphers voices by equipment in a room. The operation against [...] was run through the Echelon Dictionary.
All the information obtained was downloaded to the Menwith Hill computers. There, interlinked banks of computers decoded and analysed the data and fed down a secure line to GCHQ. There the material was turned into transcripts. All were marked "Highly Classified". These were then sent to John Scarlett, chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee in his Whitehall office.
The information was carried by Scarlett to Downing Street in buff-coloured files. Each file had the bold Cross of St George on its cover. It was an open indication of Scarlett's patriotism."
paraphrased from Gordon Thomas
a tool for corporate-industrial espionage???
This report identifies a previously unknown international organisation - "ILETS" - which has, without parliamentary or public discussion or awareness, put in place contentious plans to require manufacturers and operators of new communications systems to build in monitoring capacity for use by national security or law enforcement organisations
ECHELON: America's Secret Global Surveillance Network
"At the same time, that capability at any time could be turned around on the American people and no American would have any privacy left, such [is] the capability to monitor everything: telephone conversations, telegrams, it doesn't matter. There would be no place to hide. If this government ever became a tyranny, if a dictator ever took charge in this country, the technological capacity that the intelligence community has given the government could enable it to impose total tyranny, and there would be no way to fight back, because the most careful effort to combine together in resistance to the government, no matter how privately it was done, is within the reach of the government to know. Such is the capability of this technology...
"I don't want to see this country ever go across the bridge. I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision, so that we never cross over that abyss. That is the abyss from which there is no return." - Senator Frank Church
Fylingdales is a 3d radar
Fylingdales Missile defence base,
North Yorkshire UK
Fylingdales is a long-range radar station, which forms part of the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) and Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Fylingdales was the third and last of the BMEWS stations to be built. The first two are at Thule, Greenland and Clear, Alaska.
In recent years the original `golfball' radars have been replaced by a solid-state phased-array radar (SSPAR), built by Raytheon. This radar consists of a three-sided truncated pyramid about 120 feet high. Each face is about 84ft across and contains an array of 2,560 transmit/receive modules each with a circularly-polarised `Pawsey stub' antenna. Each module produces a transmitter power of 340 Watts and this gives an overall mean power output from the three faces of 2.5 Megawatts - a very similar performance to the old golfballs. The new radar has the same 3000 mile range as the old one. It was declared operational on 1st October 1992.
On a visit to RAF Fylingdales in 1997, RSG members were told that the radar's software is designed to ignore targets that do not behave like a rocket being launched or a satellite in orbit. It is little surprise, therefore, that the RAF says that the station has never detected a UFO in flight!
Another phased-array radar system provides a similar capability, for both missile early warning and space tracking, in the southern USA. These stations are designed to detect submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). This network, known as Pave Paws, has four stations in California, Texas, Georgia and Massachussets.
Fylingdales is unique, however, in that it is the only SSPAR with three active faces and 360 of coverage in azimuth. -
applications: Missile defense
SPYING ON US ALL...
Reclaim the Bases
Radar and Microwave remote sensing
EADS sees 3-bln-eur military satellite contract in Britain "in weeks" Jun 16, 2003
The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company said Monday it expected to sign an estimated 3.0-billion euro (3.6-billion-dollar) contract in Britain for a defence satellite program "in weeks".
UK concludes Skynet 5 deal 24 October 2003
"The UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) signed its largest-ever private finance initiative (PFI) deal on 24 October, when it placed a contract with EADS-owned Paradigm Secure Communications (PSC) to buy secure satellite communication services for the UK armed forces."
Janes Defence weekly
Remote Sensing Using Micro and Mini Satellites.
The field of Earth remote sensing from space is in the process of rapid change. It is moving from one involving
large, complex, expensive governmental civil and military systems owned by a few
countries to one involving increasing commercialisation, international proliferation,
and the use of small satellites with focused missions. At the beginning of 1995, only
seven nations were capable of constructing free-flying remote sensing satellites, and
only nine nations were operating them. By the end of 2001, according to current
planning, there will be 23 countries operating their own remote sensing satellites. The
satellites enabling these new countries to enter the field are almost entirely Mini and
Micro satellite. - Space Operations PDF
MASINT & Remote sensing
NSA's Subliminal Post-hypnotic Scripts
The NSA's goal is to have the whole world under its electronic eye by the year 2000. They are almost there now, but are having difficulties with high-tech countries that have the counterintelligence resources to identify the high frequency bursts of microwave transmission from the transceivers. The system also has the ability to take a "voice print" from any person and place it on file. This file can be used to locate the subject later by comparing it to real-time surveillance audio samples received from the field as long as the subject is speaking in close proximity to a transceiver.
If the person is aware that the NSA has this capability and remains silent, the NSA can transmit a periodic worldwide subliminal message that addresses the person by name and causes them to dream and talk in their sleep. After the person talks, the voiceprint would be eventually identified and the person's location can be identified nearly anywhere in the world. Yes, it is a small world, and getting smaller all the time. - source
[I would suggest it be far easier to use a call-center as a cover operation and get voice prints via that method]
Whistle-Blower Outs NSA Spy Room
By Ryan Singel| Also by this reporter - Apr, 07, 2006
AT&T provided National Security Agency eavesdroppers with full access to its customers' phone calls, and shunted its customers' internet traffic to data-mining equipment installed in a secret room in its San Francisco switching center, according to a former AT&T worker cooperating in the Electronic Frontier Foundation's lawsuit against the company.
Mark Klein, a retired AT&T communications technician, submitted an affidavit in support of the EFF's lawsuit this week. That class action lawsuit, filed in federal court in San Francisco last January, alleges that AT&T violated federal and state laws by surreptitiously allowing the government to monitor phone and internet communications of AT&T customers without warrants.
On Wednesday, the EFF asked the court to issue an injunction prohibiting AT&T from continuing the alleged wiretapping, and filed a number of documents under seal, including three AT&T documents that purportedly explain how the wiretapping system works.
According to a statement released by Klein's attorney, an NSA agent showed up at the San Francisco switching center in 2002 to interview a management-level technician for a special job. In January 2003, Klein observed a new room being built adjacent to the room housing AT&T's #4ESS switching equipment, which is responsible for routing long distance and international calls.
"I learned that the person whom the NSA interviewed for the secret job was the person working to install equipment in this room," Klein wrote. "The regular technician work force was not allowed in the room."
Klein's job eventually included connecting internet circuits to a splitting cabinet that led to the secret room. During the course of that work, he learned from a co-worker that similar cabinets were being installed in other cities, including Seattle, San Jose, Los Angeles and San Diego.
"While doing my job, I learned that fiber optic cables from the secret room were tapping into the Worldnet (AT&T's internet service) circuits by splitting off a portion of the light signal," Klein wrote.
The split circuits included traffic from peering links connecting to other internet backbone providers, meaning that AT&T was also diverting traffic routed from its network to or from other domestic and international providers, according to Klein's statement.
The secret room also included data-mining equipment called a Narus STA 6400, "known to be used particularly by government intelligence agencies because of its ability to sift through large amounts of data looking for preprogrammed targets," according to Klein's statement.
Narus, whose website touts AT&T as a client, sells software to help internet service providers and telecoms monitor and manage their networks, look for intrusions, and wiretap phone calls as mandated by federal law.
Klein said he came forward because he does not believe that the Bush administration is being truthful about the extent of its extrajudicial monitoring of Americans' communications.
"Despite what we are hearing, and considering the public track record of this administration, I simply do not believe their claims that the NSA's spying program is really limited to foreign communications or is otherwise consistent with the NSA's charter or with FISA," Klein's wrote. "And unlike the controversy over targeted wiretaps of individuals' phone calls, this potential spying appears to be applied wholesale to all sorts of internet communications of countless citizens."
After asking for a preview copy of the documents last week, the government did not object to the EFF filing the paper under seal, although the EFF asked the court Wednesday to make the documents public.
One of the documents is titled "Study Group 3, LGX/Splitter Wiring, San Francisco," and is dated 2002. The others are allegedly a design document instructing technicians how to wire up the taps, and a document that describes the equipment installed in the secret room.
In a letter to the EFF, AT&T objected to the filing of the documents in any manner, saying that they contain sensitive trade secrets and could be "could be used to 'hack' into the AT&T network, compromising its integrity."
According to court rules, AT&T has until Thursday to file a motion to keep the documents sealed. The government could also step in to the case and request that the documents not be made public, or even that the entire lawsuit be barred under the seldom-used State Secrets Privilege.
AT&T spokesman Walt Sharp declined to comment on the allegations, citing a company policy of not commenting on litigation or matters of national security, but did say that "AT&T follows all laws following requests for assistance from government authorities." - wired.com
The idea of connecting and accessing or even controlling the resources of one computer from another is almost as old as computers themselves. As far as personal systems are concerned the history of practical implementations of remote computing include many different hardware and software solutions. From a direct connection via serial or parallel ports, through cable networks and modem dial-up connections, to the Internet infrastructure and to the infrared, microwave and radio wireless transmissions.
A wide range of software implementations includes a variety of access and control levels - from a very limited access, single-task oriented applications like electronic mail to a complete remote access and control applications like remote desktops.
Traditionally a system whose resources are accessed and controlled remotely is described as a server, and a system, which connects and controls is referred to as a client (alternatively a client can be called a master, and a server - a slave). Additionally, one server usually allows for multiple client connections.
For the purpose of this paper we will limit the scope of discussed remote access applications to those which: use the Internet as a communication media and which allow a certain degree of the remote control of a server or are, at least, able to collect and pass significant and valuable information back to a client.
...Anti virus research
...Windows XP spies on you
Promis - Bugged Computer Software
Mind control - The internet?
The NSA keeps track of all PCs and other computers sold in the U.S. This is an integral part of the Domestic intelligence network.
The NSA's EMF equipment can tune in RF emissions from personal computer circuit boards (while filtering out emissions from monitors and power supplies). The RF emission from PC circuit boards contains digital information on the PC. Coded RF waves from the NSA's equipment can resonate PC circuits and change data in the PCs. Thus, the NSA can gain wireless modem-(?) entry into any computer in the country for surveillance or anti-terrorist electronic warfare. - Domestic Surveillance and
Mind Control Technology?
A CARELESS mistake by Microsoft programmers has revealed that special access codes prepared by the US National Security Agency have been secretly built into Windows. The NSA access system is built into every version of the Windows operating system now in use, except early releases of Windows 95 (and its predecessors). The discovery comes close on the heels of the revelations earlier this year that another US software giant, Lotus, had built an NSA "help information"trapdoor into its Notes system, and that security functions on other software systems had been deliberately crippled. - How NSA access was built into Windows
a backdoor through your powerline?
Powerline Networks connect your computers through your existing electrical system. Plug the units to an electrical outlet and connect the Powerline Network device to your computer or laptops USB port or Ethernet port. source
Polaris tracking used in MRI Brain Mapping
The TMS lab at the Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center is equipped with a Cadwell high-speed
magnetic stimulator that generates 2.2 Tesla of maximal stimulation. Stimulation is delivered through
three coils of different shapes. We have a standard circular coil, an eight-shaped coil that allows a more
precise stimulation of specific sites of the cerebral cortex, and an angled coil that allows a deeper
stimulation than the previous two coils.
The lab is also equipped with two Magstim Model 220 units,
a Blocking module and a Bistim module, allowing paired-pulse TMS at short (1 ms) and long intervals,
two double 70 mm coils and one water-cooled coil. The lab is also equipped for frameless stereotaxy
composed of an infrared-based tracking system and associated software.
The tracking system is a Polaris Passive Tracking System, composed of a camera and tracking tools.
The software BrainSight allows registration and online monitoring of the subject's head position
with his/her structural brain image and tracking the position of the coil with respect to the
underlying brain structures.
Polaris tracking system #2 GPS
CloserWorlds, the developers of Polaris, an innovative way to track objects over the Internet in real-time using GPS, GSM, GPRS and XML technologies. With Polaris, you can track vehicles, people, planes, ships, animals, cell phones, Laptops, PDAs and any other object that is capable of interfacing with the Polaris web service. Polaris is a software system that offers a rich set of features to not only track remote objects but communicate with them, exchange data and even control them. -
Tracking used in remote surgery
Imagine a future where sick astronauts in space are operated on by earth-based surgeons.
Or what about injured soldiers on the front line? One day they might be treated on the spot by army
doctors kilometres away. These are the dreams of a team of Californian researchers who have developed
a robotic surgeon to do just this. A real doctor operates the mechanical version by remote control
and can carry out surgery even if the patient is on the other side of the country. This is more than
a futuristic vision. The Tele-presence Surgery System has already been built and successfully used
to operate on a live pig. Human trials are expected to begin within a couple of years. - source
The basic concept behind tracking is
the following: markers are placed on a body which�?s position is to be determined,
these markers are adapted to emit energy in response to an activation signal or reflect
energy from an activable source, a sensor detects the energy emitted or reflected, and this
detection is translated into positional information using various algorithms -
Military Web3D/VR (Part 1):
A conversation with Don Brutzman
Space doctor to help build expertise in robotic surgery
modes of operation
RFID at long distances|
In an otherwise crowded market for Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) devices, Wavetrend has a clear focus on active RFID tags with the ability to read them at long ranges. In this market, Wavetrend has only one major competitor (Savi Technology).
Wavetrend's technology is solid and best in class, but what really seems to set this company apart is the innovative solutions that Wavetrend has enabled its customers to create.
The company has clearly innovated ahead of the market and is now a recognized leader. It needs to ensure that it stays ahead of the technology developments while continuing to provide innovative business solutions. It must consider if it has sufficient local presence or if the current indirect channel approach is sufficient. - cybaea.net
European science and technology leader QinetiQ has announced that it is developing an enhanced GPS technology which is up to 1000 times more sensitive than existing GPS receivers, making it possible for signals to be picked up inside buildings and in extreme outdoor environments.
With the prisoner community growing dramatically in recent years and Home Office figures indicating that inmate numbers could increase from 72,500 to more than 109,900 by 2009 if present trends continue, QinetiQ's enhanced GPS could be used to relieve pressure on the UK's burgeoning prison population. GPS enabled 'bracelets' can, for example, be used to detect the movement of day-release and home-based prisoners, with the QinetiQ system able to extend GPS tracking into buildings, vehicles and into difficult outdoor environments such as densely wooded areas. - Carlyle Bracelets Beta Test in STASI UK.
Optical Tracking System - Boeing-SVS, Inc. (Albuquerque, NM)
SVS Inc. (Albuquerque, NM) has developed an optical tracking control system, originally for the Low Cost Space Structures (LCSS) experiment, which can now be used in both military and commercial applications. The system is based on software that integrates commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) data collection hardware, such as a video camera, with pointing hardware. SVS was purchased by The Boeing Company in 2000 and is now Boeing-SVS, Inc., offering specialized tracking of missile boosters and satellites, as well as tracking of stationary objects from moving platforms. Two products that resulted from the LCSS technology are the Opti-Trak� series of tracking systems and the INSPECT system for transmission power line trouble-shooting.
PHAZAR CORP makes the Haarp antennea
Orders increased in both military and commercial markets from a total of $7.2 million in 2002 to $12.5 million in 2003. This resulted in an ending backlog of firm orders at May 31, 2003 of $8.2 million, up significantly from the prior year-end backlog of $3.4 million.
The year-end backlog includes a $6.2 million contract awarded to Antenna Products Corporation on April 17, 2003 from BAE Systems ATI. The contract is for the production of 132 high power, high-frequency crossed dipole antennas plus 132 sixty foot tall antenna support structures and the ground screen items that are used as above ground reflectors for the antennas. This equipment is for the high frequency active auroral research program (HAARP) ionospheric research site near Gokona, Alaska.
The site is owned by the Department of Defense and is managed by the U.S. Navy Office of Naval Research. BAE Systems is the prime contractor responsible for the construction and operation of the research facility. Production of the equipment is scheduled to start in the first quarter of fiscal year 2004. - Yahho biz
Spys on your mobile...
So are there any threats and who can listen to your GSM-calls ?
All government agencies can listen-in on all, encrypted or not
that is if they are in their own country.
Foreign governments can listen-in, if they have the cooperation
of the local government who will supply the encryption keys.
These keys will be given in the shady area of inter-agency
Anyone can listen-in if they own a so called IMSI-catcher,this is the
"man in the middle attack". Basically a fake (mobile) base-station
is inserted in the RF-path between the mobile and the base-station.
The mobile will lock to that "fake-cell". The cell will say
"no encryption available". The call will go un-encrypted.
IMSI-catchers are not sold to the public. They are manufactured
by established companies with good relations with the governments.
Of course such governments could use it outside their own
Anyone can listen-in in countries where the GSM-network does not use
encryption. This includes both governments and privates with funds.
It is not absolutly neccesary to use specificly manufactured
GSM-scanners. It could also be done with slightly modified
test-equipment. Such test-equipment is available to anyone.
If and where GSM-encryption is used is difficult to find out from
the paperwork. It is not something they like to advertise.
3D remote sensing using a mobile network
There are many benefits of this ground breaking system, a few of them are:
CELLDAR is a passive system, which means that it does not transmit any energy and so its use cannot be detected.
CELLDAR provides a low cost solution when compared to its equivalent active radar competitors.
CELLDAR is a multistatic system which means there are many transmitters to enhance the Radar Cross Section of targets when compared to a monostatic radar.
Roke - CELLDAR - Cellphone Radar System
Celldar - Beyond Echelon
How mobile phones let spies see our every move
Government's secret Celldar project will allow surveillance of anyone, at any time and anywhere there is a phone signal
Jason Burke and Peter Warren - Sunday October 13, 2002 - The Observer
Secret radar technology research that will allow the biggest-ever extension of 'Big Brother'-style surveillance in the UK is being funded by the Government.
The radical new system, which has outraged civil liberties groups, uses mobile phone masts to allow security authorities to watch vehicles and individuals 'in real time' almost anywhere in Britain.
The technology 'sees' the shapes made when radio waves emitted by mobile phone masts meet an obstruction. Signals bounced back by immobile objects, such as walls or trees, are filtered out by the receiver. This allows anything moving, such as cars or people, to be tracked. Previously, radar needed massive fixed equipment to work and transmissions from mobile phone masts were thought too weak to be useful.
The system works wherever a mobile phone can pick up a signal. By using receivers attached to mobile phone masts, users of the new technology could focus in on areas hundreds of miles away and bring up a display showing any moving vehicles and people.
An individual with one type of receiver, a portable unit little bigger than a laptop computer, could even use it as a 'personal radar' covering the area around the user. Researchers are working to give the new equipment 'X-ray vision' - the capability to 'see' through walls and look into people's homes.
Ministry of Defence officials are hoping to introduce the system as soon as resources allow. Police and security services are known to be interested in a variety of possible surveillance applications. The researchers themselves say the system, known as Celldar, is aimed at anti-terrorism defence, security and road traffic management.
However civil liberties groups have been swift to condemn the plan.
'It's an appalling idea,' said Simon Davies, director of Privacy International. 'The Government is just capitalising on current public fears over security to intoduce new systems that are neither desirable nor necessary.'
The system, used alongside technology which allows individuals to be identified by their mobile phone handsets, will mewan that individuals can be located and their movements watched on a screen from hundreds of miles away.
Prototypes have been effective over 50 to 100 metres but the developers are confident that range can be extended.
After a series of meetings with Roke Manor, a private research company in Romsey, Hants, MoD officials have started funding the multi-million pound project. Reports of the meetings are 'classified'.
Whitehall officials involved in radar confirmed that the MoD was 'very interested' last week. 'It's all about resources now,' said one.
Private security specialists have also welcomed the new technology.
'It will be enormously useful,' the director of one private security firm said. 'Instead of setting up expensive and cumbersome surveillance equipment, police or the security services could start work quickly and easily almost anywhere. 'For tracking a suspect, preventing a potential crime or a terrorist strike or simply locating people [the system] has enormous advantages.'
It is likely that the technology would be used at first to protect sensitive installations such as ports and airfields. The perimeter of a nuclear power station or an RAF base could be watched without having a bank of CCTV screens and dozens of expensive cameras. If the radar picked up movement then a single camera could be focused on a specific area. Celldar could also monitor roads when poor visibility due to bad weather rendered cameras useless.
'The equipment could pick up traffic flows towards an accident site and the details of a crash; who is where and so on,' said Peter Lloyd of Roke Manor.
Lloyd also outlined a number of military applications for the technology. Individual armoured vehicles or even soldiers could carry the detectors which could tell them where enemy troops were.
Security specialists point out how useful personal radars would be in siege situations. However there are significant concerns that the technology might be abused by authorities or fall into the wrong hands.
'Like all instrusive surveillance, we need to be sure that it is properly regulated, preferably by the judiciary,' said Roger Bingham of Liberty. Bingham expressed concerns that the new equipment, which would be virtually undetectable, could be used by private detectives or others for personal or commercial gain.
Modern technology has brought massive opportunities for wider surveillance. Since the 11 September terrorist attacks on Washington and New York, the government has been pushing through a package of anti-terrorism legislation which targets electronic communications.
Senior police officers are now allowed to access mobile telephone and email records without judicial or executive assent. Within two years, all mobile phones are expected to have satellite-locating devices built into them.
double edged sword?
Super-Radar, Done Dirt Cheap
A radar system that uses ubiquitous cell-phone signals is on its way
Any technology can be a two-edged sword. Cell phones are a good example. They're clearly a great convenience, even a life-saving tool during natural disasters and medical emergencies. And they should save many more lives under the Federal Communications Commission's enhanced 911 mandate, which requires that cell phones relay their precise locations to 911 operators.
Yet some people are appalled that their cell phone will always give away where they are. That makes it possible to compile a "road map" of a user's movements. So imagine the outcry when privacy worriers learn that cell-phone systems can be used to locate and track a car, boat, or plane -- even if no one inside is carrying a wireless phone. But outcry or not, the technology seems certain to be deployed, given its myriad civilian and military applications.
The technology is called Celldar, from "cellular" plus "radar." Under development since 1997 at Roke Manor Research Ltd (SI ). in Romsey, England, it differs from conventional radar in several key respects. When radar tracks planes for air traffic controllers -- or maps the surface of Venus from a space probe -- the same set of equipment both sends out radio signals and picks up the returning echoes. So computers can easily calculate an object's distance and relative size based on how long it takes the returning signals to bounce back and how strong they are.
In contrast, Celldar takes a so-called passive approach: It watches and interprets how signals from cell-phone base stations interact with objects such as cars, trucks or planes. The hardware required for this is much simpler than existing radar systems. A Celldar prototype built in 1999 consisted of a PC and the insides of two cell phones, and cost just $3,000, says Peter Lloyd, head of Roke Manor's Celldar program. The flip side is, the signal-processing software is complex: It must allow for the varying travel times for signals between two or more cellular base stations and a Celldar receiver, as well as the times from the different base stations to the target. Lloyd says Roke's clever program is based on "$10 million worth of expertise in writing software" for cellular systems and military radars. One big plus to the military: passive radar systems are invisible to anti-radar weapons because they don't have their own transmitters.
Celldar's implications are exciting -- but also troubling to some. Even though the technology can't be used to identify cell-phone users, since it "sees" only radio waves echoing off hard surfaces, it and similar approaches are evolving quickly. In addition to Celldar, which is sopping up $1.5 million a year for development, a dozen other passive-radar projects are under way in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. As the technology bears fruit, it should give the world's police and homeland security agencies new tools for monitoring shipments of illegal weapons and drug smuggling operations. Highway officials could gain a detailed window on traffic flows, helping them to minimize congestion. But because passive-radar systems could be cheap enough for hobbyists to buy -- or cobble together themselves -- the technology could also become the next fad among people who own police-radio scanners or who enjoy snooping on their neighbors' comings and goings.
This month marks something of a passive-radar milestone. In late October, Roke will show off the latest Celldar system to officials of Britain's Defense Ministry at an army exercise on the Salisbury Plain. During the field maneuvers, Celldar will detect the movement of ground vehicles and determine whether cell-phone signals are bouncing off a tank, truck, or armored personnel carrier.
Also in late October, radar researchers from around the world will gather in Seattle to discuss recent advances, including passive systems that use FM radio or TV broadcasts instead of cell-phone signals. The invitation-only meeting will be hosted by John D. Sahr, a University of Washington electrical engineer. Since 1997 he has operated a passive-radar system unshrouded by military secrecy. It harnesses an FM station's signals to study particles in the ionosphere -- the top layer of the atmosphere, over 300 miles up. Sahr decided to go with passive radar, he says, "because it's incredibly cheap" -- $20,000 vs. $25 million for a comparable active system. "You could probably do an amateur system for under $5,000," Sahr adds. A system for small airports might cost as little as $15,000. That's important because of the 5,280 public airports in the U.S., only about 300 currently have radar.
STRONG SIGNALS. Lockheed-Martin Corp. (LMT ) is perhaps the best-known passive-radar champion, but others include Avtec Systems, Dynetics, and ONERA, the French counterpart of NASA. Lockheed-Martin's system is dubbed Silent Sentry. Last fall, in a demo for the U.S. Air Force, a third-generation Silent Sentry radar tracked all the air traffic over Washington, D.C., by picking up FM and TV echoes. Because FM and TV transmissions are more powerful than their cell-phone cousins, Silent Sentry can detect planes as far away as 135 miles, roughly 10 times the reach of an individual cell-phone tower.
However, because cell-phone towers are scattered far and wide in many countries, an airborn Celldar system "could covertly monitor a whole country" by flying along its borders, says Lloyd. At the Seattle meeting, Roke Manor and British aerospace giant BAE Systems (BAESY ), which signed on as a Celldar partner in July, 2002, will reveal details on their progress toward systems for small robot spy planes as well as Airborne Warning & Control Systems (AWACS). With BAE on board, Lloyd declares, "we could field an AWACS model in two years."
That claim prompts some skeptical head-scratching by Benjamin J. Slocumb, a senior research engineer at Numerica Corp., a small Fort Collins (Colo.) defense contractor that develops advanced target-tracking algorithms. A receiving antenna that's moving, he says, "injects a whole bunch of difficult problems" in collecting and processing cell-phone echos. But Roke's Lloyd stands firm: "We'll show results in Seattle that are seven times better than [past studies] have said is possible."
Despite Celldar's military potential, Lloyd predicts the first applications will come in the civilian sector. He says transportation officials are eager to use Celldar to monitor road traffic because it would avoid the expense of installing either sensors in roads or TV cameras overhead. And police cars equipped with Celldar could follow a car driven by a suspected crook or terrorist from a safe distance, without danger of being seen.
TRACKING MADE CHEAP. Celldar might also provide an alternative to the global positioning satellite (GPS) systems now being explored by insurance companies and governments for monitoring vehicles. Their goal is to set premiums individually, based on how much and how fast each car or truck is driven -- or to levy a road-use toll determined by the distance a vehicle travels, over which types of roads, and at what times of day. In Ireland, AXA Insurance is testing a GPS gadget called Traksure. It continuously checks a car's speed and location, then compares that data with the local speed limit, obtained from digital maps. But Celldar might do the job more cheaply.
And it might support schemes by Oregon and other states regarding "pay-for-use" road taxes. Many transportation experts assert that taxing actual driving distances would be a more equitable way of funding highway upkeep than today's tax on gasoline and diesel fuels. That's why the European Commission wants every vehicle in Europe to be fitted by 2010 with a black-box device that can be tracked by satellite. Germany is now testing such a system on trucks, and Britain plans to require it on trucks by 2006.
Once the passive-radar cat is out of the bag, there's even a chance it could evolve into a means of tracking people on the street. "But there'd be a lot of technical challenges," because the human body is a poor reflector of radio signals, says Shawn M. Herman, a researcher at Numerica whose 2001 PhD thesis was on passive radar. Still, classified research is under way in Europe to create a hybrid surveillance system, using both passive radar and images from the TV cameras that now monitor many urban intersections and streets, airports, and other public places. Suspected terrorists and other bad guys could then be watched more closely.
The Big Brother implications of all this might unleash a massive public backlash. But just as plausibly, people may decide to put up with technology's double-edged sword to regain a measure of the security they have lost.
A Cell phone Transmitter in the sky?|
Canadian R&D firm 21st Century Airships in November signed a partnership agreement with Atlanta-based Techsphere Communications that includes plans to send the Canadian firm's high-altitude balloons 70,000 feet above sea level for use as telecommunications beacons.
Plans involve creating a constellation of 12 airships beyond the range of weather and commercial air traffic. Each craft would remain aloft for a year and service a 300,000-square-mile area -- roughly the size of Texas and Louisiana.
"People have been thinking about this for years, but (21st Century Airships CEO Hokan) Coltan has designed the first model that could really work," said Vierela.
"His design does for airships what helicopters did for fixed-wing aircraft. They can go up, down, hover or spin on an axis. When you're in the stratosphere, that leads to interesting things."
Coltan's 60-foot-diameter prototypes have ascended 18,000 feet. At 130 feet in diameter, the next round of prototypes will climb to 30,000 to 40,000 feet in mid-2003. The final prototypes set to launch in 2004 will be 260 feet in diameter and float 60,000 to 70,000 feet up. - Wired
The Air Force operates eight tethered balloons originally used by the U.S. Customs Service to detect drug smuggling aircraft flying below conventional radar coverage. It may reopen three sites closed in 1999, including one in North Florida.PURPOSE: Detect aircraft at low altitudes AIRSHIP SIZE: 208 feet long by 65 feet in diameter PAYLOAD: 1,200 pounds of radar ALTITUDE: 15,000 feet POWER: Helium balloon tethered to the ground LOCATIONS: Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Puerto Rico OPERATIONAL: Since 1984
NORAD wants to test an age-old, low-tech airship concept to carry radar that could improve U.S. air defense.PURPOSE: Detect aircraft, missiles at all altitudes Airship SIZE: 500 feet long by 150 feet in diameter PAYLOAD: 4,500 pounds of radar and other electronic gear ALTITUDE: 70,000 feet POWER: Solar LOCATIONS: 10 sites around the coastal United States OPERATIONAL: Beyond 2005 - Global security
"With an airship you can hover and vector people in," said Nicholas Susner, CEO of Science & Technology, International, a Hawaii-based defense contractor that has put on several real world airship demonstrations for federal, state and local officials. "A helicopter can only stay on station for a short period of time," Susner noted. "With an airship we can stay on station for 24 hours and not lose sight of something, which is extraordinarily important."
Airships are a "very benign presence," Spyrou said, noting how quiet they are. "People see it but it doesn't really intrude, it's just the Goodyear blimp or the Fuji blimp, it's 'hiding in plain sight' as New York Police Department officials like to say," he said.
Beyond the perception problem, cost is a hurdle, despite the fact that an airship is about 24 times less expensive than operating a helicopter, the current choice of aerial surveillance for state and local law enforcement, according to Susner.
And compared to satellites, which can cost $150 million or more, Spyrou said his company leases blimps for $350,000 to $400,000 per month.
While ordinary airships operate about 1,500 feet above the ground and can cruise at about 5,000 feet maximum, researchers at Purdue University are looking at creating an airship intended to fly about 65,000 feet, well above commercial airliner traffic.
These super blimps would have better surveillance capabilities than satellites because of their proximity to the ground and because they would be unmanned they could remain in operation for up to a year, the Purdue researchers said. But fuel and durability of the airship's "skin" are still engineering hurdles, the researchers acknowledged. The work is being funded by the Air Force.
Although no design for the blimps has been finalized, the researchers say it may be up to 900 feet long, that's about four times the length of the Goodyear blimp. - msnbc
Equilibrium is set in the year 2072, in the dystopian city-state of Libria. The film explains how, in the early years of the twenty-first century, a devastating Third World War breaks out, the impact of which brings civilisations across the planet to their knees. After the war ends, world leaders fear that the human race cannot possibly survive a Fourth World War, and so set about building a new society which is free of conflict. Believing that human emotion is responsible for man's inhumanity to man, the new leaders ban all materials deemed likely to stimulate strong emotions, including art, music, and literature (these materials are rated "EC-10" for "emotional content" and typically destroyed by immediate incineration). Furthermore, all citizens of Libria are required to take regular injections - "intervals" - of a liquid drug called Prozium, collected at the distribution centres known as "Equilibrium". Prozium suppresses strong emotions, creating a sedate and conformist society. The loss of emotions is a heavy price, but it is considered to be one paid gladly in exchange for the elimination of war and crime.
Air Force Space command: Global Dominance
AFSPC bases and stations include: Cheyenne Mountain Air Station, Schriever and Peterson AFBs and Buckley Air National Guard Base, Colo.; Onizuka AS and Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; Cape Canaveral AS and Patrick AFB, Fla.; Cavalier AS, N.D.; F.E. Warren AFB, Wyo.; Malmstrom AFB, Mont.; Clear AS, Alaska; Thule AB, Greenland; and Woomera AS, Australia. AFSPC units are located around the world, including Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany.
AFSPC operates and supports the Global Positioning System, Defense Satellite Communications Systems Phase II and III, Defense Support Program, NATO III and IV communications and Fleet Satellite Communications System UHF follow-on and MILSTAR satellites. AFSPC currently operates the Atlas II, Delta II, Titan II and Titan IV launch vehicles. This includes all of the nation's primary boosters from the Eastern and Western ranges and range support for the space shuttle. AFSPC also operates the nation's primary source of continuous, real-time solar flare warnings. The command also operates a worldwide network of satellite tracking stations to provide communications links to satellites -- a system called the Air Force Satellite Control Network.
Ground-based radars used primarily for ballistic missile warning include the Ballistic Missile Early Warning
System, PAVE PAWS and PARCS radars. The Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System, Passive
Space Surveillance System, phased-array and mechanical radars provide primary space surveillance coverage.
Missile Defense - Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicles.
The National Missile Defense system will, upon being alerted of an imminent attack against the United States, launch an appropriate number of Ground-Based Interceptors with Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) weapons. In space, the EKVs will separate from their boosters, immediately detect attacking missiles, distinguish real targets from decoys, and destroy them by hit-to-kill intercepts. The compact, lightweight vehicles feature advanced infrared sensors; guidance, navigation and control; divert and altitude-control propulsion; and on-board signal processing.
The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) completed a successful integrated system test of the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system on March 15, 2002. This test, designated IFT-8, resulted in the fourth successful intercept of a ballistic missile target by the Raytheon EKV. The first successful test occurred on October 2, 1999. Since that initial intercept, three consecutive successful intercept tests have occurred: IFT-6, July 14, 2001; IFT-7, December 3, 2001 and IFT-8, March 15, 2002. All four tests were consummated over the central Pacific Ocean, near the Marshall Islands, at altitudes above 140 miles. On all four occasions, the EKV hit and destroyed a surrogate target at closing speeds in excess of 16,000 miles per hour.
"Layered" missile defense is needed to protect the U.S. and allied forces, as well as the U.S. homeland, from long-range, medium-range, and short-range air and missile attack. Raytheon?s technologies and capabilities contribute to this total missile defense system via its outstanding discrimination processes, as well as lethality in the endgame.
see also:Village Voice - weapon of the week
Boeing Sea-Based X-Band Radar Completes Transport through the Straits of Magellan and Arrives in Pearl Harbor
[the platform itself (formerly called "Moss Sirius") was built at the Vyborg shipyard in Russia on order from the Norwegian firm Moss Maritime. ]
ST. LOUIS, Jan. 10, 2006 -- Boeing [NYSE: BA] announced today the arrival in Hawaii of the Sea-Based X-Band Radar (SBX) built for the U.S. Missile Defense Agency. This marks an interim stop in the vessel's transport operation, originating in the Gulf of Mexico and maneuvering through the Straits of Magellan, ultimately destined for Adak, Alaska.
A major sensor for the Missile Defense Agency's ground-based midcourse defense program (GMD), the SBX will provide the capability to track ballistic missiles and their warheads, discriminate among various objects in flight, and provide data for intercepting targets and their destruction. The addition of the SBX to MDA's missile defense system is another key milestone toward the evolution of a layered and integrated Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS).
"The arrival of SBX in the Pacific builds on the momentum of the GMD program, which recently conducted a successful flight test and installed its 10th operational interceptor missile at Fort Greely," said Pat Shanahan, Boeing Missile Defense Systems vice president and general manager. "The SBX is a one-of-a-kind platform that will perform essential sensing functions for the Ballistic Missile Defense System. It can be deployed worldwide; it can sense small objects thousands of miles away; it can provide critical data on incoming ballistic missile threats; and it is the only platform of its type in the world. No other platform within the BMDS provides all these attributes."
Prior to its departure on its journey around South America through the Straits of Magellan, integration, assembly and test of the radar and platform were conducted at Corpus Christi, Texas. Following a series of sea trials, the SBX was transported into the Pacific Ocean aboard a commercial heavy transport vessel, the motor vessel Blue Marlin, which is owned and operated by Dockwise Shipping B.V. of Breda, The Netherlands.
The radar will join other land and sea-based radars and space-based sensors, to support the overall ballistic missile defense capability, with initial integration into the command, control, communication and battle management system for the long-range interceptor missiles located in Alaska and California, improving their ability to defend against a limited long-range ballistic missile attack on the United States. Home-ported in Adak, a small island located in the Aleutian Island chain, the SBX will be able to move throughout the Pacific Ocean, or any of the world's oceans, in support of advanced missile defense testing and defensive operations.
The SBX program team completed important milestones despite challenges throughout last year's intensive hurricane season. During scheduled program operations, the radar tracked orbiting satellites, which demonstrated key functionality. The program completed more than 100 test activities, demonstrating its ability to achieve major sustainment and operational capabilities, including: transferring personnel, supplies and fuel, performing at-sea maintenance and the ability to operate at sea for extended periods.
Boeing is the prime contractor for the GMD program. Industry partners include: Raytheon, who manufactured the X-band radar; Kiewet OffShore Services where the radar was constructed and integrated onto the SBX; Moss Maritime, who supplied the platform; Keppel-AmFELS, who modified the platform with Boeing; and Vertex/RSI, who worked on the radar structure.
more from cryptome