Projectiles & Ballistics...
Since the introduction of the Hande gonne in the 14th Century,
military arms have gone through a series of significant changes.
The bullet that was once fired down a barrel tube became a larger projectile, The V2 rocket
which was essentially a powered flying bomb used as a missile launched from a ramp.
The earliest 'hand gonne' was developed in the fifteenth century, but was not a great
influence in battle. It was a small cannon with a touch-hole for ignition. It was unsteady,
required that the user prop it on a stand, brace it with one hand against his chest and use
his other hand to touch a lighted match to the touch-hole, and had an effective range of
only about thirty to fourty yards. It surely must have taken iron nerves to use one of these
against a charging knight, nearly within his lance's reach, when the powder might not even ignite.-
- Hande gonne
- guns, firearms
The Chinese, who invented gunpowder, were also the first to employ explosives to power missiles
and the first, in the 1300s, to fire a multi-stage missile. By the 17th century western military
forces were experimenting with "war" rockets.|
Yet not until World War II were long range (up to 180 miles) rockets-the Nazi V-1-and ballistic
missiles-the A-4, renamed the V-2-developed. Although it was possible to counter the noisy,
relatively slow V-1, there was virtually no defense against the ballistic V-2.
history of missiles
The ability to place the bullet where we want it is vital to any accurate shooter, and an understanding
of ballistics is necessary to accomplish that in a consistent and reliable fashion. The body of
knowledge as to the factors effecting the flight of the bullet from the instant it leaves the
muzzle of the gun until it strikes the target is termed External Ballistics, -
The Titan II ICBM weapon system was first activated in 1962.
The Titan II missile system was designed to destroy enemy strategic targets in a minimum of time. To do so, the warhead must be placed on a target with a high degree of accuracy and from a distance of over 5500 miles. This degree of accuracy is comparable to your throwing a golf ball into the mouth of a teacup 150 yards away. It is obvious that many variables must be considered in attaining this degree of accuracy. The powered portion of flight lasts less than one-sixth of the total flight time. Control of the flightpath was not possible after powered flight ends. So all factors such as velocity, attitude, and altitude must be attained before the end of powered flight to permit the warhead to freefall to the target. All missile systems exist solely for this purpose.
US interest in the development of UAVs has been a roller coaster ride filled with
peaks and valleys when compared to our aircraft involvement in the worlds strategic
environment. The strategic environment is defined as the collection of global conditions
and forces that influence how we pursue our national security. History shows that it
usually takes an international incident threatening our national security to highlight a
military deficiency and stir a desire for new, innovative methods to support national
Uninhabited Air Vehicle Background
Technologically superior equipment has been critical to the success of our
forces in combat.
- Joint Vision 2010
The first military interest in aerial activity dates back to the late 19th and early 20th
century when military personnel were attached to kites as observers. As years went on
the interest grew in forms of balloons, airships and then the airplane. The first heavier
than air, powered, sustained, powered flight was achieved by a pilotless aircraft named
Aerodrome No. 5 built by Dr Samuel Pierpoint Langley. He launched his steam-powered craft
over the Potomac River on 6 May 1896 for a flight lasting over one
It is safe to say that unmanned airplane race has begun.
WW I saw the use of UAVs solely due to the breakthrough in technology. The US
Navy carried out limited tests with the first radio-controlled aerial torpedoes in December
1917. The converted Curtis N-9 trainer was powered by a 40 horsepower (hp) engine and
capable of flying 50 miles carrying a 300 pound (lb) bomb. Charles Kettering of Delco
Company, later General Motors, designed a more sophisticated unmanned aircraft. Built
primarily out of wood and canvas, the Kettering Bug cost some $ 400 dollars each and
was the first UAV to be massed produced. Launched from a wheel trolley, the Bug
could be pre-programmed to drop on targets by means of a engine driven cam which
would unscrew the wing retaining bolts over a set distance. Although the initial tests were
somewhat erratic, the Bug was ordered in large quantities in the last few months of the
war but was canceled after the armistice.
Aviation experienced more rapid advances in technology between the wars. The
invention of the automatic gyroscopic stabilizer (which helps keep an aircraft flying
straight and level) by Dr Peter Cooper and Elmer Sperry was surpassed by improved radio
technology which greatly improved an aircrafts flights controls and maneuvering
capability. Radio control technology gave rise to the Armys drone program.
The Chief of the Air Corps, General Oscar Westover wanted a 20-30 mile weapon
with a 200-300 pound warhead at a cost of $300 to $800 dollars per copy.
Charles Kettering reenters the picture with his General Motors A-1. A 200-hp monoplane
carrying a 500-lb bomb to a range of 400 miles with both automatic and radio flight
controls. The vast distance to the targets degraded the accuracy of the gyros as the
flight progressed. After several modifications to the catapult system, an air launch option
was proposed from a North American B-25. The flight control problem was still
unsatisfactory and the project was canceled for non-performance in 1943.
To combat the V-1 threat, drone versions of US bombers were developed in July
1944 as part of the USAAF/Navy Project Anvil. The US Navy used PB4Y-1
Liberators equipped with remote controls, a TV-guidance system, and loaded with 25,000
lbs of torpex high explosive. Guided by a PV-1 Ventura mother ship aircraft, the
PB4Y-1 would take off with a two-man crew who would climb to 2,000 ft and set a
course for the V-1 sites in France before bailing out. The first operational Anvil flight in
1944 was a tragic failure. Flown by a volunteer crew of Lt Bud Willy and Lt Joseph
Kennedy Jr, brother of the future US President, John F. Kennedy, a PB4Y-1 number
32271 exploded soon after takeoff killing both on board before they could successfully
bail out of the aircraft.15 Despite this failure the PB4Y-1 was successful against targets
later on. Meanwhile, the B-17s were converted in a similar way as part of Project
Aphrodite. With 20,000 lbs of explosives on board, a pilot and technician would take
off the aircraft, activate the fusing mechanisms of the weapons, and then bail out of the
aircraft over England. The USAAF was concerned with additional lives lost with these
new aircraft so some off these bombers had open cockpits to enable the crew to bail out
Big wings for a drone er...
missile, er...rocket er...bomb!
The Fieseler Fi-103, better known as the V-1 was ordered at Hitler?s command
specifically for use against non-military targets. The Luftwaffe successfully operated the
Vergeltungswaffe (revenge weapon)-1 with the first ground launches in December
1943 from sites in the Pas de Calais toward the United Kingdom. Great Britain's Royal
Air Force retaliated with over 16,000 tons of bombs dropped on the V-1 sites. Germany
again escalated hostilities by air launching the flying bombs from the wings of Heinkels
Looking ahead at todays interest in UCAVs there would be pilot in the
aircraft to begin with so this would eliminate any concern for crews bailing out.
Technology has not quite allowed for this type of operation to occur yet so the man in the
cockpit must continue. None of the Aphrodite aircraft hit their precise targets and were
never seen as more than an area weapon. Aphrodite was yet another unmanned aircraft
program with technological problems that was being developed as American convention
bombing effectiveness was improving. So with the program no longer in the limelight it
quickly lost interest.
In 1949, the USAF awarded to Ryan Aeronautical Company for their XQ-2 with the
Frederick Flader J-55 turbojet engine. The XQ-2 was then changed the Firebee. The
Firebee has represented one of the most enduring and widely used unmanned aircraft.
Over the years other types of unmanned aircraft have been cheaper and some have been
produced in greater numbers, but none has equaled the versatility and adaptability of the
basic Firebee design
|Imagine seeing this in the late 40's, early 50's...
would you think it was a UFO?
UFO's a military-op to cover advanced technology?
The Firebee, originally designated the Q-2, is a high-speed target drone for both surface-to-air
and air-to-air missiles. It is used primarily for the testing of newly-developed missiles and
for the training of fighter-interceptor pilots whose aircraft are armed with missiles.
Capable of being launched from the ground or from an airplane in flight, the Firebee is radio-controlled
during its mission by an operator on the ground. Upon being hit by a missile and disabled, or upon completing
its mission undamaged, the Firebee is lowered safely to earth by a self-contained parachute.
The Firebee on display, the first XQ-2C built and flown, established a record of 25 flights at Holloman AFB,
New Mexico, from 1958 to 1960. It was obtained from Ryan for display in May 1960. -
Still the most important attribute of unmanned aircraft is not that they are cheaper
and more clever than manned aircraft, but using them saves crewmembers lives. This
was proven very well during combat operations during the Vietnam War. Ryan
Aeronautical (later to become Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical) made a proposal to the USAF
to use modified unpiloted drones for reconnaissance missions. The study involved
reducing the radar signature of a modified Q-2C Firebee drone by placing a specially
designed screen over the intake and putting radar absorbing blankets on the fuselage and
then covering the entire aircraft with a new anti-radar paint.
This still holds true today. The general public does not want to see their captured
serviceman paraded on television and used as negotiating pawns. The unmanned aircraft
will be highly supported if it will reduce the risks of our crewmembers.
The use of these Firebees for reconnaissance were given the code-name Fire Fly
which was later changed to Lightning Bug. The big benefit was now these Lightning Bugs would have a lesser
chance of being detected in heavily defended areas. This was an alternative measure
instead of risking pilots. These drones were able to create a lot of supporters in the
reconnaissance community. A big concern during combat mission especially
reconnaissance was the possibility of being shot down and captured as a prisoner of war.
Meanwhile, a highly significant incident took place that help rejuvenate the interest
in unmanned aircraft.
On May 1, 1960 Francis Gary Powers was shot down in his U-2
reconnaissance aircraft 1200 miles inside the Russian border. Powers was captured as
well as his aircraft wreckage and put on display for the world to see. This shoot down
was directly responsible for the development of the fastest and highest-flying unmanned
aircraft ever to reach operation. So with the cold war at its height, no money or effort was
spared in obtaining high quality images of important targets. Lockheeds Skunk Works
under the leadership of legendary Clarence Kelly Johnson was given the job of
developing a high-speed reconnaissance drone.
Having built and tested the 2,000 mph A-12 aircraft for the CIA and SR-71 Blackbird for the USAF, Johnson and his team
decided the only way to successfully employ such a strategic long range system was for
an air launch from the top of an A-12. It was later changed to the M-12 because it was so
designated as the mother ship. The first three test missions were successful with disaster
occurring on the forth. On release at over 2,000 mph the D-21 pitched up violently and
struck the mother ship. The two man crew ejected safely but one later drowned awaiting
rescue. Johnson and his Skunk Works team worked with the USAF on another air
launch program from the wing of a modified B-52 aircraft. The four operational missions
flown were plagued with miscues but still deemed a successful program. The project was
officially canceled in July 1971. The D-21 never flew again, although there were
reports that National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) was planning to
use it for high speed research. Some sources suggested that this was part of a front for the
mysterious high-speed project code-name
The concern of putting our crewmembers needlessly into harms way rose again after
the downing of another high valuable U-2 aircraft. This time the pilot was not as
fortunate as Gary powers. The U-2 aircraft was shot down while flying over Cuba during
the opening rounds of the Cuban missile crisis. Shortly after this incident, then
Attorney General Bobby Kennedy received a reconnaissance drone capabilities brief and
upon learning that only two systems were available in the entire Air Force, Kennedy
demanded more. One phone call to Ryan Aeronautical and the Model 147-B big wing
drone with Doppler navigation system was under way. The emphasis is to reduce the
loss of life risk for our pilots. Could this mission been done with an aircraft without a
General awareness and military interest into UAVs did not surface again until the
Israeli Air Force employed them during the October 1973 Yom Kippur War and in 1982
against Syrian missile batteries deployed in Lebanons Bekas valley. It was reported
that the Israelis used Firebees armed with Shrike anti-radar missiles to lead attacks
against Egyptian air defenses and that one Firebee was targeted by 32 surface to air
missiles before it returned safely to its base. During 1982 the Israeli Air Force again
used UAVs to fly over the Syrian deployed missile sites to gather important electronic
data. Although one Firebee once shot down, valuable electronic information was still
collected and further more there was much emphasis on the fact that there was no lose of
life. After mounting tensions, Israel launched an attack called Operation Peace for
Galilee to drive the Syrian supported Palestine Liberation Organization from Lebanon.
The UAVs work was deemed immeasurable and led to the successful attacks against the
missile sites. Overall, the Israelis were able to destroy 17 of the 19 sites detected by their
UAVs and this allowed the Israeli fighters to shoot down 85 Syrian fighters. Several
UAVs were lost but all were attributed to mechanical failure. A keynote to think about
is what price would the Israelis paid if the UAVs had not provided such critical
information. The UAVs saved lives and also prevented loss of life by being unmanned.
The Israeli success inspired then Secretary of the Navy John Lehman to push for his
service to acquire UAVs, primarily to support targeting and to conduct battle-damage
assessment for US battleships. His efforts led to the Navy and Marine Corp acquiring the
Pioneer UAV system, which is still in use today. This system has been employed in
many US operations since the 1980s, including the Gulf war and more recently
operations in Bosnia. -Joint Vision 2010
Dr. Tony Tether Director Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Before the Subcommittee on Military Research and Development Committee
on Armed Services House of Representatives - June 26, 2001
"Despite what some have suggested, we received no intelligence that terrorists were
preparing to attack the homeland using airplanes as missiles."|
Condaleeza Rice - Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
in the Washington Post on March 23 2002
"I know of no intelligence during the roughly six-plus months leading up to September 11
that indicated terrorists intended to hijack commercial airlines and fly them into the
Pentagon or the World Trade Center." -
Donald Rumsfeld Secretery of defense
Along with the American Kettering Bug, one the earliest experimental guided missiles.
This British project, begun in 1914 under the direction of Archibald M. Low, was misnamed
so that enemy spies would think the vehicles were simply drones flown to test the effectiveness
of antiaircraft weapons. In fact, A.T. concept vehicles were intended to test the feasibility
of using radio signals to guide a flying bomb to its target. Radio guidance equipment was
developed and installed on small monoplanes powered by a 35-horsepower Granville Bradshaw
engine. Two A.T. test flights were made in March 1917 at the Royal Flying Corps training
school field at Upavon. Although both vehicles crashed due to engine failure, they at least
showed that radio guidance was feasible. However, the A.T. program was scrapped because it
was thought to have limited military potential. -
How ironic - Even now they lie and tell us drones are only used for missile defense!
| Northrop (Radioplane) Q-4/AQM-35
In 1953, Northrop's Radioplane division started the development of the Model RP-61 supersonic target drone,
and in June 1954 the USAF awarded a contract for the Q-4 vehicle under project MX-2144.
The first air launch of an XQ-4 aircraft occurred in January 1956, and although the XQ-4 had a
ground-launch capability, this was never used.
The XQ-4 was powered by an XJ81-WE-3 turbojet engine, and could reach a speed of Mach 1.55.
It was air-launched by B-50D or GC-130A aircraft, and was controlled by a radio-command guidance system.
The drone was tracked by radar, and a telemetry system was used to transmit flight parameters in real time.
The XQ-4 could be recovered by a three-stage parachute system and was equipped with four inflatable bags
which softened the landing to prevent damage to the airframe. The Q-4 was planned to be used to test various
types of air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles designed for use against supersonic enemy aircraft.
Optionally, it could also be fitted with photographic or TV reconnaissance equipment. -
The QF-102 (initially the PQM-102) program was the second Century-Series drone program
(after the QF-104), and lasted the longest of any so far. The initial unmanned flight
in 1975 was the lead-in to a progression of unmanned (NULLO) flights until June 30,
The last manned flight (with a safety pilot on board - yours truly) was on June 27, 1986.
I also remote controlled the last NULLO flight on June 30th which was destroyed by a warhead shot
at Holloman AFB/White Sands Missile Range for a missile development program.
It was also the last analog autopilot for full-scale drones as all conversions following it used digital
autopilots. Among the firsts achieved by the QF-102 were the first fully computerized take-off and landing
by the Drone Formation Control System (DFCS) at White Sands, the first bombs dropped by a remote controlled
fighter with remote drop commands (many of which were "shacks"), and the first six-ship drone formation
flight flown for the SAM-D (or PATRIOT as it is now known) program.
The wildest flight profile was a 600 Knot profile at 100 Meters (330 feet AGL) with an 8 "G" maneuver
for an Army ROLAND missile program which resulted in a kill by a German Army team. The profile was
extremely short (45 seconds run-in at altitude and speed) and the drone blew into a million fragments
when hit in the missile bay with a non-warhead/TM round. -
Modified from the civilian Beech Model 36 Bonanza under the "Pave Eagle II" program, the military-designated
QU-22s contained several changes for military service. The QU-22 carries an extra generator to power its
electronic equipment, and additional fuel in extended wing tip tanks for increased endurance. Its remote
control equipment allows the QU-22 to be flown directly by an onboard pilot or as an unmanned drone. The
aircraft can stay airborne for 10 hours unmanned, or for 8 hours if the detachable tip tanks are removed.
The last QU-22 operational mission in SEA was flown in September 1972. After use in military service most
of these fully-equipped aircraft were placed in the civilian market, with one changing hands as recently
as late 2002. Joe Vialls
Remotely crashing passenger jets? in 1984?
Pave Eagle drones 1967
In the war against Communism in South East Asia, USAF QU-22 aircraft were an integral part of the
"Igloo White" surveillance system, which sought to collect, interpret, and rapidly act upon enemy
infiltration information gathered from electronic sensors implanted along the "Ho Chi Minh Trail".
The QU-22B was a highly modified Beech 36/A36 Bonanza which served in the Viet Nam conflict as an
electronic monitoring signal relay aircraft. It was developed under the "Pave Eagle" program for
the United States Air Force.
In March of 1967, Harry Duchene, Roy Denning, and Lou Hagler submitted and won a non-competitive
contract with the USAF to put seven drone aircraft (YQU-22A) into the Southeast Asia theater of
operations as rapidly as possible. Denning headed up the program, Hagler supervised the field
operation and Duchene was the project engingeer. The first examples arrived in SEA during March
1969. These first airframes were modifications of the Beech 33/35 Debonair/Bonanza.
The QU-22 could be flown by remote control as a pilotless drone, but SEA operational missions were
conducted with a pilot aboard. The aircraft had extended wings with additional fuel tanks at the tips
and was powered by one turbocharged Continental IO-520B engine, with a reduction gearbox which reduced
propeller RPM for quieter operation.
After acquisition from Beech, the aircraft were delivered to the Univac division of Sperry Rand for
the installation of mission equipment. The aircraft was fitted with avionics to receive signals from
acoustic and siesmic sensors air-dropped along the HCMT. The information was then relayed either to
an orbiting EC-121R or to the Igloo White facilities at NKP, also the home base of the QU-22 unit.
REMEMBER: on 11th Sept 2001
they didn't need to be able to LAND the planes
They just needed to aim them & crash them!
The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA
to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft.
On the morning of December 1, 1984, a remotely controlled Boeing 720 transport took off from Edwards Air Force Base
(Edwards, California), made a left-hand departure and climbed to an altitude of 2300 feet. It then began a descent-to-landing
to a specially prepared runway on the east side of Rogers Dry Lake. Final approach was along the roughly 3.8-degree
glide slope. The landing gear was left retracted. Passing the decision height of 150 feet above ground level (AGL), the aircraft
was slightly to the right of the desired path. Just above that decision point at which the pilot was to execute a "go-around," there appeared to be enough altitude to maneuver back to the centerline of the runway. Data acquisition systems had been activated, and the aircraft was committed to impact. It contacted the ground, left wing low. The fire and smoke took over an hour to extinguish. - Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) Aircraft
Still the media insists RC technology is way off in the future
The Raytheon Corp. is one of several companies looking to use new satellite technology that would someday
allow jets to be landed by a remote controller on the ground, in much the same way that hobbyists bring
in their model airplanes by remote control.
Raytheon announced Monday the company is working on a secure military and civilian system that relies on
ground units to improve the precision of satellite navigation.
The company successfully landed a FedEx Corp. 727 cargo aircraft without the help of a pilot at Holloman
Air Force Base in August. -
Interest suddenly grows in remote-control system for commercial aircraft
Strange how these people don't know about predator drones and projects such as Pave-Eagle 2, isn't it?
Now...why would the public be kept in the dark about such a thing?
In Sept. 28, 2001 it was reported that remote control planes could be only be possible far into the future|
". . . In addition, the president [President Bush] said he would give
grants to airlines to allow them to develop stronger cockpit doors
and transponders that cannot be switched off from the cockpit.
Government grants would also be available to pay for video monitors
that would be placed in the cockpit to alert pilots to trouble in the
cabin; *** and new technology, probably far in the future, allowing
air traffic controllers to land distressed planes by remote control."
from - Bush to Increase Federal Role in Security at Airports, New
In October 18, 2001 it was reported that UNMANNED ROBOT PLANES were bombing in Afghanistan
Unmanned aircraft reportedly have fired on combat targets for the first time during the Afghanistan air strikes, perhaps marking a new era in modern warfare.
RQ-1 Predators -- propeller-driven, 700-pound reconnaissance drones -- have fired Hellfire anti-tank missiles on Afghani targets during the 11-day series of air strikes on Taliban and terrorist positions, the Washington Post reported Thursday morning.
Pilotless plane to fly routinely in civilian airspace
If pilotless passenger planes are so unthinkable- why isn't this?
LOS ANGELES: Terrorists could be prevented from carrying out September 11-style attacks by a device
that would allow air traffic controllers to take control of aircraft and land them remotely.
The device, known as 'Robolander', is among a number of pilot aides that the American government's
Department of Homeland Security has asked Boeing to fit to new aircraft...
Despite resistance to the technology from unions and airlines, the government may contribute up to
40 million towards a prototype "proof of concept" aircraft to be built by 2010.
Robolander merges several modern computer systems, including a "refuse to crash" programme that steers
planes away from mountains and high buildings if pilots do not respond to audible warnings.
Nasa recently flew a real Boeing 757 over a simulated version of Washington DC and tried to "crash"
it into the White House, but the computer software blocked the pilot and forced him to turn away.
John Douglass, president of the Washington-based Aerospace Industries Association, said the logical
next step was to allow air traffic controllers to take control of a plane in an emergency...
India Straits times VIA INN news
With a few clicks of the mouse -
'next generation' Drone aircraft flying since 1995
The Global Hawk, being developed by an industry team led by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical
and Raytheon/E-Systems, is considered the workhorse of the HAE UAV mix. It is a conventionally
designed, wing/body/tail, jet-powered aircraft optimized for payload, range and endurance.
It is a 24,000 pound vehicle capable of operating at 65,000 foot altitude with up to 42 hours
of endurance. In terms of physical size, it has an overall wing span of 116 feet and a length
of 44 feet. Its overall size is comparable to a U-2. The DarkStar, being developed by an
industry team led by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Military Aircraft, is more of
a special purpose aircraft targeted for use in high-threat environments prior to the suppression
of hostile air defenses. It is a more unconventional design and, as mentioned, is optimized
for the incorporation of low observability or stealth for survivability. It has a gross weight
of 8,600 pounds, or, about a third that of the Global Hawk and can operate at just over a
45,000 foot altitude for more than 8 hours. Physically, it is a little over half the span
and a third the length of the Global Hawk aircraft. The Common Ground Segment, being developed
by Raytheon/E-Systems, combines mission planning, command and control, communications and
imagery quality control for both systems into a transportable system housed in two ruggedized
In terms of payload, both systems are being developed to support the collection of high quality radar
and optical imagery at high collection rates. The Global Hawk system offers a 2,000 pound payload capacity
and carries both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Electro-Optic/Infrared Red (EO/IR) Sensors.
With the SAR payload, the Global Hawk will be able to survey up to 40,000 square nautical miles per
day per aircraft at better than 3-foot resolution or form 1,900 1-foot spot images, each 2 kilometer
by 2 kilometer, at 1-foot resolution. Hughes Aircraft is developing both of the Global Hawk sensor
payloads. The DarkStar offers a 1,000 pound payload and carries either a Low Probability of Intercept
(LPI) SAR or EO sensor, one at a time, and offers similar collection rates and imagery resolution,
though its capacity per mission is less due to its reduced endurance. Northrop Grumman Electric Sensors
and Systems is developing the DarkStar SAR and Recon Optical is developing the EO sensor. The common
ground station will disseminate the imagery product from the two air vehicles to existing exploitation
systems. - DARPA
A contract was awarded to General Atomics Aeronautical Systems in January 1994 to execute the Tier II, Medium Altitude Endurance Predator Program. The Predator system first flew in 1994 and entered production in August 1997. Predators are currently in production for the US Air Force and are operational with the USAF 11th and 15th Reconnaissance Squadrons. Over 80 Predators have been delivered to the USAF out of 85 under contract. The Italian Air Force is to acquire six Predator UAVs from General Atomics, with Italian company Meteor as subcontractor responsible for assembly of five of the six.
Predator UAVs have been operational in Bosnia since 1995, where they have flown over 600 missions in support of NATO, UN and US operations. Predators have also been deployed as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom.
General Atomics is the prime contractor and the main subcontractors include: Versatron/Wescam for the electro-optical Skyball Gimbal; Northrop Grumman for the synthetic aperture radar; L3 Communication for the wideband satellite communications link; and Boeing for the intelligence workstation and mission planning system. - Army Tech
EMS delivered to the Darkstar UAV Program several Ku-band Satellite Uplink Phased Array Antennas to allow mobile, high bandwidth ISR data transmission via satellite. The antenna uses electronic scanning in the elevation plane and rotating polarizers to maintain linear polarization alignment with the satellite transponder. This phased array uses ferrite phase shifters for electronic scan in the elevation plane; it is mechanically rotated for azimuthal coverage-source
The basic crew for the Predator is one pilot and two sensor operators. They fly the aircraft from inside the GCS via a C-Band line-of-sight data link or a Ku-Band satellite data link for beyond line-of-sight flight. The aircraft is equipped with a color nose camera (generally used by the aerial vehicle operator for flight control), a day variable aperture TV camera, a variable aperture infrared camera (for low light/night), and a synthetic aperture radar for looking through smoke, clouds or haze. The cameras produce full motion video and the SAR still frame radar images.
The MQ-1 Predator carries the Multispectral Targeting System with inherent AGM-114 Hellfire missile targeting capability and integrates electro-optical, infrared, laser designator and laser illuminator into a single sensor package. The aircraft can employ two laser-guided Hellfire anti-tank missiles with the MTS ball.
Each Predator aircraft can be disassembled into six main components and loaded into a container nicknamed "the coffin." This enables all system components and support equipment to be rapidly deployed worldwide. The largest component is the GCS and it is designed to be rolled into a C-130. The air transportable PPSL consists of a 6.25 meter Ku-Band satellite system mounted on a trailer. It provides communications between the ground station and the aircraft when it is beyond line-of-sight and is a link into secondary intelligence dissemination networks. The Predator system needs 5,000 feet by 125 feet (1,524 meters by 38 meters) of hard surface runway with clear line-of-sight to each end from the GCS to the air vehicles.
The aircraft includes an ARC-210 radio, an APX-100 IFF/SIF with Mode 4, an upgraded turbo-charged engine and an ice mitigation system. - favtsheet
REMEMBER: on Sept 11th 2001
they didn't need to be able to LAND the planes
They just needed to aim them & crash them!
The Global Hawk deals with air-traffic controllers in a way that is simultaneously old-fashioned and high-tech. |
A radio on board the aircraft links it to the nearest control tower, and a separate satellite link relays speech to and from the aircraft's operators on the ground, who thus appear to be inside the plane, even though they may be on the other side of the world.
If air-traffic control asks the plane to ascend, descend, or take action to avoid bad weather, the operators can instruct it to do so with a few more clicks of the mouse.
Similarly, the Global Hawk can be remotely controlled while on the ground, to make it taxi on and off runways and in and out of hangars. - Help! There's nobody in the cockpit
From a concrete hangar at Balad Air Base, north of Baghdad, pilots sitting in soft leather armchairs can home in on the smallest suspect elements anywhere in Iraq, then work with ground forces to try to stifle guerrilla activity...
...Grainy infrared pictures of the scene were transmitted from a Predator doing lazy circles 10,000 feet above the field to a control room in the hangar and displayed on a flatscreen TV.
As well being able to relay real-time color images from heights of up to 25,000 feet, the Predators can also be armed with missiles to act as offensive aircraft.
Rather than being controlled by pilots in Iraq, they are frequently operated via satellite by people sitting in a bunker in Nevada, back in the United States, from where a decision can also be taken to unleash the plane's Hellfire armaments. With their almost inaudible flight -- the drones are powered by a four cylinder engine similar to a snowmobile and cruise along at 70 knots -- they have been used to stage stealth attacks on suspected insurgent hideouts and the like. - reuters
QUESTION for the NSA / Daarpa and it's corporate buddies
If it is your own system,
is it still called hacking?
Power grid vulnerable?
"Our people drove to a remote substation," he recalled.
"Without leaving their vehicle, they noticed a wireless network antenna.
They plugged in their wireless LAN cards, fired up their notebook computers,
and connected to the system within five minutes because it wasn't using passwords.
"Within 10 minutes, they had mapped every piece of equipment in the facility," Blomgren said.
"Within 15 minutes, they mapped every piece of equipment in the operational control network.
Within 20 minutes, they were talking to the business network and had pulled off several business reports.
They never even left the vehicle." -
Remote hijacking is hacking
The Secret window|
A CARELESS mistake by Microsoft programmers has revealed that special access codes prepared by the US National Security Agency have been secretly built into Windows. The NSA access system is built into every version of the Windows operating system now in use, except early releases of Windows 95 (and its predecessors). The discovery comes close on the heels of the revelations earlier this year that another US software giant, Lotus, had built an NSA "help information" trapdoor into its Notes system, and that security functions on other software systems had been deliberately crippled. Duncan Campbell
Windows used in the battlefield? [turkeyshoot] - God help us all...
"Sergeant Major Salvador Martinez of the 4ID's 1-22 Battalion is another believer. The system saves lives and cuts down on friendly fire incidents, and because it's Windows-based it's as easy to use as a home computer, he said."
Iraq's Sunni triangle a test-bed for US army's "digital division"
so..not only are they admitting the Iraq war was a great excuse to test thier toys...but they also use WINDOWS...
That makes me feel a whole lot safer...NOT!
US military gets its own secure version of Windows|
The US Air Force has had enough of Microsoft's security problems. But rather than switch to an alternative, it has struck a deal with CEO Steve Ballmer for a specially configured version of Windows to be used by all its 525,000 personnel and civilian support staff.
Air Force CIO John Gilligan said the department wants to use a single version of Microsoft products, built with extra security, on its desktops and servers to help it reduce the problems it faces in applying software patches whenever Microsoft announces new vulnerabilities.
The new deal sees the consolidation of 38 separate contracts with just two. The new contracts involve Microsoft supplying a version of its desktop and server operating system and applications that include System Management Server 2003, Office 2003, and Exchange. The new arrangement will save the Air Force about $100 million, according to Gilligan.
The Air Force will receive automated patch updates under a program in which Microsoft will give the Air Force special attention to identify new vulnerabilities early on.
The laborious patch testing and distribution process would be automated through a single center. All Microsoft software purchasing will also be made centrally from now on.
The Microsoft products will be configured under guidelines still to be determined but expected to be based on input from the National Security Agency, Defense Information Systems Agency as well as the Center for Internet Security.
Computer crash to delay pension and benefit payments
Payments to tens of thousands of people who receive state pensions and benefits will be delayed after a computer crash at the UK Department of Work and Pensions.
Both Microsoft and the Texas-based contractor EDS, the company that holds a 2 billion contract to upgrade and run the department's systems, will be asked to explain what went wrong in a report being drawn up for Alan Johnson, the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions.
The DWP was carrying out a "routine software upgrade" on Monday when the system crashed, leaving around 80% of the department's 100,000 desk machines disrupted or completely shut down, a DWP spokeswoman said today.
U.K. government hit with another large computer failure
The computer crash is being called the biggest in U.K. government history
ELECTRONIC DATA SYSTEMS CORP
In-Q-Tel, the CIA's venture arm, has invested in roughly 30 companies since it launched in 1999 with the goal of finding and developing technology in the private sector which can also be used in the intelligence community.
THE SIMPSONS episode "Maximum Homerdrive"
Homer engages Red, a well-known reliable trucker, in a
beef-eating contest that has high steaks. Making up for his gross winning,
Homer and Bart set out across country to deliver Red's shipment on time.
While driving Reds truck Homer & Bart discover that it has a secret control box
and is actually self-driving...when they sit on the bonnett of the truck,
the truth gets out and the truck drivers & their Union go NUTS!
The 757-200 flight deck, designed for two-crewmember operation, pioneered the use of digital electronics
and advanced displays. Those offer increased reliability and advanced features compared to older
A fully integrated flight management computer system (FMCS) provides for automatic guidance and control
of the 757-200 from immediately after takeoff to final approach and landing. Linking together digital
processors controlling navigation, guidance and engine thrust, the flight management system ensures
that the aircraft flies the most efficient route and flight profile for reduced fuel consumption,
flight time and crew workload.
The precision of global positioning satellite system (GPS) navigation, automated air traffic control
functions, and advanced guidance and communications features are now available as part of the new
Future Air Navigation System (FANS) flight management computer.
Flight decks of the 757 and 767 are nearly identical and both aircraft have a common type-rating.
Pilots qualified to fly one of the aircraft can fly any of the seven 757/767 family members with
only minimal additional familiarization. -
see also : 911-strike
Control device that keeps an aeroplane flying automatically on a given course at a given height and speed.
The automatic pilot contains a set of gyroscopes that provide references for the plane's course.
Sensors detect when the plane deviates from this course and send signals to the control surfaces ?
the ailerons, elevators, and rudder ? to take the appropriate action. Autopilot is also used in missiles.
Most airliners cruise on automatic pilot, also called autopilot and gyropilot, for much of the time.
With the advent of precision agriculture and differential global positioning system (DGPS)
technology, manufacturers offer DGPS-based guidance aids. These devices compute a machine
path based on absolute DGPS position data. They then provide feedback to the driver via a
series of lights, LCD displays or audible signals indicating where to steer the vehicle.
- used in agriculture
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based radio-navigation
system consisting of a constellation of satellites and a network of ground stations used for monitoring
and control. A minimum of 24 GPS satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 11,000 miles
providing users with accurate information on position, velocity, and time anywhere in the world and in
all weather conditions.
GPS is operated and maintained by the Department of Defense (DoD). The Interagency GPS Executive Board
(IGEB) manages GPS, while the U.S. Coast Guard acts as the civil interface to the public for GPS matters.
The Federal Aviation Administration is investigating and applying the use of GPS as it pertains to aviation.
National Airspace system
The objective of NAS Implementation is to develop the operational
infrastructure to support the certification process for satellite navigation and provide the technical
basis for the development of GPS operational procedures for all phases of flight. NAS Implementation
communicates and cooperates with numerous governmental and non-governmental agencies to pave the way
for a smooth transition to satellite navigation.
The UAV / UCAV program & Civilian Air Authorities rely on the Navstar GPS sattelite system
Global Positioning System - History
The launch of the Sputnik satellite in 1957 was actually the beginning of GPS.
Scientists studying the orbit of the satellite realized they could track the satellite by its radio signal.
This in turn would mean that a person on earth could obtain his position on the globe if he could read the
signal from the satellite in conjunction with knowing the exact orbit of the satellite.
In 1964, U.S. submarines began using this method for positioning known as the TRANSIT system of GPS.
It required only one satellite but for that reason a reading could only be taken roughly every 35 -
45 minutes. The submarine also had to be sitting still.
On May 31, 1967 the United States Navy launched the TIMATION I satellite which improved the TRANSIT
system by embedding an atomic clock inside the satellite. The atomic clock could tell the user the
length of time it took each signal to leave the satellite and reach the receiver. The user then knew
the distance to the satellite. Most importantly, a navigation vehicle did not have to stop.
Although the TRANSIT system was a significant leap forward in GPS technology, it suffered from poor
accuracy and was often inefficient. In the early 70's, the United States military began a program
that would later be known as the NAVSTAR GPS program.
Research and development for the Navstar system began in 1973. The system would offer several satellites
for navigation as opposed to just one. Availability would be increased and mobile vehicles would not
have to wait for long periods of time to get a reading. Originally named the Navigation Technology
Program, the first four satellites of the Navstar constellation were launched in 1978. Today, the
Navstar system contains 24 satellites that circle the globe every 12 hours. 5 - 8 satellites are
visible from any point on earth at any time although visibility should not be confused with availability.
Satellites often sit too low to the horizon to be used effectively. -
Historical Timeline of Radionavigation Systems
History of GPS
The Global Positioning System (GPS) program began in 1973 as a joint United States Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) effort. The goal was development of a space-based, highly accurate navigation system. The enterprise has since gained the interest of the U.S. Army to become a full Department of Defense initiative. GPS achieved full operational capability with a complete constellation of satellites in 1994.
Fortunately, technologies are now available to substantially ease the problem of busy skies and make air traffic more effective, more economical, and safe. Again, the most fundamental of these enabling technologies is GPS. It is at the core of a revolutionizing technological package forming the concept of Communications, Navigation, Surveillance, and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM).
In the words of FAA Administrator David Hinson, "Think about this: We could taxi out in zero-zero weather, take off, go to our destination, land in zero-zero weather, taxi to the terminal, all with GPS. It has huge potential applications."
Consequently, the FAA has embarked on an aggressive program to make satellite-based navigation technology available for use throughout the National Air Space (NAS). More recently, Vice President Gore's Commission on Aviation Safety and Security published its recommendation that upgrades to the NAS be fully operational by 2005.
The FAA sees GPS-based navigation as enabling better situational awareness, extending automatic dependent surveillance-based air traffic management concepts to oceanic and remote air space, and allowing phase-out of most radar-based surveillance systems currently in use. GPS-based navigation benefits accrue because GPS enables greater safety, operational simultanaity, and efficiencies.12 The FAA is not alone in its commitment to GPS-based navigation. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and various regional and sovereign Civil Aviation Authorities are also on board the CNS/ATM groundswell of activity.
Rent this space - GPS - The U.S. governments
military/economic control grid
| Satellite based command & Control:
The FMCS System
Both the 757 and 767 are fitted with FANS (Future Air Navigation System). The FMCS (Flight Management Computer System) of the 757 and 767 is capable of flying the aircraft based on an input flight plan from immediately after take-off to final approach. FANS integrates with the FMCS to allow either the airline or Air Traffic Control to modify the flight plan inflight.
In other words, once the 757 or 767 is put into autopilot, the airline and ATC can "fly" the aircraft by remote control by setting new waypoints in the FMCS. The FMCS will fly the waypoints with total precision using GPS navigation.
Here is the info from Boeing:
A fully integrated flight management computer system (FMCS) provides for automatic guidance and control of the 757-200 from immediately after takeoff to final approach and landing.
The precision of global positioning satellite (GPS) system navigation, automated air traffic control functions, and advanced guidance and communications features are now available as part of the new Future Air Navigation System (FANS) flight management computer.
Flight decks of the 757 and 767 are nearly identical and both aircraft have a common type-rating. Pilots qualified to fly one of the aircraft also can fly the other with only minimal additional familiarization.
AIRLINE OPERATIONAL CONTROL DATA LINK.
The AOC link gives airline data systems the ability to transmit new routes, position reports, and updated winds through the data link network.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) DATA LINK.
This function replaces the tactical communication between the flight crew and air traffic controller, allowing the flight crew to request deviations to, or replacements of, the filed flight plan. The air traffic controller also has the ability to directly request tactical changes to the airplane flight plan.
taken from 'Devils Advocate NZ' post on
(Sept. 6, 2001) Raytheon and the U.S. Air Force demonstrate new technology aircraft precision approach and landing system
MARLBORO, Mass., - Raytheon Company and the U.S. Air Force have successfully completed the initial phase of flight testing of a system that provides accurate and reliable landing guidance for both rotary and fixed wing aircraft during low visibility (Category I and II) approaches.
The system, known as the Joint Precision Approach and Landing System, or JPALS, works with the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation. JPALS is a joint Department of Defense (DoD) development to provide an all weather, all mission, all user capability for the U.S. Air Force, Navy, Army and Marine Corps.
The flight testing, which took place at Holloman AFB, N.M., employed a Raytheon- developed JPALS demonstration system based on local area differential GPS technology. During the testing, several successful Category I landings were achieved using a demonstration ground station and an Air Force C-12J outfitted with the JPALS airborne demonstration system and cockpit display. Category I landings were achieved using both a standard military GPS receiver and a Raytheon-developed advanced technology anti-jam GPS receiver.
JPALS ground equipment configurations support fixed base, tactical and special mission applications. The airborne JPALS function can be hosted in all avionics configurations including the multi-mode receiver, embedded GPS/INS and the military airborne GPS receiver.
Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS)
While the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) moves forward with its effort to field the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS), a GPS-based satellite landing system to improve aircraft safety during airport approaches and landings, the Department of Defense has been steadily working on a parallel effort called the Joint Precision Approach and Landing System, or JPALS.
Currently, the US military and its allies do not have a single precision approach capability. The long-standing NATO standard, the precision approach radar (PAR), has become obsolete. Today’s PARs are old (some date back to 1950’s). They require frequent maintenance, their spare parts are nonexistent, and they can only handle one aircraft on final at a time. Additionally, they are manpower intensive to operate and maintain. The few deployable systems in existence are very bulky and heavy, requiring extensive airlift and set-up times. Very few US civil airports and military bases have PARs, and overseas, the situation is worse. Given the expeditionary nature of today’s military, the DoD needed a system that can respond as fast as world events unfold. JPALS is the answer to that need.
Like LAAS, JPALS is a ground-based GPS augmentation system designed to aid aircraft in precision approaches and landings around the globe, day/night and in all weather conditions. JPALS will also provide the same signal that LAAS provides so appropriately equipped civil aircraft can land at military airfields here in the states and at locations overseas. During times of crisis, JPALS can use a unique military signal broadcast by the GPS satellites to help ensure the robustness and security of the system.
The DoD is developing a deployable version of JPALS as well. It’s designed to help in times of need to provide a precision approach capability for military/relief missions at those locations affected by war, civil unrest or natural disasters, such as floods. Light weight and with quick set up times, JPALS will provide precision approach guidance faster than any of today’s existing systems. Another unique aspect—JPALS will be used aboard ships to guide helicopters and aircraft to the deck.
JPALS isn’t merely a dream or science project lurking in the back room of a lab somewhere. It’s a proven capability. In April of 2001, a Navy F-18 successfully flew 10 auto-coupled GPS approaches to the USS Roosevelt (CVN-71). The DoD also tested JPALS at Holloman AFB where a specially-equipped military King Air used the signal to fly over 275 precision approaches. Shortly after the King Air completed its test runs, a FedEx B-727 flew to Holloman and successfully flew 10 approaches demonstrating the civil interoperability of the system.
As highlighted during the recent Mid East conflicts and in the Volpe study on GPS vulnerability, GPS jamming is a concern and a very realistic threat. Right now, the JPALS acquisition effort is focusing on selecting the right technology to minimize and/or negate the impact of this threat to ensure US forces can fly, fight and win whenever, wherever.
The DoD plans to start fielding JPALS in the 2009 timeframe with initial operational capability shortly thereafter.
by Rick Packard, ARINC/JPALS gps.faa.gov
Fully Automated Airspace|
"Think about this: We could taxi out in zero-zero weather, take off, go to our destination, land in zero-zero weather, taxi to the terminal, all with GPS. It has huge potential applications." - FAA Administrator David Hinson
Is there a secret backdoor to
ALL commercial aircraft software via
the global satellite control grid?
The trail that all can see, and have no doubt
of its existence is on the Island of Dominica
the SECRET NON USA ECHELON BASE.
In the Caribbean, is the tiny Island of Dominica, not the Dominican Republic. This small island nation was once a territory of England, and only recently was granted soverignity.
The Question is: "Why a secret "private non USA" base in this country?"
This tiny nature island has a small native population. It is located near the equator and between the two continents and is ideally and geographically positioned for satellite communications. Since it has its own soviergnity, it is very difficult for any law enforcement agencies to monitor and/or investigate.
But the most important reason for this base is: There is the trememdous amount of geothermal energy. It has the only Boiling Lake in the world. To run a secret "non USA" Project Echelon base (see an earlier post: Sunday Nov 14,1999 on Project Echelon), it takes allot of energy...and this is an independent renewable energy resource that would attract minimial attention while in continual operation.This type of energy source has been built near an Indian Reseveration for a cost of only $25,000,000...and not used for farming, commerical, industrial or public use.
Last year this has been confirmed by a reliable source from within Dominica the geothermal power plant exists. Also Danny Casolaro, when alive, through a Mr. Nichols in California was made aware of this source. He reported this observation in his notes. Casolaro was going to expose the connections between some unauthorized black projects involving Hughes, (an Octopus company), and the power Elite. He was given this information by a government employee and had hard evidence of who was the head of the Octopus Group.. and shortly after his investigation he was killed.
- Of Casolaro, Murder,
The Octopus, And The
Island Of Dominca
- The Octopus
Was 9-11 a black op that utilized a secret Echelon base, the GPS system and the
automated FMCS pilot system?
Dick Eastman: Other incontrovertible cases of remote-control crashjacking (that were
discovered, but then forgotten in the distraction of the Afghanistan
a. American Airlines Airbus A300 in 1999: As it prepared to
land in Miami the rudder moved back and forth several
times on its own causing the jet to move from side to side.
"Rudder movements extreme" said NTSB.
b. Egypt Air 990 Boeing 767 10/31/99 JFK to Cairo, Egypt
Top Egyptian military aboard. A half hour out of New York
the pilot left the cockpit to go to the toilet. A voice, in
English, is heard on the voice recorder saying "Control it." --then the
plane begins flying counter to the auto-pilot. The co-pilot
turns off the auto-pilot in an attempt to regain control of the plane.
The plane then goes into a dive. The co-pilot is heard calling
on Allah for help. The pilot returns 16 seconds into the dive,
shouting, "What's happening?" Both work to pull up the nose.
The engine goes full throttle. The co-pilot cuts the fuel lines.
The right and left elevators move in opposite directions. The
ailerons on both wings move full up. The pilot orders "Shut
engines." The co-pilot replies: "They're shut." The last words are of the
pilot saying in Arabic "Pull! Pull! Pull!" Suddenly the voice
recorder is simply shut off, just like in Flight 587. The remote-control
crash-jacker had heard enough to know that his mission had succeeded.
c. Flight 587 on 11/12/01 and Airbus A 300 after taking off in New York
suddenly has its vertical stabilizer begin to sway back and forth,
beyond the normal range that even the cockpit controls permit. Flight data record
"unusual sideways movements, called yawing, that slammed passengers
back and forth" as if they were trying to break off a piece of metal by
bending it back and forth. When the rudder was gone the plane might still have
been able to land, except that now the remote crashjacker began playing with
the flaps, ailerons and elevators all at the same time. The strain on the plane
was terrific as the recorder indicates that the plane turned a full ten degrees in one second.
The plane banked left, even thought the recorder shows that the pilots
were working controls to move in the opposite direction. Then the
crashjacker finishes his work, as the recorder indicates that the nose drops and the
voice record is cut off (both the planes power source and the emergency battery source).
The stresses caused by these beyond s.o.p. parameters -- a full throttle dive and
then the flaps suddenly put down -- caused the engines to break off.
Note: That in both cases the NTSB (Marion Blakey a recently
appointed lobbyist) declared that both Flight AA587 and
EgyptAir990 blamed the crashes on the pilots (pilot error in the
first case and a suicide attempt in the second -- both totally
inconsistent with any and all available evidence.) -
OPERATION HOME RUN
"There is also the theory of one British flight engineer: According to this, the steering of the
planes was perhaps taken out of the pilots' hands, from outside. The Americans had developed a
method in the 1970s, whereby they could rescue hijacked planes by intervening into the computer
piloting [automatic pilot system]. This theory says, this technique was abused in this case..."
former German Secretary of Defence Andreas Von Buelow
In the mid-seventies America faced a new and escalating crisis, with US
commercial jets being hijacked for geopolitical purposes. Determined to gain
the upper hand in this new form of aerial warfare, two American multinationals
collaborated with the
Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA)
on a project designed to facilitate the remote recovery of hijacked American
aircraft. Brilliant both in concept and operation, Home Run [not its real
code name] allowed specialist ground controllers to listen in to cockpit
conversations on the target aircraft, then take absolute control of its
computerized flight control system by remote means.
In order to make Home Run truly effective, it had to be completely integrated with all onboard systems,
and this could only be accomplished with a new aircraft design, several of which were on the drawing
boards at that time. Under cover of extreme secrecy, the multinationals and DARPA went ahead on this
basis and built back doors into the new computer designs. There were two very obvious hard
requirements at this stage, the first a primary control channel for use in taking over the flight
control system and flying the aircraft back to an airfield of choice, and secondly a covert audio
channel for monitoring flight deck conversations. Once the primary channel was activated,
all aircraft functions came under direct ground control, permanently removing the hijackers
and pilots from the control loop. - Joe Vialls
Remote control device could stop hijacking in the air
Data takes flight
Press Distraction - 2004 1st autonomous intelligent UAV flight made by a 'model'
Melbourne, Australia, 6th July 2004. In a world first, truly autonomous, Intelligent Agent-controlled
flight was achieved today by a Codarra 'Avatar' unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The flight tests were conducted
in restricted airspace at the Australian Army's Graytown Range about 60 miles north of Melbourne.
The Avatar was guided by a JACKTM intelligent software agent that directed the aircraft's autopilot
during the course of the mission.
Video & more story
Codarra developers of the test UAV
The on-board JACKTM agent chose the best route to fly after evaluating real-time flight and weather
data accessed through a direct link to the autopilot and its GPS (Global Positioning System).
The agent was constantly updated with the Avatar's position, air speed, ground speed and drift so it could
intelligently pick the best route to take.
The successful first flight, undertaken by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) and
JACKTM software developers Agent Oriented Software, convincingly demonstrated both in-flight Intelligent
Agent control of the aircraft and fully autonomous mission selection capabilities.
This groundbreaking achievement is of great significance to UAV operators and manufacturers worldwide.
It shows that UAVs can now autonomously replan and execute missions without ground
This opens the door to enormous savings in operational costs and manpower requirements.
THE REAL DEAL? - The X-45 Unmanned Combat Ariel Vehicle Can fly itself!!!
Under the J-UCAS program, the two original X-45A demonstrators built by Boeing are continuing their flight
tests. In mid-April, one of the X-45As became the first purpose-built UCAV to release a precision-guided
weapon, launching an inert GPS (Global Positioning System)-inertial Small Smart Bomb and hitting a ground
target at the USN's China Lake research facility.
The human operator confirmed the identification of the
target and authorized the UCAV to arm and release the weapon, but the X-45A maneuvered on to the target,
opened its weapon bay and dropped the bomb autonomously with the operator in a supervisory role.
The aircraft was operating at 35,000ft and Mach 0.67 (M0.67), and the weapon hit the target.
- Janes Defense
'Brain' In A Dish Acts As Autopilot, Living Computer
GAINESVILLE, Fla. --- A University of Florida scientist has grown a living "brain" that can fly a simulated plane, giving scientists a novel way to observe how brain cells function as a network.
The "brain" -- a collection of 25,000 living neurons, or nerve cells, taken from a rat's brain and cultured inside a glass dish -- gives scientists a unique real-time window into the brain at the cellular level. By watching the brain cells interact, scientists hope to understand what causes neural disorders such as epilepsy and to determine noninvasive ways to intervene. As living computers, they may someday be used to fly small unmanned airplanes or handle tasks that are dangerous for humans, such as search-and-rescue missions or bomb damage assessments. -
Knowing what we now know:
Private Business Intelligence is no different to State intelligence -
it is an open market with backdoors built into software to enable Elite Industrial espionage
Private companies such as the Carlyle group [Bush], have major investment in Border control security systems
such as airport scanners and biometrics. While others such as MITRE [BUFFET]
provide The Global Hawk Automated flight systems.
The US Military controlls space based satellite systems used for Global positioning
The Military constantly lies through the controlled press about what technology has been developed
in order to have a strategic advantage. This enables them to run Top secret ops using highly advanced systems:
Planes with Neural networks, artificially intelligence which
can adapt from an initial command to fly their own missions. [The X-45 UCAV]
These planes ASK FOR CLEARANCE - in order to carry out there OWN MISSION...
They can autonomously Find target - kill target - and continue ad infinitum finally landing when fuel is low / craft is damaged
The MIND BLOWER!
When the 911 planes start their journeys they all change direction dramatically.
Were the planes over-ridden with a hacked signal which enabled them to fly themselves to the target?
The rise of the machines?
Sounds ludicrous, doesn't it?
but while this technology remains an 'open secret'
hushed by the mainstream media,
we perhaps should remember the possibilities
for a future attack made by
drones with AI neural networks
If you are running Windows right now
you'll know that technology CAN go wrong...
or rather :
can be made to appear that it is malfunctioning...