Q. What is the flu?
A. A respiratory system infection caused by viruses. Symptoms include headaches, dry cough, muscle aches and fatigue along with possible congestion and sore throat. Fevers are also common.
Q. Is the flu contagious?
A. Yes. The virus is spread from person-to-person. Adults can be contagious for three to seven days after symptoms start; children can pass the virus for longer.
Q. How do you treat the flu?
A. Since the flu is a virus, antibiotics don't cure it. Infected people should rest, drink plenty of fluids and avoid alcohol and tobacco.
Q. Who should get a flu vaccine?
A. Those at high risk for severe illness include people older than 65, children 6 to 23 months old, adults and children with chronic health conditions and women more than 3 months pregnant.
Q. How effective is the vaccine?
A. Health officials select three virus strains for each year's vaccines based on activity from the previous year. The strains chosen this year don't match the strain causing illness in the U.S. so far, but officials say the vaccine still provides some cross-protection.
Q. Can you get the flu even after getting vaccinated?
A. Yes. Protection depends on the person's age and health and the match between the virus strain in the vaccine and the strain circulating. But you can't get the flu from a flu shot, since the viruses in the vaccine are inactive.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
How are bird flu viruses different from human flu viruses? Updated March 18
There are many different subtypes of type A flu viruses. These subtypes differ because of certain proteins on the surface of the flu A virus (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA] proteins). There are 16 different HA subtypes and 9 different NA subtypes of flu A viruses. Many different combinations of HA and NA proteins are possible. Each combination is a different subtype. All subtypes of flu A viruses can be found in birds. However, when we talk about "bird flu" viruses, we are referring to those flu A subtypes that continue to occur mainly in birds. They do not usually infect humans, even though we know they can do so. When we talk about "human flu viruses" we are referring to those subtypes that occur widely in humans. There are only three known subtypes of human flu viruses (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2); it is likely that some genetic parts of current human flu A viruses came from birds originally. Flu A viruses are constantly changing, and they might adapt over time to infect and spread among humans.
What are the symptoms of bird flu in humans?
Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms (fever, cough, sore throat and muscle aches) to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases (such as acute respiratory distress), and other severe and life-threatening complications. The symptoms of bird flu may depend on which virus caused the infection. - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Human infection with avian influenza viruses: a timeline
Avian influenza viruses do not normally infect species other than birds and pigs. The first documented infection of humans with an avian influenza virus occurred in Hong Kong in 1997, when the H5N1 strain caused severe respiratory disease in 18 humans, of whom 6 died. The infection of humans coincided with an epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza, caused by the same strain, in Hong Kong's poultry population.
Extensive investigation of that outbreak determined that close contact with live infected poultry was the source of human infection. Studies at the genetic level further determined that the virus had jumped directly from birds to humans. Limited transmission to health care workers occurred, but did not cause severe disease.
Rapid destruction - within three days - of Hong Kong's entire poultry population, estimated at around 1.5 million birds, reduced opportunities for further direct transmission to humans, and may have averted a pandemic.
That event alarmed public health authorities, as it marked the first time that an avian influenza virus was transmitted directly to humans and caused severe illness with high mortality. Alarm mounted again in February 2003, when an outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza in Hong Kong caused 2 cases and 1 death in members of a family who had recently travelled to southern China. Another child in the family died during that visit, but the cause of death is not known.
Two other avian influenza viruses have recently caused illness in humans. An outbreak of highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza, which began in the Netherlands in February 2003, caused the death of one veterinarian two months later, and mild illness in 83 other humans. Mild cases of avian influenza H9N2 in children occurred in Hong Kong in 1999 (two cases) and in mid-December 2003 (one case). H9N2 is not highly pathogenic in birds.
The most recent cause for alarm occurred in January 2004, when laboratory tests confirmed the presence of H5N1 avian influenza virus in human cases of severe respiratory disease in the northern part of Viet Nam.
Why H5N1 is of particular concern
Of the 15 avian influenza virus subtypes, H5N1 is of particular concern for several reasons. H5N1 mutates rapidly and has a documented propensity to acquire genes from viruses infecting other animal species. Its ability to cause severe disease in humans has now been documented on two occasions. In addition, laboratory studies have demonstrated that isolates from this virus have a high pathogenicity and can cause severe disease in humans. Birds that survive infection excrete virus for at least 10 days, orally and in faeces, thus facilitating further spread at live poultry markets and by migratory birds.
The epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by H5N1, which began in mid-December 2003 in the Republic of Korea and is now being seen in other Asian countries, is therefore of particular public health concern. H5N1 variants demonstrated a capacity to directly infect humans in 1997, and have done so again in Viet Nam in January 2004. The spread of infection in birds increases the opportunities for direct infection of humans. If more humans become infected over time, the likelihood also increases that humans, if concurrently infected with human and avian influenza strains, could serve as the "mixing vessel" for the emergence of a novel subtype with sufficient human genes to be easily transmitted from person to person. Such an event would mark the start of an influenza pandemic. - WHO
'Bird Flu' Leaves 12 People Dead in Vietnam, WHO Says
By David Brown Washington Post Staff Writer - Wednesday, January 14, 2004; Page A02
A form of avian influenza responsible for the death of tens of thousands of chickens in the Far East in recent weeks has killed 12 people in Vietnam, most of them children, the World Health Organization reported yesterday.
The deaths mark the second time in less than a year that this specific form of influenza virus has breached the species barrier between birds and human beings. The new cases raise the specter that "bird flu," normally confined to poultry and wild waterfowl, is adapting to humans, who would be almost universally susceptible to it.
Public health officials in Vietnam, South Korea and Japan were scrambling to stop epidemics of influenza A (H5N1) in chickens and searching for other human cases.
"It would not be unlikely that other cases would appear, since we saw that it was able to cross the species barrier once," said Klaus Stohr, head of WHO's global influenza program.
So far there has been no evidence of the virus being passed from person to person -- which would be necessary for it to spread on an epidemic scale. Preliminary reports from northern Vietnam -- where all 14 confirmed cases occurred -- said that many of the victims lived in villages where chickens were dying, suggesting they may have been infected directly by the fowl.
There were two human cases and one death from of H5N1 influenza in Hong Kong last February, but the current outbreak is the biggest since 1997. In that year, the same general strain of virus caused 18 cases of illness and six deaths.
The current outbreak is more deadly. Of the 14 Vietnamese patients identified since late October as probable victims of bird flu, 12 have died. Eleven were children and one an adult, according to data released by WHO's Geneva headquarters.
In Japan over the weekend, about 6,000 chickens died on a farm in the town of Ato, about 500 miles southwest of Tokyo, according to the news service ProMED, run by the International Society for Infectious Diseases. Eggs from the farm were recalled, and plans were made to kill nearly 29,000 remaining birds. It was described as the first outbreak of avian influenza in Japan since 1925.
In Vietnam in recent weeks, 40,000 chickens died of influenza, and 30,000 more were killed to stop spread of disease, WHO reported. In December, more than a million chickens and ducks in South Korea died of disease or were culled, according to reports.
"Something is going on that has not been seen for many, many years," Stohr said.
Many experts believe a global epidemic of a new form of influenza will occur sometime soon. Such pandemics occurred in 1918, 1957 and 1968. They occur when a human flu virus picks up key genetic elements from an animal virus -- usually from a pig or bird. The product of these extremely rare genetic "reassortments" is a virus that can be passed from person to person, and that the human immune system has never encountered before.
As a result, mortality is higher during pandemics than during the usual seasonal flu outbreaks. In the usual outbreaks, the flu viruses bear at least some similarity to ones that have been circulating in human populations for years -- to which many people have at least partial immunity. The 1918 pandemic -- which occurred in two distinct waves over about two years -- was one of the deadlier events in human history, killing about 50 million people worldwide.
The WHO advised Asian countries culling chicken flocks to protect workers from infection by having them wear goggles, masks and gloves. Workers were also told to get the current flu vaccine and, if possible, take a new class of drug that prevents influenza infection for a short period. That would reduce the risk that one of them could be simultaneously infected with human flu and a bird flu, becoming a "mixing vessel" in which a reassorted strain could emerge.
Last winter, a different strain of avian influenza called A (H7N7) broke out in the Netherlands, leading authorities to order the killing of about 30 million birds. There were 82 human cases. One person died, a veterinarian who did not take the preventive drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu).
Virus samples from the Vietnam victims arrived at the national influenza center in Hong Kong on Saturday night. The strain was identified as H5N1 by Sunday afternoon, Stohr said.
Scientists are now isolating and determining the gene sequence of the virus to see how different it is from the 1997 Hong Kong strain. WHO made and distributed diagnostic test kits for that microbe, which may be capable of diagnosing the new infections if the viruses turn out to be very similar. If not, new kits will have to be produced.
"We have to make sure that all countries in the world are capable of detecting this H5N1 virus," Stohr said.
The next, equally urgent, step will be to perform genetic modifications to the virus to allow it to be made into a vaccine.
'Bird Flu' Leaves 12 People Dead in Vietnam, WHO Says
According to the latest figures from the U.S. Census Bureau
the population in Asia is approx 3,363 million people.
& the world population is currently 6,375,882,069 [07/01/04]
"Hanoi - Millions of people around the world could die if the H5N1 strain of bird flu in Asia combines with another human influenza virus that is moving towards the region, the World Health Organisation said on Tuesday.
Dr Shigeru Omi, director of the UN health agency's Western Pacific office, said there was a chance the two viruses could meet and mutate, triggering a global pandemic. "
Bird flu: 'Millions could die'
how many dead? and it's a potential 'pandemic?
but the story gets stranger...
Flu victim exhumed after 85 years
Friday, 30 January, 2004
"Scientists are preparing to exhume the body of a woman who
died of flu 85 years ago to find out how the virus killed millions across Europe.
Phyllis Burn died aged 20 in 1918, a victim of the 20th Century's worst flu epidemic,
which killed more than 30 million people.
She was buried in a lead coffin, thought to be virtually airtight, in Twickenham, south-west London. "
BBC: Flu victim exhumed after 85 years
they even have a photo of her!
apparently, the BIG 1918 'spanish flu' epidemic was 'avian flu'...
"Scientists have worked out how the virus which caused the world's worst ever flu epidemic infected man.
They believe the virus, which claimed the lives of 50m people around the world, jumped from birds to humans."
BBC: 1918 killer flu secrets revealed
Now...to go back to the top of this article 'Bird Flu' Leaves 12 People Dead in Vietnam, WHO Says
and re-read the quote:
So ...hang on...Avian flu can't be passed person to person...RIGHT?
It can only become contageous if it mutates...
and the epidemic in 1918 was HUGE...
a person to person virus: right?
which must mean it had mutated
"The influenza pandemic circled the globe.
Most of humanity felt the effects of this strain of the influenza virus.
It spread following the path of its human carriers, along trade routes and shipping lines.
Outbreaks swept through North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Brazil and the South Pacific"
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 (Stanford University)
Hey! I'm confused...where'd it go?
AND ...Now according to another story found trawling the web,
Smallpox came from Pigs...!!!
"Some experts suspect that the 1918 pandemic was caused by a type A virus which
moved from pigs to humans. Known as Spanish Flu it wiped out whole communities."
infonation TV news treatment
"Infonation have worked regularly with major government departments as well as international corporations."
corporate clients include:
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Department of Trade and Industry,
Department of Culture Media & Sport, Aviation and Maritime Dept
[download this pdf file and check the properties summary in adobe acrobat]
the above is virtually the same story...
DUG UP CADAVOURS [a Phyllis Burns] and all...
it is dated as 23rd Jan 2003 A FULL YEAR before the BBC 'Phyliss Burns' story!!!
23rd Jan 2003
VO COMMENTARY Modern travel and population
growth increase the threat of a faster spread of a
virus when it occurs.
To prepare for such a pandemic the answer lies in
the 1918 virus. Professor Oxford can only produce
a genetic map if he finds clean samples of the 1918
flu virus. His research is largely centred on isolating
the virus from tissue samples of 1918 victims kept
at the Royal London Hospital and exhumed bodies.
VO/Sync Professor Oxford: When we started the
project, we thought there were two ways of looking
for influenza genes from 1918. One was to take
small paraffin blocks of people who died in hospital
for example, small blocks of their lungs which had
been carefully preserved, thats one way of doing it.
And the other way of doing it was to get frozen
bodies from 1918, people who died in the Arctic
VO COMMENTARY Until now all exhumations
have failed to reveal a pure strain of the virus.
Professor Oxford hopes to find the all important key
sample at Twickenham cemetery in the grave of
Phyllis Burn, a young nurse who died during the
VO/Sync Professor Oxford: People who die and
are buried in lead coffins can be very well
preserved so we began to look for victims of the
1918 flu pandemic who were buried in lead coffins,
thats how we uncovered Phyllis Burn.
VO COMMENTARY At the moment Professor
Oxford is still waiting for the approval of the church
to go ahead with the exhumation. But his research
so far has already cast new light on the 1918 virus.
Old McDonald had a farm...!!!
Pigs and Birds
The tendency of influenza viruses to undergo frequent and permanent antigenic changes necessitates constant monitoring of the global influenza situation and annual adjustments in the composition of influenza vaccines. Both activities have been a cornerstone of the WHO Global Influenza Programme since its inception in 1947.
Influenza viruses have a second characteristic of great public health concern: influenza A viruses, including subtypes from different species, can swap or "reassort" genetic materials and merge. This reassortment process, known as antigenic "shift", results in a novel subtype different from both parent viruses. As populations will have no immunity to the new subtype, and as no existing vaccines can confer protection, antigenic shift has historically resulted in highly lethal pandemics. For this to happen, the novel subtype needs to have genes from human influenza viruses that make it readily transmissible from person to person for a sustainable period.
Conditions favourable for the emergence of antigenic shift have long been thought to involve humans living in close proximity to domestic poultry and pigs. Because pigs are susceptible to infection with both avian and mammalian viruses, including human strains, they can serve as a "mixing vessel" for the scrambling of genetic material from human and avian viruses, resulting in the emergence of a novel subtype. Recent events, however, have identified a second possible mechanism. Evidence is mounting that, for at least some of the 15 avian influenza virus subtypes circulating in bird populations, humans themselves can serve as the "mixing vessel".
so why do both reports only mention
Pigs alone as the smallpox source
and Birds alone as a source in another???
23rd Jan 2003
"Some experts suspect that the 1918 pandemic was caused by a type A virus which moved from pigs to humans. Known as Spanish Flu it wiped out whole communities."
infonation TV news treatment
30 January, 2004
"Scientists have worked out how the virus which caused the world's worst ever flu epidemic infected man. They believe the virus, which claimed the lives of 50m people around the world, jumped from birds to humans."
BBC: 1918 killer flu secrets revealed
Did Avian Flu mutate from SARS?
Flashback: Nov 2002 - SARS
Sars is a serious respiratory virus, which killed nearly 800 people worldwide in the months following its emergence in November 2002.
The World Health Organization announced that the outbreak had been contained in the following July.
However, experts predict the virus will continue to pose a threat - and warn that health authorities need to be ever vigilant for its return.
How did Sars virus first come to the world's attention?
The first reports of an infection followed the death of a US businessman in a Hong Kong hospital in mid-March. The man had visited China and Vietnam - hospital staff there and in Hong Kong subsequently fell ill. However, the virus is believed to have originated in China's southern Guangdong province in November, and was spread around the world by air travellers in February.
What are the symptoms?
Experts believe that after infection with Sars, the incubation period can be up to 10 days. Known symptoms are similar to those of flu, including high fever, headache, sore throat, and cough. Patients who have recently returned from a country where Sars is prevalent - or who believe they have been exposed to an infected person - should consult a doctor if they develop these symptoms.
BBC SARS Q&A
| or did the SCARE-STORY MUTATE???
Of, course THIS sort of thing wouldn't happen now-a-days...
These flu viruses are the most likely to kill even fit and healthy people.
These "novel viruses" crop up frequently, but it is those which are a combination of lethality and contagion which cause most concern. A flu virus called "H5", which emerged in Hong Kong last year, killed 50% of all those it infected - fortunately it lacked a contagious nature, only affecting two people.
Professor Alan Hay, a WHO flu expert from the National Institute for Medical Research in London, told BBC News Online: "Although very few people were affected, H5 certainly set the alarm bells ringing." The "perfect" combination virus is a rare event, but that is what happened in 1918, and again in 1957 and 1968.
The 1918 pandemic killed as many as 40 million, while the later outbreaks, while less serious, still claimed millions of victims. Coming so hot on the heels of the Great War, the 1918 pandemic was the worst epidemic, at least in terms of numbers killed, in recorded history. The bubonic plague of the 1300s killed fewer people - but came at a time of far lower populations.
The mortality rate was more than two in every hundred who caught the disease.
Killed within hours
It is possible that the mass movement of soldiers at the end of the conflict helped it spread around the globe.
Just like the latest virus, it is possible that the 1918 flu arose in China.
The illness came on swiftly, turning to a form of pneumonia that could kill within hours of the first symptoms becoming apparent. Outbreaks swept through all the continents - in India, mortality was 50 deaths per 1,000 cases. Experts warned that the increase in air travel from East to West meant that a new virus would take only a matter of days to circle the globe. With cases of the new strain arising in Canada and Germany, it appears that they were right.
"Spanish Flu" is far from a footnote in history for scientists trying to protect us from future flu epidemics.
They even exhumed the bodies of flu victims buried in the permanently frozen ground of the Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, in the hope that traces of virus genetic material might have been preserved.
There is one thing that they agree on, however. There has been no widespread "killer flu" outbreak since 1968, and they say that one is long overdue. And there is no certainty that the medical world will be able to prevent its spread any better than in 1968.
BBC: Flu: A warning from history
Virology Course BS3035:
Bugs index - organisms
So, why was it called the 'Spanish flu'?
The nations of the Allied side of World War I called it the "Spanish Flu" because
Spain was not involved in the conflict and the pandemic received greater press attention there than in the rest of the world.
In Spain it was called "The French Flu". Spain did have one of the worst early outbreaks of the disease, with some 8 million people infected in May of 1918.
No one would just spin the cause of a disease...for geo-political
reasons, would they?!!!
Social engineering through foreign disease
speculation & fear-mongering...
Global economic psy-warfare...anyone?
Headline on Thursday, February 12, 2004 CNN :
No bird flu passing between humans
Friday 13th February, 2004 (UPI) - The spread of avian bird flu in Asia is still out of control despite massive bird killings, the United Nations warned Friday.
The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization urged the entire region to remain vigilant as Cambodia, China, Indonesia and Laos continued to report new outbreaks in poultry.
Thailand has reported no new outbreaks, but some 80 million chickens in the affected countries have been culled to battle the disease, excluding China, the FAO said.
The deadly viral strain known as H5N1 has caused at least 19 human deaths in Vietnam and another five in Thailand, the Kyodo news agency said.
Veterinarians from more than 20 countries will meet on Feb. 26-28 in Bangkok to discuss the economic impact of the crisis, strategies to control it, and how to restore poultry industries and improve regional cooperation.
Thursday 12th February, 2004 (UPI) - Discovery of a strain of bird flu in northern New Jersey is not cause for concern, health officials say.
The strain, they say, is not known to be harmful to humans and Is not related to the avian influenza strain that has caused human deaths in Asia, WNBC-TV reported. Same holds true in Delaware where 80,000 birds were killed after discovery of the strain there.
New Jersey officials say the findings aren't unusual for the state's live poultry markets. They dispute claims the finding could indicate the virus festers in New Jersey's poultry markets.
The state's veterinarian told The Star-Ledger of Newark that the markets likely got the virus from one of many farms and distributors.
back to 1918...
"The Spanish Flu vanished within eighteen months, and the actual strain was never determined.
The influenza virus was not understood by medical science at the time, and most contemporary effort was spent in an unsuccessful quest to find a germ-borne cause of the disease.
It has been suggested that the stresses of combat, possibly combined with the effects of chemical warfare, may have weakened soldiers' immune systems thereby increasing their vulnerability to the disease and accelerating its spread.
If so then the epidemic might be seen as the last and most tragic outcome of the war. "
The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918.
The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918. - sciencedirect.com/
is it being suggested that this Pandemic was
aided by use of chemical/Biological weapons in WWI?
Aided or deliberatly started?
The 1918 influenza pandemic caused 40 million deaths, and so dwarfed in mortality and morbidity the preceding pandemic of 1889 and the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. In retrospect, much can be learnt about the source, the possible subterranean spread of virus, and the genetic basis of virulence.
The World Health Organization has urged every nation to prepare a pandemic plan for the first global outbreak of the 21st century. We present an appraisal of epidemiological and mortality evidence of early outbreaks of respiratory disease in France and the UK in the years 1915 to 1917. Certain of these earlier focal outbreaks-called epidemic bronchitis rather than influenza- occurred during the winter months when influenza was known to be in circulation, and presented with a particular heliotrope cyanosis that was so prominent in the clinical diagnosis in the world pandemic outbreak of 1918-1919 (the Great Pandemic).
The outbreaks in army camps at Etaples in France and Aldershot in the UK in 1916-1917 caused very high mortality in 25-35 year olds. Increased deaths from bronchopneumonia and influenza were also recorded in England. We deduce that early focal outbreaks of influenza-like disease occurred in Europe and on the balance of probability the Great Pandemic was not initiated in Spain in 1918 but in another European country in the winter of 1916 or 1917. We suggest that the pandemic had its origins on the Western Front, and that World War I was a contributor.
Professor JS Oxford
'Professor John Oxford' is from London's Queen Mary's School of Medicine
but Professor John Oxford seems less than impressed with media scaremongering:
"We may eventually look back with bemusement on this strange interlude when public health strategies became muddied by international politics, and at least decide that we were taught a lesson that hysterical responses and talking up of threats help no-one."
Smallpox Bioterrorism Unlikely: Populations are easily protected
MARC SIEGEL, MD is a practicing internist, an Associate Professor at the New York University School of Medicine and a fellow in the Master Scholars Society at New York University.
Dr. Siegel is a weekly columnist for The New York Daily News, frequent contributor to the New York Times, Los Angeles Times and Washington Post, and a member of the board of contributors at USA Today.
Dr. Siegel is a syndicated columnist for Tribune Media Services. Dr. Siegel appears regularly on CNN, the NBC Today Show, and the Fox News Channel. Dr. Siegel was a contributor to the U.S. Senate Finance committee investigation of the 2001 bioterror crisis.
Trust me... i'm a doctor!
By describing the problem as if it were already occurring, public-health authorities do a real disservice. The more vivid the description, the more a reaction on a grand scale seems indicated. Instead of worrying about heart disease or stroke, our true killers, we obsess on a remote risk. Some "experts" use the once-in-50-years statistic to argue that a new pandemic like the one that killed more than 50 million people in 1918 is inevitable. Yet that scourge occurred in the wake of a devastating war, with the poorest of hygiene and living conditions. Today's technology, by contrast, could produce vaccine and anti-virals and cordon off large areas in a hurry.
And there is no way of knowing when such a mutation will occur. The current bird flu can't pass easily from human to human, a fact often obscured by the snowballing attention. Remember SARS? We obsessed on the way that new killer cold virus flew around a hotel in Toronto infecting people. Some worried about getting infected by touching an elevator button. Sillier still, dread spread against everything and everyone Asian - with some New Yorkers even avoiding Chinese restaurants.
The real virus was fear.
A year later, scientists discovered that SARS actually doesn't transmit at all readily. The worry was ill-founded. That fact didn't get quite the same top-of-the-news coverage as the original alarms - a void that left many too ready to engage our hysteria the time around. - MARC K. SIEGEL
Let's start with SARS. [The SARS case] was portrayed based on hypothetical information, which turned out [to be] wrong. Back in 2003, people postulated, "This [SARS] is a cold-like virus, it's a corona virus, this thing is going to be able to be passed easily by touch. Therefore--a lot of therefores were in the equation--therefore, it can go on planes, it can go from one sector to another, [all] these fancy theories could work. But the problem is that SARS turn[ed] out to be a bug that is not easily transmitted. And nobody bothered to add that to the equation at the end. So basically it's a problem of not having a memory and not integrating follow-up information into our perspective going forward when the next so-called threat comes along. That's A.
B, too many assessments [were made] based on hypotheticals and theories. C, it's ignoring and taking resources away from already known killer epidemics out there.
I see bird flu in the same vein as I see SARS. Bird flu is a potential epidemic that could be very harmful to humans. But here's what's often not exercised in the bird flu equation. No. 1, for bird flu to be transmitted easily from human to human, it requires a mutation. No. 2, there's no way to know if that mutation is going to occur. Saying that you don't know if something will occur or not is not sexy, so that gets passed over. But you can't pass over that because it's the difference between a potential and an actual problem. You've never heard public-health officials say they know what the chances of that occurring are. Nobody knows. There are all kinds of theories. The only thing they know is that [flu epidemics] tend to occur once every fifty years or so, and it's been a while, so it may occur now. But that's not good enough to be scaring a whole society.
The second point I would make...is that they keep using World War I as an example, 1918 [when a worldwide epidemic of Spanish influenza killed 50 million people]. But in 1918, A, there were no ready vaccines. B, people were huddled together in poor public health conditions. C, there was a world war going on. D, they didn't have the technology we have now.
- CFR Interview with Dr. Marc Siegel on Epidemics
Council Fellow Laurie Garrett's rebuttal to Siegel interview
August 18, 2005
Laurie Garrett, senior fellow for global health at the Council on Foreign Relations, writes a rebuttal to Marc Siegel's views on epidemics.
[Dr. Siegel] demands absolute certainty before he will accept risk; well, that was Condoleezza Rice's excuse for rejecting Richard Clarke's memorandum warning of an Al Qaeda attack in August 2001. He rejects preparatory action in advance of a proven threat, arguing most of it is too expensive. In truth, the pandemic flu preparedness budget is miniscule-the last White House request was for less than $180 million. In contrast, [Siegel] could have raised these arguments to address the well over $3 billion spent to date to prepare America for a smallpox terrorist attack, an eventuality most experts in the field consider so remote as to be virtually impossible.
In the case of smallpox, the government argued that it's true the germ had been eradicated and the only living samples of the virus were in high-security labs in Russia and the United States. However, the Soviets violated the agreement and moved their samples to a notorious bio-weapons lab in Siberia where mutant strains of the virus were developed. That lab's weapons work has been shut down-but the samples could have been stolen or sold to evildoers. - cfr.org
So the CFR say - "...it was The Russians which leaked out the only living samples of the lethal smallpox virus from 1918!"...hmmm...now that is interesting
What's the TRUTH?
Last night, WNED in New York (a PBS member-supported TV station) broadcast a gripping documentary: "Secrets Of The Dead: The Killer Flu".
A number of experts working in the field said clearly that they expected the return of the horrific 1918 Spanish Influeza vrus, or a variant of it - one British expert predicted that event as occurring within the next 5 or 10 years.
When you reflect on the fact that the 1918 flu pandemic swept away 40-60 million people around the globe in three separate waves over just six months and THAT before the dawning of mass air travel!), you can envisage both the scale of the potential calamity and how utterly unprepared we are to deal with it.
Every continent would be visited with the same deadly scythe - Europe, the Americas, Asia and Australia.
The anguish would probably also be accentuated by the resulting collapse of the world economy (a very real possibility: the 1918 Flu almost had that effect in England and Germany, but disappeared just before their economies and production went over the brink because of deaths, disruption and sickness absenteeism).
One intriguing note, though: the documentary appeared to state clearly that NO samples of the 1918 flu had been recovered from the bodies of victims buried in the permafrost.
But if you go to the news reports on the excellent '1918 Flu' page at http://www.survivalistskills.com/1918FLU.HTM, they appear to state exactly the opposite - and that,
furthermore, the samples thus obtained were sent to the US Army's Biological Warfare section (now re-named) at Fort Detrick and to the equivalent British biological warfare centre! [Porton Down] That appears to be a puzzling and potentially disturbing discrepancy, since the expedition which apparently recovered the tissue samples from Svarlbard Island, in Arctic Norway, was mounted three or four years ago at least.
comment on JON RAPPOPORT article via Josef hasslberger
Is the common cold a constantly mutating bio-warfare weapon?
Was 'Spanish flu' epidemic really a chemical warfare experiment?
Writing in the British Medical Journal (21/1/1928 p116) Dr L Parry questions the vaccination statistics which revealed a higher death rate amongst the vaccinated than the unvaccinated and asks:
"How is it that smallpox is five times as likely to be fatal in the vaccinated as in the unvaccinated?
"How is it that in some of our best vaccinated towns - for example, Bombay and Calcutta - smallpox is rife, whilst in some of our worst vaccinated towns, such as Leicester, it is almost unknown?
"How is it that something like 80 per cent of the cases admitted Into the Metropolitan Asylums Board smallpox hospitals have been vaccinated, whilst only 20 per cent have not been vaccinated?
"How is it that in Germany, the best vaccinated country in the world, there are more deaths in proportion to the population than In England - for example, in 1919, 28 deaths in England, 707 In Germany; In 1920, 30 deaths In England, 354 In Germany In Germany In 1919 There were 5,012 cases of smallpox with 707 deaths; in England In 1925 There were 5,363 cases of smallpox with 6 deaths. What is the explanation? - Smallpox
by Ian Sinclair.
is it still an 'exercise' in population control?
SMALLPOX VACCINE AS AIDS TRIGGER By Jon Rappaport
Outcry over creation of GM smallpox virus
22 January 2005
Senior scientific advisers to the World Health Organisation (WHO) have recommended the creation of a genetically modified version of the smallpox virus to counter any threat of a bioterrorist attack.
Permitting researchers to engineer the genes of one of the most dangerous infections known to man would make it easier to develop new drugs against smallpox, the scientists said. But the man who led the successful global vaccination campaign to eradicate smallpox from the wild said he opposed the move on the grounds that the scientific benefits were not worth the risks to public health.
Professor Donald Henderson, of the Centre for Biosecurity at the University of Pittsburgh, said he feared that tinkering with the genetic makeup of the variola virus - which causes smallpox - might accidentally produce a more lethal form of the disease.
"What I worry about is that there is rather too much done in this area and the minute you start fooling around with it in various ways, I think there is a danger," Professor Henderson said. "I'd be happier if we were not doing it and the simple reason is I just don't think it serves a purpose I can support. The less we do with the smallpox virus and the less we do in the way of manipulation at this point I think the better off we are."
Laboratory stocks of smallpox are stored at only two locations - one in America and one in Russia - but there are fears that samples of the virus may have fallen into the hands of terrorists.
Scientists advising the WHO believe that creating a GM form of the virus would accelerate research into developing new antivirals. The WHO is due to consider the recommendations of its scientific committee at the world health assembly in May.
Four years ago, scientists in Australia genetically modified a mousepox virus and inadvertently created a highly virulent strain that could not be stopped by vaccination. But the WHO insisted the latest proposal to engineer the human smallpox virus was inherently safer.
Professor Geoffrey Smith of Imperial College London, who chairs the WHO committee for variola virus research, said American scientists simply wanted to insert a jellyfish gene, which produced a glow under fluorescent light, in order to see the virus better under the microscope.
"The reason why the proposal was made and the reason why the committee was prepared to consider it was that it is clear that there is a need to develop drugs against the virus," Professor Smith said. "The quickest way to screen a large database of compounds is to have an automated way and if you have a virus that expresses the green fluorescent protein you can do the drug screening in a much more rapid and automated way."
It is understood there are seven recommendations in the proposal, including permission to allow relatively large fragments of the virus - up to 20 per cent of its entire genome - to be shipped from the two secure laboratories to other research institutes in the world. Another recommendation allows Russian and US laboratories to snip small fragments of the virus and insert them into other members of the same pox-virus family.
Smallpox is one of the biggest killers in the history of infectious diseases. At least 300 million people died of it in the 20th century alone. It was eradicated in 1977. - independent
or...as GENOMED describe it... a 'managed disease'?
GenoMed, Inc. is a Next Generation Disease Management(TM) whose mission is to improve patient outcomes by identifying the molecular pathways that cause disease.
A St. Louis Business Journal article first reported that the company has applied for patents based on its finding that the ACE gene is associated with a large number of common diseases including virtually all autoimmune diseases.
The body's immune response to cold viruses are responsible for the symptoms a cold sufferer gets. They are the result of cytokines or interleukins acting downstream in the disease pathway from angiotensin II, which is a very early upstream signal.
Blocking angiotensin II should decrease the body's reaction to the virus, and decrease the degree and duration of cold symptoms."
GenoMed, Inc. Launches Clinical Trial Against The Common Cold
Quigley-sponsored studies are being conducted under the direction of world-renowned virologist Professor John Oxford
New Formulation Found To Kill Infectious Herpes Virus; Quigley Pharma's Platform Will Be Used To Develop Formulations Effective Against Other Viruses
DOYLESTOWN, Pa., Aug. 7 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- The Quigley Corporation (Nasdaq: QGLY), today announced that the Patent Office of The United States Commerce Department confirmed the assignment to The Quigley Corporation a Patent Application for an all-natural compound which will serve as the platform for what it expects will be a series of formulations effective in killing various virus strains. This new platform has been used to develop a formulation that has been found in two in vitro studies to be effective in killing the infectious Herpes Virus (HSV1).
The Quigley-sponsored studies are being conducted under the direction of world-renowned virologist Professor John Oxford, and will be broadened to determine the compound's effectiveness against other pathogens.
John Oxford is Professor of Virology at St. Bartholomew's and The Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of London. He is the co-author of two standard texts on Influenza and Virology and has published 250 scientific papers throughout the world. Professor Oxford serves as the Scientific Director of Retroscreen, Ltd., the College's research virology company.
Professor Oxford stated, "The new Quigley Pharma platform is innovative and has clear advantages over existing herpes therapies. There is additional serious potential against a range of other important human viruses."
Guy J. Quigley, President, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of The Quigley Corporation, stated: "Over the last two years, our research and development efforts at Quigley Pharma, under the direction of Dr. Richard Rosenbloom, have created a pipeline of potential new medications to bring to the market."
Dr. Rosenbloom stated: "This all natural formulation will initially be developed as a topical application and preparations are being made to proceed to the next level of clinical development."
The results of the in vitro Retroscreen studies will be submitted for publication in a recognized scientific journal by Professor John Oxford, Dr. Rob Lambkin and Dr. Ramani Eswarasaran.
The Quigley Corporation (Nasdaq: QGLY) is a leading developer and marketer of diversified health products including the Cold-Eeze(R) family of patented zinc gluconate glycine (ZIGG(TM)) lozenges, gums and sugar free tablets. Cold-Eeze is the only (ZIGG(TM)) lozenge proven in two double-blind studies to reduce the duration of the common cold from 7.6 to 4.4 days or by 42%. In addition to Over-The-Counter (OTC) products, the Company has formed Quigley Pharma Inc. (www.QuigleyPharma.com), a wholly owned ethical pharmaceutical subsidiary, to introduce a line of patented prescription drugs. The Quigley Corporation's customers include leading national wholesalers and distributors, as well as independent and chain food, drug and mass merchandise stores and pharmacies.
BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIVIRAL (QR-435) This compound is being investigated for its ability to inhibit the growth of influenza virus as well as treat viral infections. Currently formulated as a nasal spray, it has shown significant success in earlier animal studies and, at the end of 2004, was in the final stages of two animal studies: a dose-ranging study and an animal model influenza study in ferrets. This latter study showed that QR-435 was more effective in reducing fever and the severity of illness than a leading prescription drug. An earlier study found QR-435 to be 100 percent effective in preventing non-infected ferrets in close proximity to an infected ferret from becoming infected with the influenza A virus.
These studies were in preparation for a human proof-of-concept study anticipated to begin in mid-2005.
Additionally, an earlier, independent, in-vitro study found QR-435 demonstrated significant activity against the Urbani strain of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus. - quigleyco.com
were samples of 1918 Smallpox obtained in Svalsbard, Norway, & sent to the US Army's Biological Warfare section (now re-named) at Fort Detrick and to the equivalent British biological warfare centre! [Porton Down]???
Prof Ian Wilson Spanish flu manufacturer
|Proff. Ian Wilson
In October 2002, The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology teamed up with a microbiologist from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Together, they started to reconstruct the Spanish flu. In an experiment, published in October 2002, they were successful in creating a virus with two 1918 genes. This virus was much more deadly to mice than other constructs containing genes from contemporary influenza virus.
The experiments were conducted under high biosafety conditions at a laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture in Athens, Georgia.
In the February 6, 2004 edition of Science magazine is was reported that two teams of researchers, one led by Sir John Skehel, director of the National Institute for Medical Research in London and another by Professor Ian Wilson wikipedia.org
Prof Ian Wilson, BSc, MSC, PhD, DSc, C.Chem, FRSC, Eur.Chem. FChrom Soc,.
FRES is a Principal Scientist in the Dept of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
at the AstraZeneca Research site at Alderley Park in Cheshire (UK).
He trained as a
biochemist at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, from
where he received both BSc (1974) and MSc (1975) degrees.
obtained a PhD (1978) and more recently a DSc (1998) from the Keele University. He
is the author or co-author of some 300 papers or reviews, and has received a number
of awards in separation and analytical science form the Royal Society of Chemistry,
including the SAC Silver Medal for Analytical chemistry (1990); the Analytical
Separations Medal (1996); and the Analysis and Instrumentation medal (2002).
He has also received the Jubilee Medal of the Chromatographic Society (1994) and gave
the inaugural Desty Memorial lecture for Innovation in Separation Science (1996).
well as being on the editorial boards of a number of Journals he is an editor the
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis and Editor in Chief of the
Encyclopaedia of Separation Science. He is currently a visiting Professor at the
Universities of York, Keele, Sheffield Hallam, Manchester and Imperial College.
research is presently directed towards the further development of hyphenated
techniques in chromatography and their application to problems in drug metabolism
Bird flu vaccine developed
"A team of researchers - led by Dr Richard Webby, who graduated from Otago in 1999, and a colleague, both based at St Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, America - has rapidly developed a vaccine for a deadly Hong Kong bird virus and human killer."
"Using samples of the influenza from Hong Kong, they mixed two genes from the virus with six genes from another virus inside a cell. This modified the virus genes to "abolish its ability to cause disease and therefore made it safer to use as a vaccine", the statement said. The virus has been sent to Atlanta and London for testing in preparation for human trials."
Otago graduates help create flu vaccine- Joanna Norris
Otago Daily Times
OOPS! : Vaccine helps to mutate Bird flu?
11 February 04
..."In 2003, scientists who developed an improved flu vaccine for poultry, including Robert Webster of St Jude's, concluded that such vaccination "may be a serious problem for human pandemic preparedness" (Virology, vol 314, p 580).
Such vaccines, they wrote, might mask disease signs while allowing the birds to continue to shed virus. In such a case, "persistence of virus infection in the presence of a flock immunity may contribute to increased virus evolution".
Genetic analysis probes bird flu's history - New scientist
So vaccines are developed and then the flu mutates into a new more virulent form...
are scientists who know the consequenses of
introducing vaccines to strong strains...
Are they making politically useful diseases for the uber-corporate?
Flu vaccine to change again in 2005
Thursday 19th February, 2004
The World Health Organization recommended changing two of the three strains of virus to be used in next season's influenza vaccine in the Northern Hemisphere. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is expected to adopt the changes on Thursday, when a two-day meeting on the issue concludes, the New York Times reported Wednesday.
Influenza vaccine comprises three strains. The selection is based on findings from the W.H.O.'s influenza monitoring network, which gathers information about the strains of the virus circulating around the globe. Most influenza vaccines are prepared in hens' eggs. The choice has to be made at this time of year because it takes months to adapt the virus for growth in the eggs.
Next season's vaccines for the United States are expected to include the Fujian strain. The Fujian strain will replace the strain known as A/Moscow.
Next season's vaccine will also substitute the B/Shanghai strain for the B/Hong Kong strain. The new vaccine will still include the A/New Caledonia strain.
Big News Network.com
so...is this how it works?
|Prof Ian Wilson makes disease
|Prof John Oxford finds cures
and everyone makes shitloads of $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
To Our Stockholders:
The past year has been an exciting and rewarding year for The Quigley Corporation. We have continued our work, begun in 2000, to change the company into the full-service pharmaceutical and natural health entity we eventually plan to become, building on the foundation laid over the past four years.
This year, I am pleased to note that Quigley Pharma received two additional patents for its naturally derived compounds, bringing the total number of patents to five. The completion of several pre-clinical studies this year, and our meetings with the US Food and Drug Administration may help us to make significant progress in 2005 in bringing our compounds to market.
Our core business, COLD-EEZE® continues to meet and exceed our expectations, with 2004 net recorded sales of $22.8 million, an 11.5 percent increase over 2003. The introduction of a new green tea with honey flavored lozenge, a redesigned bubblegum product and intensified marketing efforts were all factors in the brand's success. - quigleyco.com
Prof John Oxford involved in Ionic air purification technology
'disables' airborne microorganisms by releasing
positive and negative ions into the air
Plasmacluster Ions Proven Effective
Against Airborne Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza
A World First Among Air Purification Technologies
Sharp Corporation has demonstrated that Plasmacluster Ions reduce activity of the highly fatal and highly pathogenic airborne H5N1 avian influenza ("bird flu") virus by 99%. This research was conducted in collaboration with Retroscreen Virology, Ltd., an organization which was established by one of the world's leading authorities on virology, Professor John S. Oxford of the University of London School of Medicine & Dentistry, and which works in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Among the diverse range of air purification technologies available, Plasmacluster Ions are the first in the world to have been proven effective against this virus.
Plasmacluster Ion technology was developed in 2000 and is an air purification technology that disables airborne microorganisms by releasing positive and negative ions into the air. In the five years since its development, Sharp has been working together with academic research organizations around the world based on a "collaborative research approach to product marketing*4" and has demonstrated that Plasmacluster Ions are effective against a total of 26 kinds of harmful airborne substances, including bacteria, mold fungi, viruses and allergens. In addition, in November 2004, the mechanism by which Plasmacluster Ions cause cell death was explained: they damage the proteins on the cell membrane surface of bacteria. It has now been proven scientifically that they have the potential to be effective against a broad array of harmful airborne substances that have proteins on their cell surfaces.
The type of avian influenza virus for which effectiveness has most recently been confirmed is the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, which has in fact taken a toll on human life. This research finding confirms that Plasmacluster Ions are effective against newly emerging viruses and has further expanded the fields in which Plasmacluster Ions demonstrate efficacy.
- now commercially available
flashback: this was originally marketed on the back of the SARS 'epidemic'
Test confirmed gadget controls airborne viruses
November 3, 2004 - Manila Bulletin
Sharp Corporation has developed a gadget to control airborne viruses that make home open to illnesses.This is known as the Plasmacluster Ion technology that controls viruses, fungi, allergens, and odor hovering in the air.
Sharp first developed this breakthrough technology in 2000, then publicly announced after a series of laboratory tests in September 2002.
Today, more tests have produced revolutionary findings that may lead to controlling deadly airborne diseases in the future, including the dreaded SARS.
Sharp continuously conducts studies that would show the tremendous health and environmental benefits that Plasmacluster Ion technology can offer. At this point, this technology has been incorporated in Sharp home appliances such as air conditioners, air purifiers, refigerators, humidifiers and vacuum cleaners. The technology has already been proven effective in stopping certain viruses, allergens, mold spores, and doors from forming through these appliances.
Plasmacluster Ion technology is an air furifying system that seeks out disease-causing amterials in the air and inactivates the same before these can cause harm. Essentially, plasmacluster ions are form when the plasmacluster ion generator breaks down water and oxygen molecules from the air to create a balance of positve and negative ions. These ions then form cluster and epewed back into the air to seek out airborne harmful sudstances. Once these cluster find their targets, they surround these substances and inactivate them. Once damaged, these substances can no longer cause potential danger to human animal health.
Recently, a laboratory experimant successfully verified that hte Plasmacluster Ion technology can inactivate the feline coronavirus member of the corona viridae family, which has been identified as the culprit behind SARS. The study was made at Kitasato Institute Medical Center Hospital, one of the world's most prestigious viral research organizations. Result of the test showed that 99.7 percent of the feline coronavirus was rendered inactive within 40 minutes of exposure to plasmaclusterions. Prior to this remarkable experiment, plasmacluster ions have already been verified to decompose other harmful viruses such as the polio virus, coxsackie virus (summer colds), and flu virus.
Sharp appliances with Plasmacluster technology are energy effecient and low in maintenance. Unlike passive air cleaning systems, Sharp Plamacluster Ion generating units do not just clean areas where air flows but flushes out Plasmacluster ions all over to reach even blocked corners of a room.
a sharp marketing gimmick...
Sharp Corporation seems to have pulled off a marketing coup with the announcement that its Plamacluster Ions (TM) device is effective against airborne influenza H5N1 and many other pathogens. We have examined the technical basis for the claims to understand them better.
"Plasmacluster Ion technology" is a tradename for a device that produces hydroxyl radicals, a well known method for disinfection and purification. What Sharp seems to have done is to work with non-company researchers to test a household sized unit against a fairly wide variety of organisms to show its effectiveness in killing or inactivating them under laboratory conditions. Sharp describes this as a "collaborative research approach to product marketing." The demonstration some years ago that the mechanism of deactivation of bacteria and fungi by such devices was through damage of cell membrane and surface proteins suggested it might also be effective against viruses whose surface proteins are important for their life cycle. Influenza viruses, which have hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) proteins protruding from their viral coats are examples. Influenza A virus must first dock with a host cell before infecting it. The hemagglutinin protein is central to finding the docking site on the host cell's surface. A reasonable speculation is that alteration of the H-protein on the viral surface makes this docking impossible, although the exact mechanism was not stated on the Sharp website and it is likely it is not known.
Plasmas are sometimes called the "fourth state of matter" (after gases, liquids and solids) and consist of a gaseous mixture of positively and negatively charged ionized atoms and molecules. Plasmas sound exotic (and are not that common in terrestrial environments), but it has been estimated that they constitute more than 99% of the matter in the universe, filling interstellar space. They are behind such visible phenomena as the Northern Lights, fluorescent and neon bulbs and lightning. Generating a plasma takes energy and there are various ways to do this. The Sharp device appears to work by using a high electric potential to strip electrons off water molecules (H-O-H) to form H+ and O2- ions. These ions are surrounded by other water molecules in the air forming "cluster ions" of H+ or O2- ions (water on the outside, ions inside). Hence "plasmacluster" technology. The ion clusters are attracted to airborne particles on whose surface they react with each other to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive chemical species that readily combine with hydrogen atoms on other compounds, including proteins. At least that is how I reconstruct the Sharp explanation, which is more than a little vague. Unlike negative ion generators, little ozone is produced.
Here is Sharp's description of its testing procedure:
A Plasmacluster Ion Generator was placed in a box with a volume of one (1) m3, and Plasmacluster Ions were generated (concentration: 7000 ions/cm3). Then, aerosolized highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was sprayed into the box. Five minutes after the spraying was complete, the air in the box containing the airborne virus was sampled at 10-minute intervals. The virus was then extracted and injected into cell cultures. Changes in the cells were then observed over a four-day period.
Four days after injection, the cells injected with the virus that had not been exposed to Plasmacluster Ions were deformed and damaged. In contrast, cells injected with the virus that had been exposed to Plasmacluster Ions retained their normal condition with almost no change in evidence.
From this, it was confirmed that Plasmacluster Ions can reduce the activity of the virus by 99%. (The TCID50 [Tissue Culture Infectious Dose 50%] assay, which is widely used in the field of virology, was used to evaluate the test results.)
What we learn from this (assuming the accuracy of the description) is that under the conditions of the test, the Sharp device was capable of inactivating H5N1 virus, as measured by its ability to infect MDCK cells (cells derived from dog kidneys) in tissue culture. It is not unreasonable to suppose this has some bearing on the ability of the device to protect people against airborne virus as well, although much needs to be specified further, such as whether under usual environmental conditions the same results apply (e.g., there is not a "natural demand" from interfering microparticles prevent it from taking care of the virus and that the amount of inactivation is sufficient to reduce risk). More importantly, the relative contribution of suspended airborne microparticles in influenza transmission compared to contact with contaminated surfaces, hands or large droplets (as from a cough or sneeze) that will have insufficient contact time and too small a surface area to volume ratio to make the device work is unknown, so the ability of devices like this to interrupt epidemic transmission is unclear. It may find use in certain specialized environments.
One thing seems clear. At roughly $800/unit to take care of a typical 300 square foot room, increased public concern over an avian influenza threat will be very effective in increasing the revenues of Sharp Electronics. - effectmeasure.blogspot.com
from Psyops to Mindwar - the psychology of victory
"...By increasing positive ions within Earths atmosphere, HAARP could duplicate the detrimental effects of the full moon while creating the sentiment necessary to increase global stock markets and increase consumer spending. ..." - Guy Cramer [Superforce Ltd]