The Haarp Patents

The Patent for HAARP


High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program 



Patent Number: 4,686,605 

Date of Patent: Aug. 11, 1987 


Inventor: Bernard J. Eastlund, Spring, Tex. 

Assignee: APTI, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Appl. No.: 690,333 

Filed: Jan. 10, 1985 

References Cited 


Liberty Magagine, (2/35) p. 7 N. Tesla. 
New York Times (9/22/40) Section 

2, p. 7 W. L Laurence. 

New York Times (12/8/15) p. 8 Co1. 3. 

Primary Examiner--Salvatore Cangialosi Attorney, 
Agent, or Firm--Roderick 

W. MacDonald 


A method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region which 

normally exists above the earth's surface. The region is excited by 

electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby increase its charged 

particle density. In one embodiment, circularly polarized 

electromagnetic radiation is transmitted upward in a direction 

substantially parallel to and along a field line which extends through 

the region of plasma to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a 

frequency which excites electron cyclotron resonance to heat and accel- 

erate the charged particles. This increase in energy can cause ionization 

of neutral particles which are then absorbed as part of the region 

thereby increasing the charged particle density of the region. 

15 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures 




1. Technical Field 

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for altering at least 

one selected region normally existing above the earth's surface and more 

particularly relates to a method and apparatus for altering said at least 

one region by initially transmitting electromagnetic radiation from the 

earth's surface essentially parallel to and along naturally-occurring, 

divergent magnetic field lines which extend from the earth's surface 

through the region or regions to be altered. 

2. Background Art 

In the late 1950's, it was discovered that naturally-occuring belts 

exist at high altitudes above the earth's surface, and it is now 

established that these belts result from charged electrons and ions 

becoming trapped along the magnetic lines of force (field lines) of the 

earth's essentially dipole magnetic field. The trapped electrons and ions 

are confined along the field lines between two magnetic mirrors which 

exist at spaced apart points along those field lines. The trapped elec- 

trons and ions move in helical paths around their particular field 

lines and "bounce" back and forth between the magnetic mirrors. These 

trapped electrons and ions can oscillate along the field lines for long 

periods of time. 

In the past several years substantial effort has been made to understand 

and explain the phenomena involved in belts of trapped electrons and 

ions, and to explore possible ways to control and use these phenomena 

for beneficial purposes. For example, in the late 1950's and early 1960's 

both the United States and U.S.S.R. detonated a series of nuclear devices 

of various yields to generate large numbers of charged particles at 

various altitudes, e.g., 200 kilometers (km) or greater. This was done in 

order to establish and study artificial belts of trapped electrons and 

ions. These experiments established that at least some of the extrane- 

ous electrons and ions from the detonated devices did become trapped 

a1ong field lines in the earth's magnetosphere to form artificial belts 

which were stable for prolonged periods of time. For a discussion of 

these experiments see "The Radiation Belt and Magneto-, sphere", W. N. 

Hess, Blaisdell Publishing Co., 1968, pps. 155 et sec. 

Other proposals which have been advanced for altering existing belts of 

trapped electrons and ions and/or establishing similar artificial belts 

include injecting charged particles from a satellite carrying a payload 

of radioactive beta-decay material or alpha emitters; and injecting 

charged particles from a satellite-borne electron accelerator. Still 

another approach is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196 wherein a low 

energy ionized gas, e.g., hydrogen, is released from a synchronous 

orbiting satellite near the apex of a radiation belt which is 

naturally-occurring in the earth's magnetosphere to produce a substantial 

increase in energetic particle precipitation and, under certain 

conditions, produce a limit in the number of particles that can be stably 

trapped. This precipitation effect arises from an enhancement of the 

whistler-mode and ion-cyclotron mode interactions that result from the 

ionized gas or "cold plasma" injection. 

It has also been proposed to release large clouds of barium in the 

magnetosphere so that photoionization will increase the cold plasma 

density, thereby producing electron precipitation through enhanced 

whistler-mode interaction. 

However, in all of the above-mentioned approaches, the mechanisms 

involved in triggering the change in the trapped particle phenomena must 

be actually positioned within the affected zone, e.g., the magnetosphere, 

before they can be actuated to effect the desired change. 

The earth's ionosphere is not considered to be a "trapped" belt since 

there are few trapped particles therein. The term "trapped" herein refers 

to situations where the force of gravity on the trapped particles is 

balanced by magnetic forces rather than hydrostatic or collisional 

forces. The charged electrons and ions in the ionosphere also follow 

helical paths around magnetic field lines within the ionosphere but are 

not trapped between mirrors, as in the case of the trapped belts in the 

magnetosphere. since the gravitational force on the particles is balanced 

by collisional or hydrostatic forces. 

In recent years, a number of experiments have actually been carried out 

to modify the ionosphere in somecontrolled manner to investigate the 

possibility of a beneficial result. For detailed discussions of these 

operations see the following papers: (1) Ionospheric Modification 

Theory; G. Meltz and F. W. Perkins: (2) The Platteville High Power 

facility; Carrol et al.; (3) Arecibo Heating Experiments; W. E. Gordon 

and H. C. Carlson, Jr.; and (4) Ionospheric Heating by Powerful Radio 

Waves; Meltz et al., all published in Radio Science, Vol. 9, No. 11, 

November, 1974, at pages 885-888; 889-894; 1041-1047; and 1049-1063, 

respectively, all of which are incorporated herein by reference. In such 

experiments, certain regions of the ionosphere are heated to change the 

electron density and temperature within these regions. This is 

accomplished by transmitting from earth-based antennae high frequency 

electromagnetic radiation at a substantial angle to, not parallel to, 

the ionosphere's magnetic field to heat the ionospheric particles 

primarily by ohmic heating. The electron temperature of the ionosphere 

has been raised by hundreds of degrees in these experiments, and 

electrons with several electron volts of energy have been produced in 

numbers sufficient to enhance airglow. Electron concentrations have 

been reduced by a few percent, due to expansion of the plasma as a 

result of increased temperature. 

In the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT), a controlled fusion device at the Oak 

Ridge National Laboratory, all heating is provided by microwaves at the 

electron cyclotron resonance interaction. A ring of hot electrons is 

formed at the earth's surface in the magnetic mirror by a combination 

of electron cyclotron resonance and stochastic heating. In the EBT, the 

ring electrons are produced with an average "temperature", of 250 kilo 

electron volts or kev (2.5 X 10^9K) and a plasma beta between 0.1 and 

0.4; see, "A Theoretical Study of Electron Cyclotron Absorption in Elmo 

Bumpy Torus", Batchelor and Goldfinger, Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 20, No. 4 

(1980) pps. 403-418. 

Electron cyclotron resonance heating has been used in experiments on the 

earth's surface to produce and accelerate plasmas in a diverging magnetic 

field. Kosmahl et al. showed that power was transferred from the 

electromagnetic waves and that a fully ionized plasma was accelerated 

with a divergence angle of roughly 13 degrees. Optimum neutral gas 

density was 1.7 X 10^14 per cubic centimeter; see, "Plasma Acceleration 

with Microwaves Near Cyclotron Resonance", Kosmahl et al., Journal of 

Applied Physics, Vol. 38, No. 12, Nov., 1967, pps. 4576-4582. 


The present invention provides a method and apparatus for altering at 

least one selected region which normally exists above the earth's 

surface. The region is excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating of 

electrons which are already present and/or artificially created in the 

region to thereby increase the charged particle energy and ultimately 

the density of the region. 

In one embodiment this is done by transmitting circularly polarized 

electromagnetic radiation from the earth's surface at or near the 

location where a naturally-occurring dipole magnetic field (force) line 

intersects the earth's surface. Right hand circular polarization is used 

in the northern hemisphere and left hand circular polarization is used in 

the southern hemisphere. The radiation is deliberately transmitted at the 

outset in a direction substantially parallel to and along a field line 

which extends upwardly through the region to be altered. The radiation 

is transmitted at a frequency which is based on the gyro frequency of the 

charged particles and which, when applied to the at least one region, 

excites electron cyclotron resonance within the region or regions to heat 

and accelerate the charged particles in their respective helical paths 

around and along the field line. Sufficient energy is employed to cause 

ionization of neutral particles (molecules of oxygen, nitrogen and the 

like, particulates, etc.) which then become a part of the region thereby 

increasing the charged particle density of the region. This effect can 

further be enhanced by providing artificial particles, e.g., electrons, 

ions, etc., directly into the region to be affected from a rocket, 

satellite, or the like to supplement the particles in the 

naturally-occurring plasma. These artificial particles are also ionized 

by the transmitted electromagnetic radiation thereby increasing charged 

particle density of the resulting plasma in the region. 

In another embodiment of the invention, electron cyclotron resonance 

heating is carried out in the selected region or regions at sufficient 

power levels to allow a plasma present in the region to generate a mir- 

ror force which forces the charged electrons of the altered plasma upward 

along the force line to an altitude which is higher than the original 

altitude. In this case the relevant mirror points are at the base of the 

altered region or regions. The charged electrons drag ions with them as 

well as other particles that may be present. Sufficient power, e.g., 

10^15 joules, can be applied so that the altered plasma can be trapped 

on the field line between mirror points and will oscillate in space for 

prolonged periods of time. By this embodiment, a plume of altered 

plasma can be established at selected locations for communication 

modification or other purposes. 

In another embodiment, this invention is used to alter at least one 

selected region of plasma in the ionosphere to establish a defined layer 

of plasma having an increased charged particle density. Once this layer 

is established, and while maintaining the transmission of the main beam 

of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation, the main beam is 

modulated and/or at least one second different, modulated electromagnetic 

radiation beam is transmitted from at least one separate source at a 

different frequency which will be absorbed in the plasma layer. The 

amplitude of the frequency of the main beam and/or the second beam or 

beams is modulated in resonance with at least one known oscillation 

mode in the selected region or regions to excite the known oscillation 

mode to propagate a known frequency wave or waves throughout the 



The earth's magnetic field is somewhat analogous to a dipole bar magnet. 

As such, the earth's magnetic field contains numerous divergent field or 

force lines, each line intersecting the earth's surface at points on 

opposite sides of the Equator. The field lines which intersect the 

earth's surface near the poles have apexes which lie at the furthest 

points in the earth's magnetosphere while those closest to the Equator 

have apexes which reach only the lower portion of the magnetosphere. 

At various altitudes above the earth's surface, e.g., in both the 

ionosphere and the magnetosphere, plasma is naturally present along these 

field lines. This plasma consists of equal numbers of positively and 

negatively charged particles (i.e., electrons and ions) which are guided 

by the field line. It is well established that a charged particle in a 

magnetic field gyrates about field lines, the center of gyration at any 

instance being called the "guiding center" of the particle. As the 

gyrating particle moves along a field line in a uniform field, it will 

follow a helical path about its guiding center, hence linear motion, and 

will remain on the field line. Electrons and ions both follow helical 

paths around a field line but rotate in opposite directions. The 

frequencies at which the electrons and ions rotate about the field line 

are called gyro magnetic frequencies or cyclotron frequencies because 

they are identical with the expression for the angular frequencies of 

gyration of particles in a cyclotron. The cyclotron frequency of ions in 

a given magnetic field is less than that of electrons, in inverse 

proportion to their masses. 

If the particles which form the plasma along the earth's field lines 

continued to move with a constant pitch angle, often designated "alpha", 

they would soon impact on the earth's surface. Pitch angle alpha is de- 

fined as the angle between the direction of the earth's magnetic field 

and the velocity (V) of the particle. However, in converging force 

fields, the pitch angle does change in such a way as to allow the 

particle to turn around and avoid impact. Consider a particle moving 

along a field line down toward the earth. It moves into a region of 

increasing magnetic field strength and therefore sine alpha increases. 

But sine alpha can only increase to 1.0, at which point the particle 

turns around and starts moving up along the field line, and alpha 

decreases. The point at which the particle turns around is called the 

mirror point, and there alpha equals ninety degrees. This process is 

repeated at the other end of the field line where the same magnetic field 

strength value B, namely Bm, exists. The particle again turns around and 

this is called the "conjugate point" of the original mirror point. The 

particle is therefore trapped and bounces between the two magnetic 

mirrors. The particle can continue oscillating in space in this manner 

for long periods of time. The actual place where a particle will mirror 

can be calculated from the following: 

sin^2 alpha0=B0/Bm 


alpha0=equatorial pitch angle of particle 

B0=equatorial field strength on a particular field line 

Bm=field strength at the mirror point 

Recent discoveries have established that there are substantial regions of 

naturally trapped particles in space which are commonly called "trapped 

radiation belts". These belts occur at altitudes greater than about 500 

km and accordingly lie in the magnetosphere and mostly above the 


The ionosphere, while it may overlap some of the trapped-particle belts, 

is a region in which hydrostatic forces govern its particle distribution 

in the gravitational field. Particle motion within the ionosphere is 

governed by both hydrodynamic and electrodynamic forces. While there are 

few trapped particles in the ionosphere, nevertheless, plasma is present 

along field lines in the ionosphere. The charged particles which form 

this plasma move between collisions with other particles along similar 

helical paths around the field lines and although a particular particle 

may diffuse downward into the earth's lower atmosphere or lose energy and 

diverge from its original field line due to collisions with other 

particles, these charged particles are normally replaced by other 

available charged particles or by particles that are ionized by 

collision with said particle. The electron density (Ne) of the plasma 

will vary with the actual conditions and locations involved. Also, 

neutral particles, ions, and electrcons are present in proximity to the 

field lines. 

The production of enhanced ionization will also alter the distribution Or 

atomic and molecular constituents of the atmosphere, most notably through 

increased atomic nitrogen concentration. The upper atmosphere is nor- 

mally rich in atomic oxygen (the dominant atmospheric constituent above 

200 km altitude), but atomic nitrogen is normally relatively rare. This 

can be expected to manifest itself in increased airglow, among other ef- 


As known in plasma physics, the characteristics of a plasma can be 

altered by adding energy to the charged particles or by ionizing or 

exciting additional particles to increase the density of the plasma. One 

way to do this is by heating the plasma which can be accomplished in 

different ways, e.g., ohmic, magnetic compression, shock waves, magnetic 

pumping, electron cyclotron resonance, and the like. 

Since electron cyclotron resonance heating is involved in the present 

invention, a brief discussion of 


Referring now to the drawings, the present invention provides a method 

and apparatus for altering at least one region of plasma which lies along 

a field line, particularly when it passes through the ionosphere and/or 

magnetosphere. FIG. 1 is a simplified illustration of the earth 10 and 

one of its dipole magnetic force or field lines 11. As will be 

understood, line 11 may be any one of the numerous naturally existing 

field lines and the actual geographical locations 13 and 14 of line 11 

will be chosen based on a particular operation to be carried out. The 

actual locations at which field lines intersect the earth's surface is 

documented and is readily ascertainable by those skilled in the art. 

Line 11 passes through region R which lies at an altitude above the 

earth's surface. A wide range of altitudes are useful given the power 

that can be employed by the practice of this invention. The electron 

cyclotron resonance heating effect can be made to act on electrons 

anywhere above the surface of the earth. These electrons may be already 

present in the atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere of the 

earth, or can be artificially generated by a variety of means such as 

x-ray beams, charged particle beams, lasers, the plasma sheath 

surrounding an object such as a missile or meteor, and the like. Further, 

artificial particles, e.g., electrons, ions, etc., can be injected 

directly into region R from an earth-launched rocket or orbiting 

satellite carrying, for example, a payload of radioactive beta-decay 

material; alpha emitters; an electron accelerator; and/or ionized gases 

such as hydrogen; see U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196. The altitude can be 

greater than about 50 km if desired, e.g., can be from about 50 km to 

about 800 km, and, accordingly may lie in either the ionosphere or the 

magnetosphere or both. As explained above, plasma will be present along 

line 11 within region R and is represented by the helical line 12. Plasma 

12 is comprised of charged particles (i.e., electrons and ions) which 

rotate about opposing helical paths along line 11. 

Antenna 15 is positioned as close as is practical to the location 14 

where line 11 intersects the earth's surface. Antenna 15 may be of any 

known construction for high directionality, for example, a phased array, 

beam spread angle (symbol? circle with a line) type. See "The MST Radar 

at Poker Flat, Alaska", Radio Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 1980, 

pps. 213-223, which is incorporated herein by reference. Antenna 15 is 

coupled to transmitter 16 which generates a beam of high frequency 

electromagnetic radiation at a wide range of discrete frequencies, e.g., 

from about 20 to about 1800 kilohertz (kHz). 

Transmitter 16 is powered by power generator means 17 which is preferably 

comprised of one or more large, commercial electrical generators. Some 

embodiments of the present invention require large amounts of power, 

e.g., up to l0^9 to 1O^11 watts, in continuous wave or pulsed power. 

Generation of the needed power is within the state of the art. Although 

the electrical generators necessary for the practice of the invention 

can be powered in any known manner, for example, by nuclear reactors, 

hydroelectric facilities, hydrocarbon fuels, and the like, this 

invention, because of its very large power requirement in certain 

applications, is particularly adapted for use with certain types of 

fuel sources which naturally occur at strategic geographical locations 

around the earth. For example, large reserves of hydrocarbons (oil and 

natural gas) exist in Alaska and Canada. In northern Alaska, particularly 

the North Slope region, large reserves are currently readily available. 

Alaska and northern Canada also are ideally located geographically as 

to magnetic latitudes. Alaska provides easy access to magnetic field 

lines that are especially suited to the practice of this invention, since 

many field lines which extend to desirable altitudes for this invention 

intersect the earth in Alaska. Thus, in Alaska, there is a unique 

combination of large, accessible fuel sources at desirable field line 

intersections. Further, a particularly desirable fuel source for the 

generation of very large amounts of electricity is present in Alaska in 

abundance, this source being natural gas. The presence of very large 

amounts of clean-burning natural gas in Alaskan latitudes, particularly 

on the North Slope, and the availability of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), 

gas turbine, fuel cell, electrogasdynamic (EGD) electric generators which 

operate very efficiently with natural gas provide an ideal power source 

for the unprecedented power requirements of certain of the applications 

of this invention. For a more detailed discussion Or the various means 

for generating electricity from hydrocarbon fuels, see "Electrical 

Aspects of Combustion", Lawton and Weinberg. Clarendon Press, 1969. For 

example, it is possible to generate the electricity directly at the 

high frequency needed to drive the antenna system. To do this, typically 

the velocity of flow of the combustion gases (v), past magnetic field 

perturbation of dimension d (in the case of MHD), follow the rule: 


where f is the frequency at which electricity is generated. Thus, if v= 

1.78 x 10^6 cm/sec and d=l cm then electricity would be generated at a 

frequency of 178 mHz. 


FIG. 3 is an idealized representation of movement of plasma 12 upon 

excitation by electron cyclotron resonance within the earth's divergent 

force field. Electrons (e) are accelerated to velocities required to 

generate the necessary mirror force to cause their upward movement. At 

the same time neutral particles (n) which are present along line 11 in 

region R are ionized and become part of plasma 12. As electrons (e) 

move upward along line 11, they drag ions (i) and neutrals (n) with them 

but at an angle (symbol circle with line) of about 13 degrees to field 

line 11. Also, any particulates that may be present in region R, will be 

swept upwardly with the plasma. As the charged particles of plasma 12 

move upward, other particles such as neutrals within or below R, move in 

to replace the upwardly moving particles. These neutrals, under some 

conditions, can drag with them charged particles. 

For example, as a plasma moves upward, other particles at the same 

altitude as the plasma move horizontally into the region to replace the 

rising plasma and to form new plasma. The kinetic energy developed by 

said other particles as they move horizontally is, for example, on the 

same order of magnitude as the total zonal kinetic energy of 

stratospheric winds known to exist. 

Referring again to FIG. 2, plasma 12 in region R is moved upward along 

field line 11. The plasma 12 will then form a plume (cross-hatched area 

in FIG. 2) which will be relatively stable for prolonged periods of time. 

The exact period of time will vary widely and be determined by 

gravitational forces and a combination of radiative and diffusive loss 

terms. In the previous detailed example, the calculations were based on 

forming a plume by producing O+ energies of 2 ev/particle. About 10 ev 

per particle would be required to expand plasma 12 to apex point C (FIG. 

l). There at least some of the particles of plasma 12 will be trapped and 

will oscillate between mirror points along field line 11. This 

oscillation will then allow additional heating of the trapped plasma 12 

by stochastic heating which is associated with trapped and oscillating 

particles. See "A New Mechanism for Accelerating Electrons in the Outer 

Ionosphere" by R. A. Helliwell and T. F. Bell, Journal of Geophysical 

Research' Vol. 65, No. 6, June, 1960. This is preferably carried out at 

an altitude of at least 500 km. 

The plasma of the typical example might be employed to modify or 

disrupt micro-wave transmissions of satellites. If less than total 

black-out of transmission is desired (e.g., scrambling by phase shifting 

digital signals), the density of the plasma (Ne) need only be at least 

about lO^6 per cubic centimeter for a plasma originating at an altitude 

of from about 250 to about 400 km and accordingly less energy (i.e., 

electromagnetic radiation), e.g., 10^8 joules need be provided. 

Likewise, if the density Ne is on the order of 10^8, a properly 

positioned plume will provide a reflecting surface for VHF waves and can 

be used to enhance, interfere with, or otherwise modify communication 


It can be seen from the foregoing that by appropriate application of 

various aspects of this invention at strategic locations and with 

adequate power sources, a means and method is provided to cause 

interference with or even total disruption of communications over a very 

large portion of the earth. This invention could be employed to disrupt 

not only land based communications, both civilian and military, but also 

airborne communications and sea communications (both surface and 

subsurface). This would have significant military implications, particu- 

larly as a barrier to or confusing factor for hostile missiles or 


The belt or belts of enhanced ionization produced by the method and 

apparatus of thisinvention, particularly if set up over Northern Alaska 

and Canada, could be employed as an early warning device, as well as a 

communications disruption medium. Further, the simple ability to produce 

such a situation in a practical time period can by itself be a deterring 

force to hostile action. The ideal combination of suitable field lines 

intersecting the earth's surface at the point where substantial fuel 

sources are available for generation of very large quantities of 

electromagnetic power, such as the North Slope of Alaska, provides the 

wherewithal to accomplish the foregoing in a practical time period, e.g., 

strategic requirements could necessitate achieving the desired altered 

regions in time periods of two minutes or less and this is achievable 

with this invention, especially when the combination of natural gas and 

magnetohydrodynamic, gas turbine, fuel cell and/or EGD electric 

generators are employed at the point where the useful field lines 

intersect the earth's surface. 

One feature of this invention which satisfies a basic requirement of a 

weapon system, i.e., continuous checking of operability, is that small 

amounts of power can be generated for operability checking purposes. 

Further, in the exploitation of this invention, since the main electro- 

magnetic beam which generates the enhanced ionized belt of this invention 

can be modulated itself and/or one or more additional electromagnetic 

radiation waves can be impinged on the ionized region formed by this 

invention as will be described in greater detail herein after with 

respect to FIG. 4, a substantial amount of randomly modulated signals 

of very large power magnitude can be generated in a highly nonlinear 

mode. This can cause confusion of or interference with or even complete 

disruption of guidance systems employed by even the most sophisticated of 

airplanes and missiles. The ability to employ and transmit over very wide 

areas of the earth a plurality of electromagnetic waves of varying 

frequencies and to change same at will in a random manner, provides a 

unique ability to interfere with all modes of communications, land, sea, 

and/or air, at the same time. Because of the unique juxtaposition of 

usable fuel source at the point where desirable field lines intersect the 

earth's surface, such wide ranging and complete communication 

interference can be achieved in a reasonably short period of time. 

Because of the mirroring phenomenon discussed herein above, it can also 

be prolonged for substantial time periods so that it would not be a mere 

transient effect that could simply be waited out by an opposing force. 

Thus, this invention provides the ability to put unprecedented amounts of 

power in the earth's atmosphere at strategic locations and to maintain 

the power injection level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in 

a manner far more precise and better controlled than heretofore 

accomplished, by the prior art, particularly by the detonation of nu- 

clear devices of various yields at various altitudes. 

Where the prior art approaches yielded merely transitory effects, the 

unique combination of fuel and desirable field lines at the point where 

the fuel occurs allows; the establishment of, compared to prior art 

approaches, precisely controlled and long-lasting effects which cannot, 

practically speaking, simply be waited out. Further, by knowing the 

frequencies of the various electromagnetic beams employed in the 

practice of this invention, it is possible not only to interfere with 

third party communications but to take advantage of one or more such 

beams to carry out a communications network even though the rest of the 

world's communications are disrupted. Put another way, what is used to 

disrupt another's communications can be employed by one knowledgeable 

of this invention as a communications network at the same time. 

In addition, once one's own communication network is established, the 

far-reaching extent of the effects of this invention could be employed to 

pick up communication signals of other(s) for intelligence purposes. 

Thus, it can be seen that the disrupting effects achievable by this 

invention can be employed to benefit by the party who is practicing this 

invention since knowledge of the various electromagnetic waves being 

employed and how they will vary in frequency and magnitude can be used to 

an advantage for positive communication and eavesdropping purposes at the 

same time. However, this invention is not limited to locations where the 

fuel source naturally exists or where desirable field lines naturally 

intersect the earth's surface. For example, fuel, particularly 

hydrocarbon fuel, can be transported by pipeline and the like to the 

location where the invention is to be practiced. 


This invention has a phenomenal variety of possible ramifications and 

potential future developments. As alluded to earlier, missile or aircraft 

destruction, deflection, or confusion could result. particularly when 

relativistic particles are employed. Also. large regions of the 

atmosphere could be lifted to an unexpectedly high altitude so that 

missiles encounter unexpected and unplanned drag forces with resultant 

destruction or deflection of same. Weather modification is possible by, 

for example, altering upper atmosphere wind patterns or altering solar 

absorption patterns by constructing one or more plumes of atmospheric 

particles which will act as a lens or focusing device. 

Also as alluded to earlier, molecular modifications of the atmosphere 

can take place so that positive environmental effects can be achieved. 

Besides actually changing the molecular composition of an atmospheric 

region, a particular molecule or molecules can be chosen for increased 

presence. For example, ozone, nitrogen, etc. concentrations in the 

atmosphere could be artificially increased. Similarly, environmental 

enhancement could be achieved by causing the breakup of various 

chemical entities such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous 

oxides, and the like. 

Transportation of entities can also be realized when advantage is taken 

of the drag effects caused by regions of the atmosphere moving up along 

diverging field lines. Small micron sized particles can be then 

transported. and, under certain circumstances and with the availability 

of sufficient energy, larger particles or objects could be similarly 

affected. Particles with desired characteristics such as tackiness, 

reflectivity, absorptivity, etc., can be transported for specific 

purposes or effects. For example, a plume of tacky particles could be 

established to increase the drag on a missile or satellite passing 

there through. Even plumes of plasma having substantially less charged 

particle density than described above will produce drag effects on 

missiles which will affect a lightweight (dummy) missile in a manner 

substantially different than a heavy (live) missile and this affect can 

be used to distinguish between the two types of missiles. A moving plume 

could also serve as a means for supplying a space station or for focusing 

vast amount of sunlight on selected portions of the earth. 

Surveys of global scope could also be realized because the earth's 

natural magnetic field could be significantly altered in a controlled 

manner by plasma beta effects resulting in, for example, improved 

magnetotelluric surveys. Electromagnetic pulse defenses are also 

possible. The earth's magnetic field could be decreased or disrupted at 

appropriate altitudes to modify or eliminate the magnetic field in high 

Compton electron generation (e.g., from high altitude nuclear bursts) 

regions. High intensity, well controlled electrical fields can be 

provided in selected locations for various purposes. For example, the 

plasma sheath surrounding a missile or satellite could be used as a 

trigger for activating such a high intensity field to destroy the missile 

or satellite. 

Further, irregularities can be created in the ionosphere which will 

interfere with the normal operation of various types of radar, e.g., 

synthetic aperture radar. Thepresent invention can also be used to create 

artificial belts of trapped particles which in turn can be studied to 

determine the stability of such parties. Still further, plumes in 

accordance with the present invention can be formed to simulate and/or 

perform the same functions as performed by the detonation of a "heave" 

type nuclear device without actually having to detonate such a device. 

Thus it can be seen that the ramifications are numerous, far-reaching, 

and exceedingly varied in usefulness. 



Captain Wardrobes

Down with Murder inc.