Are these people respectable?
But the royal family does have a last name, and they do use it from time to time. This wasn't always the case. Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert, was a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, so her descendants were part of that dynasty. This, however, was not the family's last name. They didn't have one, because they didn't need one, so they didn't worry about it. Experts later worried about it for them and decided their name was probably "Witten" (or maybe even Wipper).
The royal family's official name, or lack thereof, became a problem during World War I, when people began to mutter that Saxe-Coburg-Gotha sounded far too German. King George V and his family needed a new, English-sounding name. After considering every possible name, from Plantagenet to Tudor-Stuart to simply England, the king and his advisors chose the name Windsor.
To this day, the British royal family is known as the House of Windsor. When Princess Elizabeth (the current queen) served as a subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service during World War II, she was called "Elizabeth Windsor." Elizabeth married Prince Philip of Greece, whose family name was Mountbatten, and eventually she decreed that most of her descendants would be called Mountbatten-Windsor. Princess Anne used this name in 1973 when she married Captain Mark Phillips.
However, according to statements made by the queen, it appears that Windsor is still the official family name for any British royal who is styled "Royal Highness." The queen's youngest son, Prince Edward, the Earl of Wessex, has used the name Edward Windsor professionally. His wife calls herself Sophie Wessex.
The British Royal Family - their last name
The Reichs College of Princes and Counts of The Holy Roman Empire 1489-2006 include:
KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN & NORTHERN IRELAND /
ROYAL HOUSE OF WINDSOR
H.M. Queen Elizabeth The Second of The United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. The Prince William of Wales.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. The Prince Henry of Wales.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. The Prince Andrew, Duke of York.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. Princess Beatrice of York.
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. Princess Eugenie of York.
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. Princess Louise of Wessex. (Title By Right of Birth)
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. The Princess Anne, Princess Royal.
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. Prince Richard, 2nd Duke of Gloucester.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. Prince Edward, 2nd Duke of Kent.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. Prince Michael of Kent.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )
H.R.H. Princess Alexandra of Kent.
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )
The Armorial Bearings of The 60th Chivalric Hochmeister of Teutonic Order of Germany
His Imperial and Royal Highness Prinz Karl Friedrich von Deutschland Herzog von Swabia, Herzog von Saxe-Altenburg, de jure Charles VIII I.R.
The Imperial Order of The
Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's
Hospital in Jerusalem
THE TEUTONIC ORDERS BEGINNINGS GO BACK TO THE THIRD CRUSADE WHEN IN 1190 PILGRIMS FROM BREMEN AND LUBECK UNDER THE DUKE OF HOLSTEIN, ESTABLISHED A HOSPITAL FOR THE SICK OF THEIR COUNTRY.
THERE HAD BEEN A GERMAN HOSPITAL IN THE LATIN KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM, DEDICATED TO THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY, WHICH HAD BEEN BROKEN UP WHEN JERUSALEM WAS CAPTURED BY SALADIN THE NEW HOSPITAL ADOPTED THE SAME NAME, AND THE SON OF THE EMPEROR FREDERICKE I, BARBAROSSA FREDERICKE, DUKE OF SWABIA, THE NEW LEADER OF THE CRUSADES APPOINTED RELIGIOUS KNIGHTS TO PROTECT THE SICK PILGRIMS, AND THE ORDER OF THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS ST.MARYS HOSPITAL IN JERUSALEM WAS FORMALLY FOUNDED AS EARLY AS 1192 THE ORDER WAS ENDOWED BY POPE CELESTINE III, WITH THE SAME PRIVILEGES AS THE ORDER OF ST.JOHN OF JERUSALEM, WHOSE HOSPITAL RULE THE ADOPTED, AND THE ORDER OF THE TEMPLARS, FROM WHICH THEY BORROWED THEIR MILITARY ORGANISATION.
DURING THE FOURTH CRUSADE THE ORDER TOOK POSSESSION OF THE FIRST HOUSE IN JERUSALEM, ST.MARYS OF THE GERMANS,(1229), BUT THE KNIGHTS LEFT PALESTINE IN 1291 WHEN IT HAD FINALLY FALLEN TO ISLAM. A SECOND CAREER FOR THEIR BELLIGERANT AND RELIGIOUS ZEAL WAS OPENED IN THE BALTIC REGION AGAINST THE PAGANS OF PRUSSIA WHO HITHERTO HAD RESISTED THE EFFORTS OF MISSIONARIES, MANY OF WHOM HAD BEEN KILLED. BECAUSE THE MILITARY ORDER OF THE SWORD BEARERS WHICH HAD BEEN FOUNDED WITH THE OBJECT OF AVENGING THE MURDERED MISSIONARIES HAD FAILED, THE POLISH DUKE CONRAD OF MASSOVIA, ASKED THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS TO ASSIT IN DEFEATING THE PRUSSIAN PAGANS AND PROMISED THE ORDER THE TERRITORY OF CULM, WITH WHATEVER TERRITORY THEY COULD WREST FROM THEINFIDELS.
THE STRUGGLE LASTED TWENTY-FIVE YEARS, AMD OWING TO SPECIAL PRIVILEGES GRANTED TO THE GERMAN COLONISTS, THE ENTIRE COUNTRY WHICH BELONGED TO THE LETTO-SLAVIC RACE WAS GERMANIZED. THE HISTORY OF THE MILITARY PRINCIPALITY IS IDENTIFIED WITH THAT OF PRUSSIA. AFTER THE LITHUANIANS HAD ALSO BEEN DEFEATED BY THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS, AND AFTER THE LITHUANIAN GRAND DUKE JAGELLON, WHO EMBRACED CHRISTANITY, MARRIED THE HEIRESS TO THE KINGDOM OF POLAND IN 1386, PAGANISM ENDED IN EUROPE AND THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS HAD LOST THEIR RAISONS D,ETRE. FROM THEN ON THEIR HISTORY CONSISTED OF INCESSANT CONFLICTS WITH THE KINGS OF POLAND. THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS WERE FINALLY DEFEATEED AND LOST MORE THAN HALF OF THEIR TERRITORY BUT THEY WERE ALLOWED TO HOLD THE REST UNDER THE SUZERAINTY OF THE POLISH KING. THE GRAND MASTERS RESIDENCE WAS MOVED FROM MARIENBURG TO KONIGESBERG IN GERMANY, AND THE KNIGHTS OFFERED THE GRAND MASTERSHIP TO CERTAIN GERMAN PRINCES IN ORDER TO STRENGTHEN THEIR SECURITY AGAINST THE KINGS OF POLAND.
HOWEVER, THE SECOND OF THE GERMAN GRAND MASTERS, ALBERT OF BRANDENBURG, EMBRACED LUTHERANISAM, SECULARISED PRUSSIA AND MADE IT AN HEREDITARY DUCHY UNDER THE SUZERAINTY OF THE POLISH CROWN. THOSE KNIGHTS WHO BROKE WITH THE APOSTATE CHOSE A NEW GRAND MASTER WHO MOVED HIS RESIDENCE TO FRANCONIA IN 1526, BUT THESE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS LOST THEIR REMAINING TWELVE BAILIWICKS IN GERMANY ONE BY ONE, AND WHEN IN 1809 NAPOLEAN ABANDONED THE POSSESSSIONS BELONGING TO THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS TO THE CONFERERATION OF THE RHINE, THE KNIGHTS RETAINED ONLY THE BAILIWICKS IN THE TYROL AND AUSTRIA .
. - imperial teutonic order
. - Knight of Malta
Mystery lifted on Queen's Perogative powers
Full list of those powers
The appointment and dismissal of ministers;
The summoning, prorogation and dissolution of Parliament;
Royal assent to bills;
The appointment and regulation of the civil service;
The commissioning of officers in the armed forces;
Directing the disposition of the armed forces in the UK;
Appointment of Queen's Counsel;
Issue and withdrawal of passports;
Prerogative of mercy. (Used to apply in capital punishment cases. Still used, eg to remedy errors in sentence calculation)
Creation of corporations by Charter;
The making of treaties;
Declaration of war;
Deployment of armed forces overseas;
Recognition of foreign states;
Accreditation and reception of diplomats.
Damage limitation by the Royal Cartel
'The Red Cross has been allowed to visit, which is something that we welcome, and hopefully could lead to improvements in conditions. Unfortunately, as part of its role the Red Cross is not permitted to make public any of its findings, so the rest of us still have no idea what's going on at the camp.' - Amnesty International
So the only way the Red Cross got access, was under the strict agreement that there report would be sent to the highest levels of government, and that they would not comment or discuss any of there findings. Only the US gov. could release the details."
British Red Cross said: "It is a great pleasure to announce that HRH The Prince of Wales will be our President, succeeding HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother who served the Society for many years. "The appointment of His Royal Highness was made by The Queen in her capacity as Patron of the British Red Cross.
Red Cross UK
"One of Britain's most high-profile charities was ordered to end criticism of military action in Iraq by its powerful US wing to avoid jeopardising financial support from Washington and corporate donors, a Guardian investigation has discovered.
Internal emails reveal how Save the Children UK came under enormous pressure after it accused coalition forces of breaching the Geneva convention by blocking humanitarian aid. "
Save the Children UK, which had an income of 122m in 2002-03, boasts the Queen as patron and Princess Anne as president, plus a phalanx of the great and the good lending their titles and time. "
Charity shocker...must read
How independent?...Red Cross at Osan eases Strikeforce departure [excerpt]|
The troops were part of the U.S. Armys 2nd Infantrys Division, which is deploying the 3,600 troops of its 2nd Brigade Combat Team to Iraq.
The airlift of the brigade, known as the Strikeforce, began here Monday and is expected to last about a week. The troops will pick up their tanks and other combat equipment in Kuwait, then move into Iraq.
Transporting all of them is, almost inevitably, a process that entails stretches when the troops had to wait, including two hours or so for their flights at Osan.
To help make the Strikeforce troops comfortable during those few hours, the American Red Cross station at Osan set up a canteen in two big tents. They did it with help of the division, the Air Force and volunteers at Osan and Camp Humphreys, a big U.S. Army helicopter base about 40 minutes away.
This was a team effort, said Wilfredo Solis, director of the Osan Red Cross station.- Stars & Stripes
Not at all how they are marketed
|The Order of Hospitallers [Knights of Malta]
The most important of all the military orders, both for the extent of its area and for its duration. It is said to have existed before the Crusades and is not extinct at the present time. During this long career it has not always borne the same name. Known as Hospitallers of Jerusalem until 1309, the members were called Knights of Rhodes from 1309 till 1522, and have been called Knights of Malta since 1530.
The military orders comprised a new institutional framework, the creation of the Crusader kingdom and its needs. The innovation was the combination of two ideals - the knight and the monk. The knights of these orders dedicated themselves to the service of the Church. The founding of the orders may be seen as an attempt to look after the crowds of pilgrims who flocked to Jerusalem.
"Founded in 1881 by American humanitarian Clara Barton, the American Red Cross (officially named The American National Red Cross) was first chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1900. A second charter, still in force, was granted in 1905. Not long after, however, John D. Rockefeller pirated the entire blood banking industry, along with the administrative leadership of the ARC. As you will soon learn, this quintessential coup de tats represented more than a glorious economic opportunity. The takeover of the ARC, and the entire blood industry, was apparently required to fulfill a far more sinister, even occult-linked, political objective-eugenics management for a racially purified planet."
Dr Len Horowitz
THE SWASTIKA IN FREEMASONRY...
The symbol of the red cross is said to have originated with an infamous Vatican secret society, the Knights Templar, who adopted it to signify their impoverished band of nine men was giving protection, during the Middle Ages, to pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem. |
The cover story of pilgrim protection was soon dissipated, when the Knights became the most powerful financial organization in Europe, initiated the modern banking system, and took over huge amounts of land across the continent
One of the best books ever written on Masonry, Born in Blood, traces the origins of that secret society to the Knights Templar. When the Knights were banned by the Pope in 1307, who ordered their continent-wide arrest, some of them fled to the British Isles, where they set up a new organization called: Masonry. It's interesting that, in Massachusetts, these days, about 80 percent of all blood donated to the Red Cross comes from Masons, through a program instituted in their lodges. Might we call this blood donation "giving to their own?"
Inquisition wasn't quite as bad as people think, says Pope
The nazis, 'H. R. H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, The Bilderbergers...the dots connected
1) The Royal Consort, Prince Bernhardt, Husband of Juliana since 1937, was previous to their marriage an active card-carrying member of Hitler's black-shirted SS.
2) Prince Consort Bernhardt was employed prior to, during, and after the war by I.G.Farben's Industrial Espionage Unit "NW-7" which, needless to say, placed him under great suspicions by both the British and American intelligence communities. The mere fact of his employment as an "industrial spy" for Farben places him squarely within the sphere of the German Industrial community, links for which have already been established with the Type XI-B U-Boat. - Via Tony Goslings Bilderberg.org
Known as the 'Flying Prince of Conservation', for his love of flying and his dedication to nature conservation, Prince Bernhard was a driving force behind the creation of WWF in 1961, and served as the organization's first International President from 1961 to 1976. For the next 25 years, he continued to play a pivotal role in international efforts to promote conservation and ensure the protection of the natural world. cache of source
Masters of persuasion
"With any lingering thoughts of the holocaust pushed firmly in the
background, the US Army Chemical Corps and the newly created CIA
actively sought Nazi expertise in designing and building gas chambers.
Eight former Nazi scientists, including the notorious Otto Ambros later
nicknamed the "Devil's Chemist" - advised the US Army's Chemical Corps
on technical considerations. The idea was to find ways of "surreptitiously
rendering a subject unconscious or to cause him to breathe some type of
gas that could make the subject more suggestible or pliable" stated one
CIA memo regarding their interest in gas chambers.
The simple fact that
Otto Ambros had been convicted at the Nuremberg trials of slavery and
mass murder, for which he was sentenced to eight years in prison, did not
prove a problem. Such was the quality of his "expertise" that unnamed
American officials commuted his sentence after just three years and with
the assistance of multimillionaire Peter Grace, of W R Grace, helped
Ambros in a bid to enter the United States.
Otto Ambros would later directly work as a consultant for Peter Grace,
who, coincidentally headed the American Chapter of the Knights of Malta
and has been a long-time associate of the CIA. The relationship between
top CIA officers and the shadowy Knights of Malta is cemented in the fact
that many Directors of Central Intelligence and other executive level
officers are also members of this knightly order.
In fact, membership of the Knights of Malta (known as "SMOM" an
abbreviation of its full title of The Sovereign Military and Hospitaler Order
of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes) and American intelligence pre-date
the CIA. William (Bill) Donovan, the head of the wartime Office of
Strategic Services (OSS) the precursor to the CIA - was associated with
SMOM. As was James Jesus Angleton, the CIA's hard-core counter-
intelligence expert until he was fired by President John Kennedy. Another
DCI who was a knight was Bill Casey who was chief of the CIA during the
Reagan Administration. Earlier, Bill Colby, who headed the spy agency
during the Vietnam War era was approached to become a member but
declined. Other senior CIA knights included William Buckley and John
McCone. On the US military side General Alexander Haig was appointed
a knight of SMOM. This almost unbroken but subterranean connection
between the two is reported to extend to the current DCI, George Tenet,
according to a former CIA source.
Perhaps the relationship has something to do with the fact that the
Knights of Malta are the said to be the Vatican's own intelligence network.
And if one were to seek a Nazi connection to SMOM, just to place matters
in historical perspective, it would not be long in coming. Reinhard Gehlen,
the former Nazi intelligence supreme who went to work for the CIA
immediately after the war and later founded the present day German
intelligence agency the BND the Bundesnachtrichtdienst - was awarded
SMOM's Cross of Merit decoration.
Moreover, Franz von Papen, a Knight Magistral Grand Cross of SMOM,
was vital to Hitler's assumption to power and was soon rewarded for his
able assistance by being appointed Ambassador to Austria an
appointment not without considerable significance when it is recalled that
Austria was Hitler's own birthplace. With such high profile Nazi's being
honoured by, or elevated to membership of SMOM, both before and after
WWII, it is not difficult to conclude that SMOM's sense of justice and
concern for the ills of the human condition which it trumpets today as its
principal raison d'etre - falls woefully short of accepted norms.
[pdf file] By David Guyatt
International Red Cross Accused of Being "Used & probably controlled" by German intelligence during WWII
From the Detroit Free Press, August 30, 1996, p. 6A:
WWII documents bolster Nazi-Red Cross connection
By Arthur Spiegelman Reuters CHICAGO -- The International Committee of the Red Cross, which prides itself on being nonpolitical, is accused in previously secret World War II documents of being used and "probably controlled" at its highest levels by German intelligence.
The U.S. intelligence documents allege that ICRC representatives worked as agents conveying military information to Berlin, even using U.S. diplomatic mail to get material out. They also allege Red Cross pouches were used to ferry German assets into Switzerland and the group itself was used to smuggle German agents across European borders.
Marked "Washington office items not previously released," the Office of Strategic Services documents were found recently in the U.S. National Archives by World Jewish Congress researchers trying to trace assets of Holocaust victims.
In Geneva, ICRC spokesman Kim Gordon-Bates said: "We know that documents are being made available...from various archives but we have not seen them and cannot comment."
But he added the ICRC, a Nobel Peace Prize winner, works under difficult ethical and practical guidelines. It always tried to recruit the best people but mistakes could be made, especially during war, he said.
One OSS document, dated Jan. 11, 1944, says: "A series of observations commenced by the French and continued by this organization indicate that the I.R.C.C. is probably controlled by the German I.S. The German delegate to the I.R.C.C. in Geneva is known to be a German agent and the head of the I.R.C.C. to be German controlled."
The document adds: "Enough is known to warrant the assumption that any delegate of the I.R.C.C. should be considered a potential if not actual German I.S. agent." The letters I.S. stood for Intelligence Service.
The OSS was the wartime U.S. intelligence agency and the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency.
Another document, dated Feb. 4, 1944, says: "Information has come from various sources which indicates that the International Red Cross may have a number of people in its organization and indeed, on its executive staff, who are either German agents or associates of German agents, and who are using the Red Cross...as a cover for the securing and transmitting of military information."
In 1995, the ICRC, which coordinates Red Cross work around the world, acknowledge its "moral failure" during the war -- a reference to its failure to denounce atrocities against Jews and other minorities in Hitler's concentration camps.
A spokesman for the World Jewish Congress said the more than 200 pages of documents had been turned over to the Senate Banking Committee, headed by Sen. Alfonse D'Amato, R-N.Y., for investigation.
A May 21, 1945, document said Red Cross pouches were being used to smuggle "concentrated forms of wealth" from Germany to Turkey and then to Switzerland. A Feb. 4, 1944, document said the Red Cross representative in French North Africa "may be involved in the intelligence activities of the enemy but the evidence is not conclusive as yet. He is said by some to be very stupid and by others to be an enemy agent, not so stupid. In any case many of his associates are suspect."
That document also says the Red Cross was being used by the Germans to smuggle agents out of France.
An August 1945 document said a Red Cross representative suspected of being a German agent was using the U.S. diplomatic pouch in Algiers to send materials out of the country and evade censorship.
One Red Cross representative in Cairo is described in an Aug. 16, 1945, document as "one of the most dangerous pro-fascists among Swiss residents abroad." Another Swiss national representing the Red Cross in Istanbul is described as "entertaining girls" from local bars and paying them to collect information from U.S. and British servicemen.
Gordon-Bates said the ICRC had been informed earlier about an alleged pro-Nazi delegate in Turkey and had asked an independent historian to investigate. The delegate was accused of using the ICRC pouch to transfer funds.
"He did in fact misuse the ICRC diplomatic pouch to transfer funds, but we don't know what these funds were, whether they were Jewish funds," Gordon-Bates said. He said the historian will try to find out whether the delegate acted alone. He also said the man was "cashiered" from the ICRC in 1945 as soon as the agency learned of his activities. "But we would like to know whether the rot went any deeper. We're very keen to find out about this," Gordon-Bates said, adding: "We're not making excuses. We're saying that whatever emerged is possible. It's something we'll have to live with and hope that it will never happen again."
Revealed: victims of UK's cold war torture camp
Archive pictures of German prisoners held by the British following the second world war. Photographs: Martin Argles
Ian Cobain - Monday April 3, 2006 - The Guardian
Photographs of victims of a secret torture programme operated by British authorities during the early days of the cold war are published for the first time today after being concealed for almost 60 years.
The pictures show men who had suffered months of starvation, sleep deprivation, beatings and extreme cold at one of a number of interrogation centres run by the War Office in postwar Germany.
A few were starved or beaten to death, while British soldiers are alleged to have tortured some victims with thumb screws and shin screws recovered from a gestapo prison. The men in the photographs are not Nazis, however, but suspected communists, arrested in 1946 because they were thought to support the Soviet Union, an ally 18 months earlier.
Apparently believing that war with the Soviet Union was inevitable, the War Office was seeking information about Russian military and intelligence methods. Dozens of women were also detained and tortured, as were a number of genuine Soviet agents, scores of suspected Nazis, and former members of the SS.
Yesterday there were calls for the Ministry of Defence to acknowledge what had happened and apologise. Nick Harvey, the Liberal Democrats' defence spokesman, said: "It's too late for anyone to be held personally responsible, or held politically to account, but it's not too late for the MoD to acknowledge what has happened."
Sherman Carroll, of the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, said British authorities should also apologise and pay compensation to survivors. "The suggestion that Britain did not use torture during world war two and in the immediate aftermath, because it was regarded as 'ineffective', is a mythology that has been successfully propagated for decades," he said. "The fact that it took place should be acknowledged."
The MoD dismissed the calls, saying questions about the interrogation centres were a matter for the Foreign Office.
Declassified Whitehall papers show that members of the Labour government of the day went to great lengths to hide the ill-treatment, in part, as one minister wrote, to conceal "the fact that we are alleged to have treated internees in a manner reminiscent of the German concentration camps".
Almost six decades later the photographs were still being kept secret. Four months ago they were removed from a police report on the mistreatment of inmates at one of the interrogation centres, near Hanover, shortly before the document was released to the Guardian under the Freedom of Information Act.
Although the file was in the possession of the Foreign Office, the pictures were removed at the request of the Ministry of Defence. They have finally been released after an appeal by the Guardian. The photographs were taken in February 1947 by a Royal Navy officer who was determined to bring the torture programme to an end. Pictures of other victims, taken by the same officer, appear to have vanished from the Foreign Office files.
Meanwhile documents about a secret interrogation centre which the War Office operated in central London between 1945 and 1948, where large numbers of men are now known to have been badly mistreated, are still being withheld by the Ministry of Defence. Officials say the papers cannot yet be released because they have been contaminated with asbestos.
It is not clear whether the men in the photographs fully recovered from their mistreatment. It is also unclear, from examination of the War Office and Foreign Office documents now available, when the torture of prisoners in Germany came to an end. - guardian.co.uk
Archive pictures of German prisoners held by the British following the second world war. Photographs: Martin Argles
The postwar photographs that British authorities tried to keep hidden
· Treatment of suspected communists revealed
· Four court martialled after police inspector's inquiry
Ian Cobain - Monday April 3, 2006 - The Guardian
For almost 60 years, the evidence of Britain's clandestine torture programme in postwar Germany has lain hidden in the government's files. Harrowing photographs of young men who had survived being systematically starved, as well as beaten, deprived of sleep and exposed to extreme cold, were considered too shocking to be seen.
As one minister of the day wrote, as few people as possible should be aware that British authorities had treated prisoners "in a manner reminiscent of the German concentration camps".
Many other photographs known to have been taken have vanished from the archives, and even this year some government officials were arguing that none should be published. The pictures show suspected communists who were tortured in an attempt to gather information about Soviet military intentions and intelligence methods at a time when some British officials were convinced that a third world war was only months away. Others interrogated at the same prison, at Bad Nenndorf, near Hanover, included Nazis, prominent German industrialists of the Hitler era, and former members of the SS. At least two men suspected of being communists were starved to death, at least one was beaten to death, others suffered serious illness or injuries, and many lost toes to frostbite.
The appalling treatment of the 372 men and 44 women who were interrogated at Bad Nenndorf between 1945 and 1947 are detailed in a report by a Scotland Yard detective, Inspector Tom Hayward. He had been called in by senior army officers to investigate the mistreatment of inmates, partly as a result of the evidence provided by these photographs.
Insp Hayward's report remained secret until last December, when the Guardian secured its release under the Freedom of Information Act. The photographs seen here were removed before the Foreign Office released the report, apparently because the Ministry of Defence did not wish them to be published. That decision was reversed last week, following an appeal by the Guardian.
One of the men photographed, Gerhard Menzel, 23, a student, was arrested by British intelligence officers in Hamburg in June 1946. He had fallen under suspicion because he was believed to have travelled to the British-controlled zone of Germany from Omsk in Siberia, where he had been a prisoner of war. His weight, measured several weeks after his arrest at 10st 3lb, had fallen to 7st 10lb by the time he was transferred from Bad Nenndorf to a British-run internment camp eight months later.
In the meantime, he told Hayward, his hands had been chained behind his back for up to 16 days at a time, periods during which he was repeatedly punched in the face. He had also been held in a bare, freezing cell for up to two weeks at a time and doused in cold water every 30 minutes from 4.30am until midnight, a practice the detective discovered to have been common.
A doctor at the internment camp reported that Mr Menzel was one of a group of 12 inmates transferred from Bad Nenndorf, all emaciated and dressed in rags. Previous arrivals had also been half-starved. Some had facial scars, apparently the result of beatings. A few had scars on their shins, said to be the result of torture with shin screws which had been retrieved from a Gestapo prison at Hamburg.
Mr Menzel "was only skin and bones," the doctor wrote. "He could neither walk nor stand up without assistance, and could only speak with difficulty because his tongue and lips were swollen and broken open. "It was impossible to take his body temperature because it was not higher than 35 degrees Celsius and the thermometer only starts at 35."
The prisoner was also confused, anxious and suffering memory loss, his lungs were badly infected and his blood pressure was dangerously low. Only after being washed, fed and heated with lamps could his body temperature be raised to 36.3C, but the doctor feared his chances of survival were slim.
Another man pictured, Heinz Biedermann, 20, a clerk, had been arrested in October 1946 because he was in the British zone, while his father, who lived at Stendal in the Russian zone, had been identified as "an ardent communist". By the time he was transferred from Bad Nenndorf four months later his weight had fallen from 11st 3lb to 7st 12lb. He said he had been held in solitary confinement for much of the time, threatened with execution, and forced to live and sleep in sub-zero temperatures while barely clothed.
One British army guard told Inspector Hayward that Mr Biedermann had "wasted like a candle" during his imprisonment. Another, a private in the Essex Regiment, told the detective that he complained that he and his comrades were behaving as badly as Germans. "I became very unpopular after this ... the sergeant appeared to take a poor view of my remarks."
On Mr Biedermann's transfer to the internment camp, an officer at Bad Nenndorf requested he be detained "for an adequate time" to prevent him giving the Soviets "detailed information on this centre and methods of interrogation".
Foreign Office records show that the navy officer commanding the internment camp, Captain Arthur Curtis, was so shocked by the condition of the men being sent to him that he ordered these photographs be taken to support his complaints about the treatment of these "living skeletons". Photographs of several other prisoners, taken at the same time, appear to have vanished from the Foreign Office files.
On the other side of the British zone, meanwhile, a Royal Artillery officer was complaining about the state of Bad Nenndorf inmates who were being dumped from a truck at the entrance to a military hospital. Some weighed little more than six stones, and two died shortly after their arrival.
The records show that Bad Nenndorf was run by a War Office department called the Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre (CSDIC).
By late 1946, CSDIC appears to have lost interest in Nazis, and was targeting communists. It appears the prisoners were questioned about Soviet methods and intentions, rather than about the Communist party itself.
Some of Bad Nenndorf's inmates were indeed spying for the Soviets: one prisoner, who was half-Norwegian and half-Russian, told Hayward he was an officer in the NKVD, the predecessor of the KGB, and had been operating continuously in Germany since 1938. Another, a German journalist who had been freed by the Soviets from a Gestapo prison, was caught flying into Croydon aerodrome with false British papers. Both men were starved and badly tortured.
Others clearly were not spies, however. One man who was starved to death was a gay ex-soldier caught with forged papers while crossing into the British zone in search of his lover, while the other was a young German who was being interrogated because he had volunteered to spy for the British in the Russian zone, and was wrongly suspected of lying because of an official error over his medical records.
Four British officers were court martialled after Hayward's investigation. Declassified documents show that the hearings were held largely behind closed doors to prevent the Soviets from discovering that Russians were being detained.
Another consideration was admitted to be the determination to conceal the existence of several other CSDIC prisons. While it is now known that one interrogation centre was in central London, little is known about those in Germany, other than their locations.
Following the courts martial, the prison at Bad Nenndorf, which was in a converted bath-house, was replaced with a purpose-built interrogation centre near an RAF base at Gütersloh, and orders were issued for inmates to be examined by a doctor before interrogation. It is unclear when this centre closed.
The only officer at Bad Nenndorf to be convicted was the prison doctor. At the age of 49, his sentence was to be dismissed from the army. The commanding officer, Colonel Robin Stephens, was cleared of a charge of "disgraceful conduct of a cruel kind" and told he was free to apply to rejoin his former employers at MI5. - guardian.co.uk
MI6 protected Nazi who killed 100 British agents
By Sarah Helm - Times
ONE of Hitler's top intelligence officers, who ordered the murders of more than 100 British secret agents in concentration camps, was spared execution as a war criminal and selected to work for MI6.
Newly opened papers contain startling evidence that in the postwar scramble to secure information about Russian communists, British Intelligence "turned" Horst Kopkow, faked his death and used him to fight the Cold War.
Evidence emerged in the 1980s that Britain had become a refuge for suspected war criminals, but few would have believed that the Government had gone even further and put a man like Kopkow on its books. Details of how MI6 snatched Kopkow, 35, from war crimes investigators, inventing his fake death from "bronchopneumonia", are revealed in private papers made public only now. The papers belonged to Vera Atkins, a senior officer of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), Britain 's secret wartime body. After the war she mounted a one-woman investigation into the fate of her agents behind enemy lines.
The Atkins documents have been corroborated by newly declassified secret papers in the British and American National Archives. MI6 declined to comment on the Kopkow case. However, intelligence sources indicated yesterday that the service itself was taken aback by the evidence. To date, Britain has denied that it engaged in the dark arts used by the Americans, whose employment of Nazis to catch Communists has been well-documented. British intelligence sources pointed out that Kopkow was not in the league of "the butcher of Lyons", a reference to Klaus Barbie, the most notorious war criminal employed by the Americans.
The Kopkow case is uniquely chilling because the MI6 men who spared him were colleagues and "handlers" of his victims. Among those whose torture and death he sanctioned were men and women of the SOE and MI6 agents.
While Kopkow's information may have been considered valuable, it was in fact useless. The head of MI6's Russian desk when Kopkow was captured was Kim Philby, exposed as a Soviet spy more than 15 years later.
Precisely how long Kopkow was employed by British Intelligence remains murky. German records state that he adopted the name Cordes and died in Gelsenkirchen in 1996.
Set up in 1940 in London, the SOE grew to number 10,000 men and 3,000 women. Senior staff went to public school and Oxbridge, but agents included a former chef, an electrician and a car dealer's daughter Life expectancy of a wireless operator in occupied France was six weeks
Of 39 women agents sent to France, 13 were killed The Secret Intelligence Service chief called the SOE amateur, dangerous and bogus
By Sarah Helm - Times
Cold war stay behind ops - secret military groups Trained in Sardinia
...in Italy British intelligence had assisted in the formation of secret military units and had provided training in both Britain and Sardinia to which hundreds of men had been flown in blacked-out planes. The strength of the Italian Stay Behind group was put at about 12,000 men. So far the existence of the plan has officially admitted in Holland Luxembourg, France, Switzerland Greece, Germany, Turkey and Italy where the story first hit the headlines and caused a massive political scandal as part of the investigation into the terrorist murder of Aldo Moro.
According to our source, Moro was sacrificed because he defied a US veto on appointing communists to his government The murder was carried out by the Red Brigade, which had been heavily penetrated by agents of the Italian security services.
"There were other activities as well and there were Stay Behind people implicated in the fascist bomb attack on Bolobna railway station in 1980". In that attack, 85 people were killed and hundreds injured.
Last summer one of the men jailed for his part in the Bologna mass murder - Licio Gelli, the grandmaster of the P2 masonic lodge - was released after a sucessful appeal against his conviction.
In the interview the ex-NATO operative said that Ted Shackley, the CIA's deputy station chief in Rome, "fixed a meeting between Alexander Haig and Gelli at the US embassy in Rome in the early 1970s, when Haig was President Nixon's chief of staff".
"Money", he said, "was then filtered to Stay Behind or Gladio as it was called in Italy with the blessing and knowledge of both Haig and the then head of the US National Security Council, Henry Kissinger. Their aim was to prevent a communist takeover at all costs. "This did not come cheap. To my knowledge, the CIA alone spent over $100 million on Stay Behind in Europe and this was quite separate from other funds coming out of Washington. "There were, and still are arms dumps all over Europe", he said, "and as many as 900 of these remain intact". It was confirmed in Rome on 20 November that explosives from one such secret arsenal at Aurisina in Italy went missing in late 1971 just before a fascist car-bomb attack killed three policemen at Peteano.
Turning to Germany, the ex-intelligence man had further dramatic revelations. He avowed that the US Office of Policy Co-ordination, which fronted for the CIA, had "incorporated lock, stock and barrel the espionage outfit run by Hitler's spy chief Reinhard Gehlen
"This is well known", he commented, "because Gehlen was the spiritual father of Stay Behind in Germany and his role was known to the West German leader, Konrad Adenauer, from the outset. Adenauer signed a secret protocol with the US on West Germany's entry into NATO in May 1955 in which it was agreed that the West German authorities would refrain from active legal pursuit of known right-wing extremists.
"What is not so well-known", he went on, "is that other top German politicians were privy to the existence of secret resistance plans. One of these was the then German State Secretary and former high-ranking nazi, Hans Globke".
Elaborating on this, our source said that the operation drew its main personnel from former SS and Waffen SS men during the early post-war years and that these were trained by officers of the British SIS. Later the operation was taken over by a secret wing of the Federal German Intelligence Service, the BND.
Stay behind armies: The Response of the British Ministry of Defense
Together with the US Pentagon the British Ministry of Defense (MOD) played a central role in planning, setting up and running the stay-behind armies in Western Europe as the entire network was modelled after a secret British army which had operated behind enemy lines during World War II: The Special Operations Executive (SOE).
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill during World War II ordered that under the label SOE a secret army was to be created "to set Europe ablaze". The Prime Minister's War Cabinet Memorandum of 19 July 1940 recorded that "The Prime Minister has further decided, after consultation with the Ministers concerned, that a new organisation shall be established forthwith to co-ordinate all action, by way of subversion and sabotage, against the enemy overseas."
SOE was placed under the command of the Labour Ministry of Economic Warfare under Hugh Dalton who stressed: "We have to organise movements in enemy-occupied territory comparable to the Sinn Fein movement in Ireland, to the Chinese Guerrillas now operating against Japan, to the Spanish Irregulars who played a notable part in Wellington's campaign or - one might as well admit it - to the organisations which the Nazis themselves have developed so remarkably in almost every country in the world. This 'democratic international' must use many different methods, including industrial and military sabotage, labour agitation and strikes, continuous propaganda, terrorist acts against traitors and German leaders, boycotts and riots". In total secrecy a resistance network had thus to be installed by dare-devils of the British military and intelligence establishment: "What is needed is a new organisation to co-ordinate, inspire, control and assist the nationals of the oppressed countries who must themselves be the direct participants. We need absolute secrecy, a certain fanatical enthusiasm, willingness to work with people of different nationalities, complete political reliability."
Operational command of SOE was given to Major General Sir Colin Gubbins, a small, slight, wiry Highlander. "The problem and the plan was to encourage and enable the peoples of the occupied countries to harass the German war effort at every possible point by sabotage, subversion, go-slow practices, coup de main raids etc.," Gubbins described the task of SOE, "and at the same time to build up secret forces therein, organised, armed and trained to take their part only when the final assault began. In its simplest terms, this plan involved the ultimate delivery to occupied territory of large numbers of personnel and quantities of arms and explosives."
After the end of World War II SOE was closed down, and the British Special Forces Special Air Service (SAS) took over responsibility to assist the British foreign secret service MI6 to set up the stay-behind network in Western Europe and train military officers of the network. Among those trained by the British SAS ranged also Decimo Garau, an instructor at the Italian Gladio base Centro Addestramento Guastatori (CAG) on Capo Marargiu in Sardinia. "I was in England for a week at Poole, invited by the Special Forces. I was there for a week and I did some training with them," Instructor Garau recalled after the exposure of Gladio in 1990. "I did a parachute jump over the Channel. I did some training with them and I got on well with them. Then I was at Hereford to plan and carry out an exercise with the SAS."
Next to the Italians the British also trained Swedish members of the stay-behind armies. Reinhold Geijer, a former Swedish military professional, who in 1957 had been recruited into the Swedish stay-behind network and for decades had worked as a regional commander, related in 1996 on Swedish television TV 4 how the British had trained him in covert action operations in England: "In 1959 I went, via London, to a farm outside Eaton. This was done under the strictest secrecy procedures, with for instance a forged passport. I was not even allowed to call my wife" Geijer remembered. "The aim of the training was to learn how to use dead letter box techniques to receive and send secret messages, and other James Bond style exercises. The British were very tough. I sometimes had the feeling that we were overdoing it."
Many within the stay-behind community regarded the British to be the best in the field of secret warfare, more experienced than the military officers of the US. Italian General Gerardo Serravalle, who had commanded the Italian Gladio secret army from 1971 to 1974, was questioned by BBC journalist Peter Marshall on how exactly the secret cooperation was carried out: "I invited them [the British] because we had visited their bases in England - the stay-behind bases [of the UK] - and in exchange for this visit I invited them." Journalist Marshall asked: "Where is the British stay-behind base?" Upon which General Serravalle laughed and replied: "I'm sorry, I'm not going to tell you where it is, because that enters the area of your country's secrecy." Whereupon Marshall, in order to get a guaranteed reply, asked: "But you were impressed with the British?" To which Serravalle replied: "Yes, I was. Because it's [sic] very efficient, very well organised, and the staff was excellent."
To this very day the British Ministry of Defence has declined to comment on the stay-behind armies and terrorism in Western Europe. At the time of the discoveries of the secret armies in 1990 spokespersons at the Defence Department declared day after day to the inquisitive British press: "I'm afraid we wouldn't discuss security matters", and "It is a security matter. We are not speaking about it", and "We cannot be drawn into discussing security matters." As the press continued to raise the Gladio topic British Defence Secretary Tom King, in the midst of preparations for the war against Saddam Hussein, went on the record saying: "I am not sure what particular hot potato you're chasing after. It sounds wonderfully exciting, but I'm afraid I'm quite ignorant about it. I'm better informed about the Gulf."
Unable to gain more information on the secret armies the British press left the Gladio story and moved on to other stories such as the war in Iraq against Saddam Hussein. This lead journalist Hugh O'Shaughnessy to observe in 1992 that "The silence in Whitehall and the almost total lack of curiosity among MPs about an affair in which Britain was so centrally involved are remarkable."
More: Secret Warfare: Gladio By Daniele Ganser
operation GLADIO- the secret Synarchist world war...
Left top: L/Cpl Cooley drives a fork lift with an Iraqi tied to the front, his upper body bound in netting.The soldier said he was moving the man "out of the sun".
Techniques learned at Chicksands?
"Allegations Iraqi prisoners of war were mistreated by UK troops are being investigated, after photographs allegedly showing the abuse were discovered. A British soldier has been arrested on suspicion of taking the pictures, including one showing an Iraqi, bound and gagged, hanging from netting on a fork-lift truck."
POW 'torture photos' investigated
Jun 6 2003 - "The suspect is a married staff sergeant serving in the Bedfordshire-based Intelligence Corps, it was reported today.
According to the Daily Mirror, he is the head of a team specially trained in interrogation and information analysis.
He was taken into custody in the southern port of Umm Qasr after a superior officer used his laptop computer, the paper reported. Intelligence Corps soldiers and officers are considered to be among the most IT literate in the Army. No officers were available for comment at the Defence Intelligence and Security Centre, the Intelligence Corps' headquarters at Chicksands in Bedfordshire."
UK soldier held in Iraq over child porn
DEFENCE INTELLIGENCE & SECURITY CENTRE (DISC).
Chicksands, 1 mile West of Shefford, Bedfordshire SG17 5PR. 01462 - 752125
The Agency was created on 1 October 1996 to integrate all intelligence and most security training into a single tri-Service organisation.
Core functions are to provide training in intelligence and security disciplines, training in conduct after capture, and advice on intelligence and security policy.
The Defence Intelligence and Security Centre trains the Armed Forces and other intelligence agencies in intelligence and security disciplines, and conduct after capture.
It acts as the Department's centre of excellence for the production of imagery intelligence.
Its role is to exploit and analyse imagery from all available sources and produce intelligence products and services to meet the requirements of MOD and the operational Commands.
It provides this intelligence to military commanders and the Government, in support of current military operations, defence planning and wider intelligence matters.
Defence Intelligence & Security School; Joint Services Intelligence Organization; Defence Debriefing Team; Intelligence Corps; Defence Special Signals School and Army Communications & Security Group.
UKINTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY REPORT AUGUST 2003
Chicksands COLONEL IN CHIEF ???
Field Marshal HRH - The Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh
[KG KT OM GBE AC QSO]
in the foreword to his 1986 book If I Were an Animal, Prince Philip wrote:
``I just wonder what it would be like to be reincarnated as an animal whose species had been so reduced in numbers that it was in danger of extinction. What would be its feelings toward the human species whose population explosion had denied it somewhere to exist.... I must confess that I am tempted to ask for reincarnation as a particularly deadly virus.''
While there is no evidence that Prince Philip has yet been reincarnated thusly, there is ample evidence that the British Royal Consort and de facto chief operations officer of the London-centered Club of the Isles, has devoted the last 36 years of his life to death and destruction, beginning with his 1961 founding of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), now known as the World Wide Fund for Nature.
Prince Philip's principal collaborators in launching the WWF as a funding and worldwide operations arm of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, were Sir Julian Huxley and Max Nicholson, both ardent advocates of eugenics and racial purification. In fact, Huxley was president of the Eugenics Society when he co-founded the WWF. First, as head of the United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization (Unesco), and later as a WWF founder, Huxley preached the need to revive race science and the urgent mission of ``culling the human herd''--particularly of the darker-skinned races of Africa and South America. In the founding document of Unesco, Huxley had frankly acknowledged the difficulties he would encounter in reviving eugenics, in light of the Nazi genocide. ``Even though it is quite true that any radical eugenic policy will be for many years politically and psychologically impossible,'' he wrote, ``it will be important for Unesco to see that the ... public mind is informed of the issues at stake so that much that now is unthinkable may at least become thinkable.''
The method Huxley and others devised for forcing people to ``think the unthinkable,'' was to replace the idea of eugenics with the idea of environmentalism. Huxley, Prince Philip, and the others, however, understood that, in their way of thinking, the two terms were interchangeable. During a 1960 tour of Africa, on the eve of the launching of the WWF, Huxley openly boasted that the ecology movement would be the principal weapon used by the British oligarchy to impose a Malthusian world order over the dead body of the nation-state system, and, most importantly, the United States.
It is no coincidence, in the context of Huxley's remarks, that the man who helped found the Canadian branch of Prince Philip's WWF, Maj. Louis Mortimer Bloomfield, would be implicated by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Bloomfield, the wartime liaison of the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, ran the Montreal-based Permindex Corporation, the entity identified in the Garrison investigation as the hands-on controller of the Kennedy assassination plot.
Tinny Blair Blares For Prince Philip's Global Eco-Fascism
PRINCE HARRY apologised today over the Nazi solider uniform, but refused to apologise for attending a 'natives and colonials' party.
Prince Harry, third in line to the throne, was facing pressure today to make a personal apology after being pictured in an Afrikan Corp Nazi uniform at party.
Clarence House issued an apology on his behalf for 'embarassment caused' and 'poor choice of costume.'
But the royal household refused to apologise for 20-year-old Harry attending the 'natives and colonials' themed bash in the first place.
Black information link
These people are NOT nice...at all...
"The Carlyle Group has had Daddy Bush as a senior consultant and polished bagman and blackmailer, sent to shake-down and collect from, the degenerate Saudi royalty, long-time users, jointly with the rotted out royalty of Kuwait, of black chattel slaves. The directors of Carlyle have included former prime ministers, such as of the United Kingdom; an overthrower of the Portugal government, who had been a deputy director of the American CIA; and various expensive dressed sharks who know how to shake loose war contracts from the corrupt, blackmailable Pentagon and their military uniform swindlers.
Among other things, Carlyle buys up war-mongering industries, stock-watered down telecoms, big-time big-town real estate, such as downtown Chicago; and an assortment of related and unrelated businesses.
A fraud upon the throne of England is Queen Elizabeth II, actually not British royalty, but from German royalty, from the House of Hanover. A fake name, the "House of Windsor", was created early in the 20th Century, to cover up the German domination of Buckingham Palace. A sizeable portion of supposed British royalty, including the Cliveden set (pals of the Kennedy Family) were pro-Hitler. On the eve of World War Two, King Edward 8th abdicated his throne. Why? Because he wanted to marry a commoner? No, because he was pro-Nazi.
A true heir [????] to the British throne was Princess Diana of Wales and her brother, from the Catholic House of Stuart. Thus, you can see why Queen Elizabeth's husband, Prince Phillip, arranged with British counter-intelligence, MI-6, to assassinate Princess Diana and pass it off as an "accident".
Middle finger news
House of Hanover
Now think Landmines - think Princess Diana...
Whatever happened to Diana's landmines legacy?
After Princess Diana's death, governments pledged to end the scourge of landmines. Five years on, her legacy has been squandered
Paul Donovan - Sunday August 25, 2002
One of Diana, Princess of Wales, most notable achievements in life and death was the role she played in securing a ban on anti-personnel landmines. Her involvement effectively secured millions of pounds of free publicity for the campaign seeking a ban on the weapon. Ironically, Diana's death put the icing on the cake, acting as a catalyst to propel the British Government and others forward toward signing the Ottowa Treaty banning the weapon in December 1997. Sadly, five years on it would seem that this legacy has been wasted.
After the Ottowa Treaty, governments failed to live up to funding promises on landmine clearance and a number of arms companies were caught trying to sell the banned weapon in the UK. Other arms companies meantime sought ways of getting round the treaty.
The first of a number of media exposes of wrongdoing involved a Romanian arms company being caught trying to sell the banned weapon at a British Government sponsored arms exhibition in Surrey. There was a media outcry and the government set up an inquiry overnight.
As the journalist who helped expose the Romtehnica firm's activities at the Defence Systems and Equipment International Exhibition in Surrey I had hoped that there would be a positive outcome from the government inquiry. In the event, after taking statements from all concerned the police passed a case file to the Crown Prosecution Service and nothing further happened. In fact a year later the company's promotional materials were on the Romanian stand at the Farnborough airshow.
At the same DSEI show a reporter from Channel 4's Dispatches caught a salesman from Pakistan Ordnance Factories also offering banned anti-personnel landmines for sale. A Customs and Excise investigation followed but nothing further happened.
Most recently, a BBC investigation has claimed that another company, PW Defense, was allegedly involved in selling the banned weapon. This has led to a police file again being sent to the CPS, which has yet to announce its next move.
While the British Government signed the Ottowa Treaty, there remain serious questions over its willingness to police it properly.
Further evidence of how seriously arms companies took the treaty banning anti-personnel landmines came in the form of the development of anti-vehicle mines. Anti-vehicle mines are not banned under the Ottowa Treaty and provide a convenient way of getting round the law.
The loophole in the Ottowa Treaty that allows this to happen centres on its definition of anti-personnel landmines in terms of design rather than effect. "The definition means that a manufacturer could escape liablility by arguing that the weapon was designed to be a washing machine but just happened to have the effect of a landmine," said Rae McGrath, a landmine consultant and former director of the Mines Advisory Group. "Definition has got to be by effect. If any weapon has the effect of an anti-personnel mine it should be banned."
This weakness has meant that the unbanned anti vehicle mines can be fitted with sensitive fuses and anti-handling devices to effectively become large and more lethal anti-personnel landmines.
One example is the German AT-2, a scatterable anti-vehicle mine equipped with an anti-handling device and magnetic fusing. The AT-2 is sensitive enough to be detonated by a person stumbling over it or even, at times, by the proximity of a person. As a result, the Italian government destroyed all its AT-2 mines in 1997. The Ministry of Defence, which made such a public show of destroying its anti-personnel landmines, continues to hold an estimated 100,000 AT-2 mines in its stocks.
The charitable campaigning group Landmine Action points out that between 50 and 75 per cent of existing anti-vehicle mines are equipped with anti-handling devices. In terms of usage, one in every five landmines lying dormant in two of the worst effected countries, Angola and Ethiopia, is of the anti-vehicle variety.
While the Blair government did much to spin its early ethical credentials on the back of signing and ratifying the Ottowa Treaty in 1997, its actions since suggest something less than commitment to this cause. In addition to the failure to police the treaty effectively, it has taken a miserly approach to funding clearance.
Many would argue that given the particularly prominent role that British companies like Royal Ordnance and Hunting Engineering played in the past in producing and selling anti-personnel landmines that there is a moral imperative on the government to contribute substantially to the clear up. Not so, it would seem.
The British government commits £10 million of its overseas aid budget for humanitarian mine action. Landmine Action have pointed out that if the British Government devoted a similar percentage of Gross Domestic Product to landmine clearance as say Canada or Denmark then Britain would be giving £32 million a year. Rather than addressing this relative lack of funding Clare Short's department seem set on a policy that seems guaranteed only to ensure less value from the funds that are already allocated.
Last year, Short announced that funding for humanitarian mine action would be channelled via the UN. "We shall be placing particular emphasis on strengthening the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) and associated UN system agencies so that they can improve their capacity and performance," said Short.
Less well publicised was the fact that UN agencies cream off a 13 per cent handling charge for any funds that come through their auspices. This charge helps to ensure that UN bureaucrats in New York, Geneva and elsewhere can continue to live in the lifestyle to which they have become accustomed.
True to form, DFID has now revealed that the majority of its anti-landmine funding for the coming financial year is going to support UN bureaucracy while not for profit Non-Governmental Organisations supported by Diana, like the Manchester-based Mines Advisory Group, are squeezed out. Only £3 m of the £10m budget allocated for landmine action is being spent on actual clearance.
So overall the British government's commitment to first uphold the ban it signed up to under the Ottowa Treaty and second promote landmine clearance is highly suspect. The law enshrining the ban in UK domestic law has so far proved ineffectual while the amount given for clearance is derisory and misdirected. Not a great legacy for a Princess.
to an Address of the Honourable the House of Commons
dated 18 July 1996 for the Appendices to the Report of the Inquiry into
the Export of Defence Equipment and Dual-Use Goods to Iraq and Related
Prosecutions laid before The House on 15 February 1996*
Section D Arms and Defence-Related Exports to Iraq
Chapter 7 Other Allegations of Illegal Arms Exports to Iraq
(I) ROYAL ORDNANCE
(I) ROYAL ORDNANCE
D7.1 Until 1984 the
Royal Ordnance factories were an integral part of the Ministry of Defence
and were the principal suppliers of ammunition, land weapons and fighting
vehicles to the UK armed forces. *1 On 20 August
1984 the factories were incorporated and became Royal Ordnance Royal Ordnance Plc. *2
All of the shares were vested in the Secretary of State for Defence and
the company therefore remained wholly Government-owned. Although after
its incorporation Royal Ordnance Royal Ordnance Plc operated as a commercial organisation,
it was obliged to prepare annually a corporate business plan which had
to be agreed by the Secretary of State. The Secretary of State was also
answerable to Parliament for the Governments investment in Royal Ordnance.
After an unsuccessful proposed public flotation, in April 1987 Royal Ordnance
was sold in its entirety to British Aerospace Royal Ordnance Plc.
D7.2 Prior to its
incorporation Royal Ordnance, by virtue of its status as part of the Crown,
was not required to obtain licences for the export of its goods.
*3 However, there was an informal system in place which ensured
that its exports were authorised by the relevant Departments. In particular,
AWP applications were submitted before contracts were signed and were
considered by the MOD and FCO in the normal way. *4
After incorporation Royal Ordnance became subject to the ordinary export
licensing regime. This obviously continued after its sale to British Aerospace.
D7.3 A number of
allegations have been made, both in press articles and in letters to the
Inquiry, that Royal Ordnance exported ammunition to Iraq in breach of
the Guidelines. *5 The volume of allegations made
about Royal Ordnance seems disproportionately high compared to those made
about other companies involved in the manufacture and export of arms,
ammunition and defence equipment. I attribute this, in no small part,
to the fact that it used to be a Government-owned company and, in the
absence of publicly available information about the companys export licence
applications, speculation has mounted without any sustainable evidence
to support the allegations. Nonetheless I have investigated two of the
more specific allegations and my conclusions on these are set out below.
As to the more general allegations, I have no reason to believe from the
evidence with which I have been supplied that export licences or AWP clearances
were granted to Royal Ordnance to export ammunition to Iraq in the period
covered by my terms of reference. I have, however, also investigated the
possibility that Royal Ordnance ammunition ostensibly exported to a third
country was diverted for use in Iraq.
D7.4 In investigating
the possibility of diversion I have asked Lieut-Colonel Glazebrook detailed
questions about a number of individual Royal Ordnance ELAs/AWPs. *6
I have also obtained a list from British Aerospaces Royal Ordnance Division
(who have cooperated fully with the Inquiry), of all exports of ammunition
by the company to Austria, Portugal, Spain, Yugoslavia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia
and Jordan in the period 1987 to 1990. *7 The list
was sent by the Inquiry to Lieut-Colonel Glazebrook with a request for
him to assess whether, having regard to the quantities and specifications
of the ammunition exported, there was any reason to suspect that the end-user
was likely to have been different from that stated. In his written statement
to the Inquiry dated 31 October 1994 Lieut-Colonel Glazebrook, after dealing
individually with each of the exports contained in the list, said as follows:
In summary, I have found no instance in which I have good reason to believe
that the end-user was likely to have been different from that stated.
D7.5 Given Lieut-Colonel
Glazebrooks expert assessment, I am satisfied that there would have been
no reasonable ground for the Government to have suspected that the Royal
Ordnance ammunition specified in the companys list would be diverted
for use in Iraq. As to whether actual diversion took place after export,
I am not in a position to investigate this fully, nor do I consider it
necessary for me to do so. I have taken the view that investigation of
potential export control offences, committed without Government knowledge
or acquiescence, is best left to those who have that responsibility and
the resources to do so, viz, the Commissioners of Customs and Excise.
That said, I have seen no tangible evidence that Royal Ordnance was knowingly
involved in the diversion or trans-shipment of ammunition to Iraq in the
period covered by my terms of reference.
*1 - see the letter
from the MOD Scott Inquiry Unit dated 1 February 1994 (MOD/716)
*2 - The incorporation
of Royal Ordnance took effect pursuant to the Ordnance Factories and Military
Services Act 1984 (MOD/716)
*3 - see the letter
from the DTI Scott Inquiry Unit dated 20 September 1993 (DTI/523). The
Import, Export and Customs Powers (Defence) Act, 1939, did not bind the
*4 - From 1983 AWP
applications were processed by MOD/DESS who would, in appropriate cases,
seek advice from other MOD branches and from FCO/NPDD. From December 1984,
AWP applications in respect of exports to Iraq were considered by the
MODWG and the IDC: see the letter from the MOD Scott Inquiry Unit dated
23 December 1992 (MOD/12)
*5 - see, for example,
the article in the Financial Times of 19 November 1989 Company Shrugs
*6 - see paragraphs
E2.17 and E2.59-E2.61 infra.
*7 - The list provided
by Royal Ordnance gives details of contracts for the sale of ammunition
which includes technical specifications, quantities and prices. Those
details are regarded by Royal Ordnance as being of commercial sensitivity.
Since I am content with Lieut-Colonel Glazebrooks assessment that he
has found no instance in which he has good reason to believe that the
end-user was likely to have been different from that stated there is
no need for me to publish the list.
*8 - In respect of
a few of the exports Lieut-Colonel Glazebrook said that he would require
further technical information before he could make a final assessment
of the possibility of diversion. However, given his conclusions on the
many exports on which he was able to express a final view, I did not consider
it necessary to obtain this additional information. For the reasons stated
in the footnote 7 above, Lieut-Colonel Glazebrooks statement dated 31
October 1994, which deals exclusively with his consideration of the Royal
Ordnance list of ammunition exports, will not be published.
* The Full
report is available from The Stationery Office Ltd., PO Box 276, London,
Prince Charles Visits British Troops in Iraq
By Donna Miles - American Forces Press Service WASHINGTON, Feb. 11, 2004 --
Britain's Prince Charles paid a surprise visit to Iraq Feb. 9, praising the British troops deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom for maintaining security in southern Iraq and supporting the war on terror.
British Embassy officials in Washington said the prince arrived at the Al- Sarraji Palace compound in Basra - once Saddam Hussein's palace and now an operational headquarters for British troops - for the first visit by a member of the British royal family to Iraq since the former dictator's ouster from power.
Some 9,000 British soldiers are serving in Iraq, with 4,500 of them based in Basra, forming part of the 20th Armoured Brigade.
Arriving in a Chinook helicopter, the Prince of Wales -- dressed in desert camouflage and wearing a black beret -- mingled with soldiers from the Royal Regiment of Wales, the Parachute Regiment's 2nd Battalion, and the Army Air Corps regiments and thanked them for their service in Iraq.
"This part of the world doesn't have much chance unless their armed force can learn a lot from your experience," he was quoted as telling the troops, "not only in the military, but in the hearts and minds."
The prince also presented the Wilkinson Sword of Peace to the 2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment for its peacekeeping efforts following the conflict in Afghanistan.
"I was enormously impressed by what you managed to achieve," the prince told the soldiers. "I hope you feel there is some sense of reward for the difference you managed to make for so many people who live in Kabul." He also lauded the soldiers for setting up a football match in Afghanistan, saying British troops "have a great way of conducting that all-important hearts-and-minds campaign."
After his speech, officials said, the soldiers jumped to attention in a semicircle around the prince and gave three loud cheers, raising their berets in the air with each call.
Prince Charles also met with Iraqi officials to discuss political and economic issues in post-war Iraq. Among those he visited were Judge Wail Abl al-Latif, provincial governor and member of the Iraqi Governing Council, and Gabriel Qassab, the Catholic archbishop of Iraq.
Royal Ordnance Plc
sold to BAE in 1987:
BAe is a major aerospace and defence company with a turnover in 1994 of over 7 billion. It is mainly engaged in the design, development and production of civil and military aircraft, of guided weapon systems and of other defence support services. Its joint venture BAeSEMA provides ship design services and combat management systems. Its subsidiary Royal Ordnance (RO) manufactures ammunition and guns.
British Aerospace Public Limited Company and VSEL Royal Ordnance Plc: A report on the proposed merger
March 2006 - Condi Rice visits BAE systems in UK
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in Liverpool...Blackburn?
she said that "no-one should doubt America's commitment to justice and the rule of law. In a major foreign policy speech" Ms Rice said ..."the US had no desire to be the world's jailer", referring to the detention of inmates at Guantanamo Bay. She said ..."the cause of advancing freedom was the greatest hope for peace today."
[read the shocking letter by Jumah Al Dossari, a Bahraini national whose attorney found him hanging by his neck in a suicide attempt at Guantanamo in October 2005]
Hopes of meeting former Beatle Paul McCartney fell through, a mosque withdrew its invitation and a local luminary lined up to host a concert in nearby Liverpool pulled out as a political statement. She visited a school in this community that is 25 percent Muslim, but many of the children were kept home for the day by protesting parents. Others cut classes to join the protests.
Jack Straw also guided Condoleezza Rice around the BAE Systems factory in the Ribble valley, which makes the Joint task force fighter... on the first day of a visit during which protesters had to crane their necks around police cordons to catch a glimpse of the high-security cavalcade. She then went to Blackburn Footbal club to meet the overpaid game-rigging soccer twats..as they graciously curtzied and fluttered their dopey eyes at the fuhrers ladyhawk...Rice was supposed to attend a match, but it was mysteriously moved toa Monday night kick-off...
funnily enough this visit co-incides with rumours that the UK is less than happy with the deal - The head of British military procurement ...Lord Drayson... told the U.S. Congress this month that the UK would be unable to follow through with plans to buy Lockheed Martin Corp.'s next-generation F-35 Joint Strike Fighter unless the United States could ensure that Britain would be able to do its own upgrades, including software, once the jets enter service. [report]
Lord Drayson is an interesting fellow...he got his peerage after lending New Labour shitloads of cash...he also had his fingers in a dodgy pharma deal involving a new type of injecting mech syringe that was unreliable......HEY just llike Tessa Jowells hubby David Mills - who was helping tax dodge infected Blood supplies via italy - small world isn't it?
Harry will go to danger zone
[my note...and be sacrificed... because...cant you tell... he's NOT Charles' Son...He's Dianas' Lover - James Hewitts offspring...]
By Thomas Harding 01/02/2006
Prince Harry is to be sent to Iraq next year as a troop commander and is likely to patrol the hazardous border with Iran, defence sources have disclosed.
The third in line to the throne will join the Army's 1st Mechanised Brigade, which will be deployed to Basra in May 2007. The prince has told colleagues that he is determined to go on operations and be treated as normally as possible - not kept out of the line of fire.
Defence chiefs, in consultation with the Prince of Wales's office, will have to devise a plan that will not put his life or those of his troops in any greater danger. Substantial planning will go into the deployment and the media is likely to be asked for co-operation on security aspects of the mission. As a troop commander in the Blues and Royals, the prince will have the rank of cornet, equivalent to a second lieutenant, in charge of 11 men and four light tanks.
The reconnaissance formation will patrol the long border with Iran where weapons, insurgents, drugs and money are smuggled. The prince's men will use night vision equipment to find terrorists trying to bring in sophisticated bomb making devices.
The desert patrols last up to 10 days with supplies being dropped from aircraft. The work is said to appeal to the soldiers as a mixture of Lawrence of Arabia and Prince 'is a cracking officer' the early SAS long-range desert patrols of the Second World War. Although the mission will be hazardous, the prince is keen that his royal position will not disqualify him.
"There's no way I'm going to put myself through Sandhurst and then sit on my arse back home while my boys are out fighting for their country," he has said.
Instructors at Sandhurst have been impressed by Prince Harry's approach. "He is going to be a real asset to the Army," a senior officer said. "It would be a real shame if the Palace or MoD did not allow him to go on operations because he is a cracking officer."
what's the bet on him being kidnapped and paraded on TV - over, say the Christmas period?
|Blair in IRAQ
"...[Blair] said British armed forces were "the new pioneers of soldiering in the 21st century"
defending the world against the dual threats of terrorism and brutal and repressive regimes.
The prime minister - who flew in on a military jet from the Egyptian resort of Sharm-el-Sheik,
where he spent the Christmas break with his family - also spoke of the "virus of Islamic terrorism".
He warned that brutal and repressive regimes were developing weapons of mass destruction that
were "a huge liability for the whole security of the world." In the case of Iraq, he said:
"If we had backed away... we would never have been able
to confront this threat in the other countries where it exists."
Blair praises UK troops in Basra
Flashback: President Clinton breezed into Blackpool, grabbed a burger and then schmoozed a starstruck Labour conference with his Hollywood pal Kevin Spacey - as Mr Clinton's travelling companion in Blackpool 2002,
below Spacey is an acting coach...as he watches Clinton woo the vetted crowd at yet another managed rally
"When I see him speak, I thank the Lord he is on my side" - Tony Blair
|Killing in the name of ???
Blair patently insane - its all down to GOD!
Asked about joining the US-led invasion in March 2003, he said: "That decision has to be taken and has to be lived with, and in the end there is a judgment that -- well, I think if you have faith about these things then you realise that judgment is made by other people."
Pushed to clarify what he meant, Blair, a devout Christian, replied: "If you believe in God, it's made by God as well." He said: "This is not just a matter of a policy here or a thing there, but of their lives and in some case their death ... the only way you can take a decision like that is to try to do the right thing, according to your conscience and for the rest of it you leave it to the judgment that history will make."
Parkinson asked Blair whether he prays to God when making a decision such as going to war. He responded: "Well, I don't want to get into something like that." Pressed on the subject Blair answered: "Of course you struggle with your own conscience about it because people's lives are affected and it's one of these situations that I suppose very few people ever find themselves in. In the end you do what you think is the right thing."
Blair came on to huge applause, which seemed to shock him...he was appearing alongside US actor Kevin Spacey - a known friend of Blair & Bill Clinton...
So...is Kevin Spacey Blairs acting coach?
watch the interview if you can find it - and notice Blairs acting technique is being observed and managed by Spacey...who, when Blair is asked about his relationship with Bush...actually moves away from him physically...as if to keep up the right/left paradigm pretense...the camera closes in on Blairs face as he tries to cover the simple fact that all of the questions are vetted / known beforehand...by looking apprehensive of Micheal Parkinson, who said he has shared many a coffee/beer/ footy match with the PM...
Blairs approval rating before this show was a measly 28%
Blair is a stooge - a puppet leader, no different to the Georgian, Ukrainian, and Iraqi US appointed leaders
The Queen visiting Sydney Opera House in 2000 (left) and again today (right)
March 2006: Deja vu as Queen visits Sydney
By Jenny Booth Times - March 13, 2006
There was a sense of deja vu as the Queen arrived at Sydney harbour today dressed in a lime green hat and matching suit for her official Commonwealth Day engagements. Hadn't the Queen worn an almost identical outfit when she last walked round the famous opera house, six years ago? At least the weather was better today, as the 79-year-old monarch opened a new wing of the opera house. Back on March 20 2000 the Queen had needed an umbrella to protect herself against a torrential downpour. Today she was greeted by blazing heat, and by crowds of hundreds of onlookers waving Australian flags.
Celebrating Commonwealth Day for the first time outside the United Kingdom, the Queen described Sydney harbour as "rich in memories and symbolism" - a sentiment with which many of her listeners could agree. She was accompanied by her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, as she opened the first new exterior extension to the Sydney Opera House, the iconic building she opened in 1973.
"This is a very happy occasion for Prince Philip and me, rich in associations, memories and symbolism," she said.
The Queen said that on her first visit to the Opera House site, 52 years ago, the city was smaller, the skyline more modest and the magnificent building no more than a dream.
"Ahead were decades of spectacular national growth; an immigration programme that was to change the face of Australian society and enrich the entire nation; a burgeoning of trade and cultural activity that would cement Australia's reputation as a generous and tolerant society, as a proud member of the international community and as a respected neighbour in her region," she said. "I believe that all this is symbolised by the opera house itself."
Hundreds of people gathered on the forecourt of the opera house in the blazing noonday sun to catch a glimpse of their monarch. "I'm originally from England and I was here when the Queen opened the opera house in 1973 and wanted to see her again," said Niki Alldritt.
The Australian Republican Movement had earlier vowed not to disrupt the monarch's visit, which will culminate on Wednesday when she opens the Commonwealth Games in Melbourne.
"I myself will put my hand up and say I think she's a pretty extraordinary woman," said Ted O'Brien, the national chairman of the ARM. "But it's a different story to say therefore that person should be head of Australia."
O'Brien said while there was strong republican sentiment in Australia, it was not anti-Queen or anti-British.
The Queen later attended a Commonwealth Day church service in Sydney during which she called for greater support for people living with HIV-Aids.
She left Sydney for Canberra after attending a Commonwealth Day reception with the Prime Minister, John Howard, and about 200 guests.
Genocide Charges to be laid against Queen
Monday, 13 March 2006, 8:19 pm
Black GST Elder Robbie Thorpe today announced Charges will be laid against the Sovereign Head of Australia, Queen Elizabeth II for Crimes against humanity, including Genocide, against the Indigenous peoples of Australia under the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, the United Kingdom International Criminal Court Act 2001, and the Commonwealth Criminal Code Act 1995 (Amendment Division 268 2002) - Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court.
"Successive Australian Colonial Governments have been, and are unwilling or unable to resolve these fundamental questions of law. Therefore, the Queen of Australia is personally responsible for the crimes perpetrated against our people and I will be presenting these charges against her when she arrives in Melbourne next week" said Mr Thorpe today.
"Queen Elizabeth II has been the sovereign ruler of Australia for the entire time that these laws have been in place and she has done nothing to stop the continuing genocide of our peoples, which is going on in this country. "The Queen is demonstrating utter contempt towards the Sovereign law of our people if she is to visit this country without addressing these fundamental legal issues, and for this, she must be brought to account under International Law. "
"The Queen is the defender of the Christian Faith which defines her laws and it is incumbent upon her to visit the Sacred Fire to discuss Sovereignty and Treaty issues with our Sovereign people. "The onus is on the Queen to rectify and address this unfinished business or she will have to answer these questions in the International Criminal Court. - scoop.co.nz
British prime minister visits Australia
[March 25, 2006] (UPI Top Stories Via Thomson Dialog NewsEdge)British Prime Minister Tony Blair is in Australia to attend the closing session of the Commonwealth Games and meet government leaders.
Blair's itinerary includes stops in New Zealand and Indonesia, the BBC reported Saturday.
While he is in Australia, the prime minister is expected to give the second of three major speeches on foreign policy. His office says the speech to Australia's federal parliament will stress the need for a broad global alliance, while the third, to be delivered in the United States will talk about reform of international institutions. Blair will also become the first foreign leader to attend a full meeting of the Australian cabinet, the Sydney Morning Herald reported.
Australia is one of the few Commonwealth countries to join the coalition in Iraq.
During his visit, Blair also plans to lay a wreath at the memorial in Canberra to Australians who fell in the two world wars, in Korea and in Vietnam. The anti-war movement in Australia plans demonstrations at some of his appearances
Blair 's flight from Brussels to Melbourne set a non-stop record of 18 hours and 55 minutes in the air. - tmcnet.com
Foreign Policy is now domestic policy?
Iraq struggle pivotal: Tony Blair
Paul Kelly, Editor-at-Large - March 27, 2006
BRITISH Prime Minister Tony Blair says the struggle in Iraq is pivotal to the defeat of global terrorism and that it would be "unthinkable" to walk away - a direct rejection of the policy of federal Opposition Leader Kim Beazley. In an interview with The Australian in Melbourne yesterday, Mr Blair championed close ties with the US, saying:
"When I look at the problems of the world today, none of them can be solved without America."
Trying to minimise the embarrassment to his friend the ALP leader, Mr Blair said he had not arrived to "give lectures" and that Labor was "perfectly entitled" to its position. Yet Mr Blair's visit highlights the gulf over Iraq and the global war on terror between the British Government and the Labor Party in Australia.
"It is the policy of everybody that we withdraw at some stage," Mr Blair said of Iraq. "The question is when. "The answer to that is when the Iraqi Government wants that to happen and at the moment they need us as they build up their own strength. "Whatever people thought about the original decision to go to war, for the last 2 1/2 to three years we have been there with a United Nations resolution and with the consent of an elected government."
Mr Blair said that provided the new Iraqi Government "want us to help" and "build up their capability, then it seems to me it is essential - since it is so important that we win this battle in Iraq - that we help."
This contradicts Mr Beazley's policy that Australia's forces should be withdrawn in May at the end of the current rotation, apart from those protecting diplomats and the naval deployment.
When questioned about the consequences of the withdrawal policy, Mr Blair said he wanted to "tread carefully" given the domestic political issues and his own experience of the difficulties of Opposition. Yet he was unequivocal about the issues at stake. "What's happened is that since Saddam has gone the whole mindset of our (public) opinion is almost that if there are insurgents or terrorist killings, and if people in Iraq stop the political process, that's a reason for us not being there," he said. "In my view, that's a reason to see the job through.
"Otherwise, what we are saying is that when people want democracy and terrorists are trying to stop them, then we walk away. This to me would be unthinkable. "In the end, it is extremely important that we make sure that this succeeds. This is why this global terrorism is so anxious to stop us in Iraq and Afghanistan - because if they succeed in that then they stop the possibility of democracy taking the place of religious fanaticism in these countries. "Whereas if we succeed and if democracy takes root in Iraq and Afghanistan then I think, after that, global terrorism is on a downward path because their key weapon of propaganda - namely, that it is the desire of America and its allies to punish Muslim countries - will be shown to be false."
Mr Blair said Iraq was on the eve of a "major turning point in the whole struggle" - the challenge of forming a unity government from Sunni, Shia and Kurdish political parties.
"If that was formed" it would represent a "genuine unity government". This was now the core issue - a unity as distinct from a sectarian government.
Mr Blair saw the close of the Commonwealth Games last night, will hold talks today with the Government and Opposition and is to address federal parliament in the second of three speeches sketching a global strategy to defeat the terrorists.
"The essence of the winning strategy is to say that our ultimate security lies in the spread of our values," he said. "These are not Western values. They are actually universal values, and the key to winning this battle is to match our concern with security and finding security with concern for democracy and justice."
The Blair philosophy is to stick tight with the US on security issues as the best means to influence US policy on the agenda of global justice and the multilateralism that is the social democrat aspiration.
"The important thing is to be alongside America on the security agenda because that affects all of us," he said. "But that agenda has to be broadened out. It is important that we listen and that they listen. I think on many of these issues you see an evolution of American policy over the past few years. "How can we resolve the problems of Africa, the Middle East or world trade without the engagement of America?"
Mr Blair said the simplest way for any politician in Europe to get a round of applause was to attack America. "But it is not very wise because, in the end, the American alliance is of central importance to our security.
"For all the faults of America, it is still a very, very strong democracy and strong repository of the basic values we believe in. "Who else are we going to have a major alliance with? I've always said to people that for us in Europe we should build out from the trans-Atlantic alliance."
Mr Blair said September 11 was not only an attack on America, but was also an attack on the Western way of life. "America was attacked because it was the most powerful repository of the values we believe in," he said. "That's why my whole thinking changed - this was an attack on all of us. People should be under no doubt: if we end up saying to America - when an attack like that happens, we're not with you, we're not standing with you - then why should America stand with us?"
Mr Blair said there had been "a real evolution in American policy". "I would describe it in this way: they now see the solution to this global terrorism in helping the whole of the Middle East into a different place.
"I think the Americans see this now as not just about security measures but also as building support for key values that in the end are a way of empowering people within the Middle East and Muslim countries to move to democracy and freedom as the basis for their societies."
On Iraq, Mr Blair said it was the toughest decision of his nine years as PM but that he had no regrets about the decision. "I don't believe the insurgents will ever win," he said. "In a sense, that is not their purpose. Their purpose is to tip the country into chaos and into sectarian strife."
Asked about the risk of weapons of mass destruction, he asked: "Should Iran be allowed to develop a nuclear weapons capability in circumstances where its President recently described the objective of Iran as to wipe Israel off the face of the earth? It's not sensible."
He warned that there was a WMD risk to our societies and communities. "The purpose of terrorism is not simply the act of killing innocent people," Mr Blair said. "It was to produce a set of consequences designed to create fear, to have countries drawing in on themselves and people losing confidence."
He said that one of the "most difficult things to explain in modern politics to a domestic audience" was that foreign policy was now domestic policy.
British sun sets on Pacific as China waits in shadows
By Nick Squires in Sydney (Filed: 01/04/2006)
The Union flag was lowered yesterday for the last time in Tonga, one of Britain's oldest friends and allies, as China prepared to extend its foothold in the South Pacific. The closure of Britain's high commission, a picturesque white wooden villa in the capital, Nuku'alofa, brings to an end a presence dating from the 1830s.
In the past year the Foreign Office has closed its high commissions in Kiribati, a former British colony known as the Gilbert Islands, and Vanuatu, formerly the Anglo-French New Hebrides. As the British pull out of a region they have dominated since the voyages of Captain James Cook more than 230 years ago, China is flexing its strategic and economic muscle beyond its traditional sphere of influence.
Wen Jiabao, China's second most powerful leader, will next week lead a delegation of 200 to a trade summit with six South Pacific nations, in an unprecedented visit. The forum, to be held in Fiji, is expected to yield political and commercial agreements aimed at opening the region to the Chinese. China's interest is three-fold: to compete with Taiwan in securing the diplomatic allegiance of island states, to secure raw materials such as timber, gas and gold, and to challenge Western powers such as Australia, New Zealand and the United States, which have gradually tried to bridge the gap left by Britain.
Susan Windybank, from the Centre for Independent Studies, an Australian think-tank, said: "China is increasing its presence, both diplomatically and economically, particularly with resource-rich countries such as Papua New Guinea, Fiji and the Solomon Islands."
China now has nine diplomatic missions in the South Pacific - the largest number of any country, and no fewer than eight South Pacific heads of state had the red carpet rolled out for them on trips to Beijing in 2004 and 2005.
"It's clear that China wants to be the hegemon of the region," said Miss Windybank. "In the future that may include a military presence, as they expand the capabilities of their navy. "Britain is no longer a player in the Pacific, nor does it want to be. It's the end of an era."
Tony Blair acknowledged the shift during his official visit to New Zealand last week. He discussed the impending Chinese summit with his counterpart, Helen Clark, and told her that from now on Britain will have to rely on New Zealand as its eyes and ears in the region. But Mr Blair will be disappointed if he thinks New Zealand can act as a regional gendarme - Wellington scrapped the combat capability of its air force four years ago and its navy is small. There are concerns that along with China's much needed trade and investment come less welcome imports.
Thousands of Chinese have poured into the region in recent years, along with powerful triad gangs involved in prostitution, illegal gambling and drug trafficking. In 2004, Fijian police broke up a huge methylamphetamine manufacturing operation involving Chinese and Hong Kong nationals, the biggest in the southern hemisphere.
Unlicensed Chinese fishing boats are plundering the Pacific for fish such as tuna and China is also involved in illegal timber. In a report this week, Greenpeace estimated that more than 90 per cent of logging in Papua New Guinea was being conducted illegally, with most of the timber ending up in China.
British missionaries arrived in Tonga in the 1830s and in 1875, the Rev Shirley Baker helped draft a constitution for the king, who changed his name to George.
Paul Nessling, Britain's last high commissioner, said the closure of the mission represented "the end of an era for the two peoples who live at opposite ends of the world".
Britain's interests in Tonga, Vanuatu and Kiribati will be handled from its high commission in Fiji.
Tonga's prime minister, Feleti Sevele, the first commoner to hold the job following his appointment yesterday, said Tonga had been a faithful friend of Britain for almost two centuries. Tongan soldiers fought and died for the Empire during both World Wars, and ordinary Tongans raised enough money to buy three Spitfires. Britons were charmed during the Queen's coronation in 1953 when Queen Salote refused to shelter beneath an umbrella despite torrential rain in London.
But perhaps the real surprise lies in the fact that the British had maintained a presence for so long.
Ian Campbell, professor of politics at the University of the South Pacific in Suva, Fiji, said: "It's a long way away and is of no particular strategic value. It was a part of the Empire which was acquired almost by default. "Britain has much more important fish to fry."
Prince Harry graduates from Sandhurst
Wed Apr 12 2006
Prince Harry has graduated from Sandhurst as a commissioned officer in the Army. The 21-year-old was watched by his grandparents the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh, his father the Prince of Wales, stepmother the Duchess of Cornwall and brother Prince William as he marched in the military college's Sovereign's Parade.
Two hundred and nineteen officer cadets, including Prince Harry and 16 overseas cadets, passed out and received their commissions. The third in line to the throne, who last week joined Army pals at a lap dancing club, is now a 2nd Lieutenant. He has chosen to join the Household Cavalry's Blues and Royals. In the Blues and Royals his rank is referred to as a Cornet. He will serve in an armoured reconnaissance unit.
He will train to become a troop commander, in charge of 11 men and four light tanks, and could be sent to serve on the front line in Iraq or Afghanistan.
As the newly commissioned officers marched up the steps of the grand Old College building at the end of the ceremony, the Prince technically became 2nd Lieutenant Harry Wales. But tradition dictates that the 'pips' on his shoulder - one star signalling his rank as 2nd Lieutenant - remain covered up until midnight at the Sandhurst ball the same evening.
Prince William will be there ready to rip off the tape when the clock strikes midnight.
Clarence House insisted that Harry's girlfriend Chelsy Davy and William's Kate Middleton would not be there during the day. Chelsy is believed to be accompanying Harry to the Sandhurst ball in the evening, along with Kate.
The Queen addressed the newly-commissioned officers and inspected both ranks of the senior division and the front rank of the junior division during the parade. She presented the prestigious Sword of Honour to the best cadet and also handed out the Overseas Medal and the Queen's Medal. It was the first time in 15 years that she has attended a Sovereign's Parade in the quadrangle of the college in Camberley, Surrey.
During the ceremony, Harry marched with a thin silver ceremonial sword to the sound of a military band. His older brother, as a first-termer, did not take part in the parade. Unlike Harry, Prince William went to university before going to Sandhurst. William, who is expected to join the Welsh Guards when he leaves, had to salute his younger brother after the commissioning parade. - www.itv.com/