Tell me...Is this what 'freedom' represents?
some of the Iraq 'Torture images' that were released are from this site...[caution]
& are NOT REAL torture Photos...
"they [american voters] live in an intense field, an electromagnetic
haze, of marketing, advertising, and commercial propaganda twenty-four
hours a day. Americans are so saturated with this stuff that they regard
it as normal communication." John
"Irony as a mode of communications was appropriate for peacetime, but that now gets called into question." source |
"Happily for them, the American public seems to be pathologically incapable of asking too many hard questions about why it is we are so reviled the world over. The media, increasingly controlled by a few very wealthy often pro-Likud nuts like Mortimer Zuckerman (US News and World Report, NY Daily News and Atlantic) and Rupert Murdoch ( 175 newspapers , Weekly Standard, UPI and Fox TV Network), profit mightily by sanitizing the sort of news that might make the American public suspicious of the motives and methods of our governors. Murdoch has used his newspapers to pooh pooh the number of civilians killed and likely to be killed in Iraq, saying we had just better get on with the murderous task Bush has set our military to do. Michael Powell, Chairman of the FCC and chip off the old black, Colin, favors the sort of deregulation that is strangling diversity in media."
Buggers and Profits of War By: W. Campbell
There is a cartel of five giant media conglomerates who now control the media on which a majority of Americans say they most rely. These five are not just large - though they are all among the 325 largest corporations in the world - they are unique among all huge corporations: they are a major factor in changing the politics of the United States and they condition the social values of children and adults alike.
These five huge corporations - Time Warner, Disney, Murdoch's News Corporation, Bertelsmann of Germany, and Viacom (formerly CBS) - own most of the newspapers, magazines, books, radio and TV stations, and movie studios of the United States.
These Big Five (with General Electric's NBC a close sixth) do not manufacture automobiles, or clothing, or nuts and bolts. They manufacture politics and social values. The media conglomerates have been a major force in creating conservative and far right politics in the country. They have almost single-handedly as a group, in their radio and television dominance, produced a coarse and vulgar culture that celebrates the most demeaning characteristics in the human psyche - greed, deceit, and cheating as a legitimate way to win (as in the various "reality" shows).
The New Media Monopoly
The tap root of modern corporate socialism runs deep into the management of two affiliated multi-national corporations: General Electric Company in the United States and its foreign associates, including German General Electric (A.E.G.), and Osram in Germany. We have noted that Gerard Swope, second president and chairman of General Electric, and Walter Rathanau of A.E.G. promoted radical ideas for control of the State by private business interests.|
From 1915 onwards International General Electric (I.G.E.), located at 120 Broadway in New York City, acted as the foreign investment, manufacturing, and selling organization for the General Electric Company.
I.G.E. held interests in overseas manufacturing companies including a 25 to 30-percent holding in German General Electric (A.E.G.), plus holdings in Osram G.m.b.H. Kommanditgesellschaft, also in Berlin. These holdings gave International General Electric four directors on the board of A.E.G., and another director at Osram, and significant influence in the internal domestic policies of these German companies. The significance of this General Electric ownership is that A.E.G. and Osram were prominent suppliers of funds for Hitler in his rise to power in Germany in 1933. A bank transfer slip dated March 2, 1933 from A.E.G. to Delbruck Schickler & Co. in Berlin requests that 60,000 Reichsmark be deposited in the "Nationale Treuhand" (National Trusteeship) account for Hitler's use.
Antony C Sutton
From David Ickes book
'Infinitue love is the only truth, Everything else is illusion'
Corporate Nepotism: From the White House to Clear Channel, it's All in the Family
It seems as though the millennium is turning into the "Age of Nepotism". From the White House, to Clear Channel, one can draw a family triangle of sorts tying top government officials with top media ownerships. For example, we have been forced to accept a second generation of Bush in the White House, who's brother was conincidentally involved with the election controversy as Govenor of Florida.
While President Bush now resides in Washington D.C., the nepotism continues, linking him with the largest commercial radio station group owner, Clear Channel Communications out of Texas. Lowry Mays, CEO of Clear Channel is very friendly with the Bush family, being a fellow Texan with a background in petroleum interests. Another link between Bush and Clear Channel exists between the deal that was made when Bush sold his interest in the professional baseball team, the Texas Rangers, to Tom Hicks, then CEO of AMFM Communications. Tom Hicks, of the leveraged buyout firm Hicks, Muse, Tate and Furst, has had substantial interests in the radio broadcast industry.
After the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Hicks combined radio companies (Chancellor Media) with his brother Steve Hicks (Capstar Broadcasting) forming AMFM. which was then aquired by Clear Channel Communications bringing in the Mays family. Lowry Mays, the patriarch is CEO of Clear Channel. His two sons, Mike and Randy are also closely tied in as Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer. Clear Channel engulfed nearly 70 seperate radio groups across the United States. While on the campaign trail last year, FCC commissioner Michael Powell along with his infamous father General Colin Powell were being prepped for top offices under the hopeful Bush administration.
The FCC Chairman appointment to Powell was less than surprising after the ultimate outcome of the selection of our current President. One of the first big issues that Commissioner Powell had to face was the largest communications merger in history, the billion dollar AOL - Time Warner nuptuals. What the general public was shieled from thanks to the relationship of politics and corporate broadcasters, was the fact that General Colin Powell was on the Board of Directors for AOL, and subsequently was profiting from millions of dollars of AOL stock options.
Upon doing a search on SEC filings by General Powell, we found that he also owned stock in Time Warner prior to the merger. Commissioner Powell did not exclude himself from the FCC approval, citing there was no basis to a "fuzzy" connection between himself and AOL. The FCC has been quick in acting upon corporate media mergers, yet slow in acting when it comes to public needs and trust. The Hicks, Mays, Powell's and Bush's are all part of our corporate dominated landscape of nepotism.
It's a family orgy of wheeling and dealing, trading and influence in order to benefit their personal interests. It's corporate political control. A wilding entanglement of special interests and backdoor favors of the power elite. With the media under control of corporate and political interests, it's no wonder something like the 2000 election fiasco occurred. A theatrical display of correographed moves by the media shaped a staged future for America to which the extreme right wing can manipulate at will. Family ties like these are not unlike those which are portrayed as mafia like, but of a higher echelon. Our current administration is extremely friendly with the large corporate media families. For they all have something to gain from one another, at the expense of the trust and integrity of the American public. - partytown.com
I wonder who made and promotes this billboard...?
"Media manipulation [in the war on terror]officially began when the Pentagon opened its Office of Strategic Influence (OSI) following the 11 September attacks. The OSI's explicitly Orwellian mandate was to spread misinformation aimed at brainwashing the international press and "influencing public opinion and political leaders in friendly as well as unfriendly countries" (4). Reminiscent of the darkest years of the McCarthy era and the cold war, a virtual ministry of disinformation and propaganda, operating under the aegis of the US department, has been charged with disseminating an "official version of the truth". Such activities are usually associated with the world's more grotesque dictatorships."
The other axis of evil
by IGNACIO RAMONET
"For wider, not necessarily literate audiences, movies were understood to be especially effective in spreading American social values. Franklin Roosevelt directed in 1945, the year of his famous meeting with Saudi Arabia's King Abd al-Aziz, that U.S. influence in the Middle East be expanded, and proposed, along with his wife Eleanor, that American films be shown in the region. During the 1950s, U.S. officials, concerned about insufficient anticommunist fervor among Middle Easterners, and increasingly aware of Arab disillusionment with the West, identified a solution: "we have to make more movies out there." Points of view to be presented in such films were to be controlled, if possible: the State Department was advised to approach an American film distributor to ensure that "pro-Russian" movies (like "Red Star", a World War II-era film about Nazi occupation of a Russian village) were not shown in "critical areas," such as Iran. "
U.S. Propaganda in the Middle East - The Early Cold War Version
"Our major media have acted as stenographers and broadcasters for its propaganda, with little criticism of the regimes deception and outright lies. Idiotic fables that linked Iraq to al quaida and a weapons threat, with as much evidence as links chicken soup to AIDS, were treated as feasible, and acceptable. Disgrace should not only be reserved for government figures but for our corporate media, without whose cooperation these demented policies could not be maintained. "
Dumb, Dumber, Dumbest
Colonel Sam Gardiner reveals classic Iraq Psyops operations
Retired U.S. Air Force Colonel Sam Gardiner has published an analysis which suggests that the White House and Pentagon made up or distorted more than 50 news stories related to the war in Iraq.
A summary of his conclusions:
The United States (and UK) conducted a strategic influence campaign that:
distorted perceptions of the situation both before and during the conflict.
caused misdirection of portions of the military operation.
was irresponsible in parts.
might have been illegal in some ways.
cost big bucks.
will be even more serious in the future.
The truth from these podia
The Army's internal study of the war in Iraq criticizes some efforts by its own psychological operations units, but one spur-of-the-moment effort last year produced the most memorable image of the invasion.
As the Iraqi regime was collapsing on April 9, 2003, Marines converged on Firdos Square in central Baghdad, site of an enormous statue of Saddam Hussein.
It was a Marine colonel not joyous Iraqi civilians, as was widely assumed from the TV images - who decided to topple the statue, the Army report said. And it was a quick-thinking Army psychological operations team that made it appear to be a spontaneous Iraqi undertaking...
After the colonel - who was not named in the report - selected the statue as a "target of opportunity," the psychological team used loudspeakers to encourage Iraqi civilians to assist, according to an account by a unit member...
...Ultimately, a Marine recovery vehicle toppled the statue with a chain, but the effort appeared to be Iraqi-inspired because the psychological team had managed to pack the vehicle with cheering Iraqi children.
in Pictures: Saddams statue falls
CNN and psy-ops [ $ ][ $ ] US
psy-ops meddling in
"The third sort of manipulation is the most insidious when intelligence agency propaganda stories are planted on willing journalists, who disguise their origin from their readers. There is or has been until recently a very active programme by the secret agencies to colour what appears in the British press, called, if publications by various defectors can be believed, "I/Ops". That is an abbreviation for Information Operations,"
Britain's security services and journalists: the secret story
British Journalism review, 2000
The truth spinners double whammy - 'leaked press memo' disinformation?
"(November 1) One of our people in Baghdad was roughed up and had his camera and film confiscated by MPs yesterday because he dared to film two dead GIs. That is the new policy direct from the President No, repeat, no, pictures of dead Iraqi civilians and most surely, no dead or wounded GIs. Two foreign reporters have been shot very dead for disobeying these orders. We are deciding about pulling our people out and letting the Pentagon supply its faked pictures in the future"
Controlling the News. Part 23
"The Barnes Report is an anti-Semitic web site whose primary propaganda goal is disparagement of Jews and denial that the Nazi Holocaust ever occurred. The home page of the Barnes Report includes articles with titles such as "The Myth of the Six Million" and "Jewish History, Jewish Religion," which states, "When the Roman historian Tacitus pointed out 19 centuries ago that the Jews are unique among the races of man in their intense hatred and contempt for all races but their own, he was only repeating what many other scholars had discovered before him."
Fake whistleblower memos on media bias in the Iraq war
Counterinsurgency and disinformation on Indymedia
"The United Capitalist Front (UCF) is a coalition of right wingers, conservatives and pro-capitalists working together to divide and conquer the effectiveness of the internet through disinformation and psychological warfare as counterinsurgency."
Indymedia posting 13.11.2003 03:06
So how does it go?
Is juicy [Dis]information peddled to people who like the conspiracy angle...to make them appear intolerant?
Does the truth get 'leaked' to untrustworthy politically incorrect media outlets...?
Helpfully making truth-seekers seem extremist?
Guess we should all just shut up and watch these GGGREAT movies! DUR OK...
Pat Tillman - The Psyopped Death of a US Pro-Football star
"Tillman's mother and father said in interviews that they believe the military and the government created a heroic tale about how their son died to foster a patriotic response across the country," White reported.
While military officials' lying to the parents have gained wide publicity in the past two days, hardly anyone has mentioned that they also lied to the public and to the press, which dutifully carried one report after another based on the Pentagon's spin. It had happened many times before, as in the Jessica Lynch incident.
Tillman was killed in a barrage of gunfire from his own men, mistaken for the enemy on a hillside near the Pakistan border. "Immediately," the Post reported, "the Army kept the soldiers on the ground quiet and told Tillman's family and the public that he was killed by enemy fire while storming a hill, barking orders to his fellow Rangers." Tillman posthumously received the Silver Star for his "actions."
The latest military investigation, exposed by the Post earlier this month, "showed that soldiers in Afghanistan knew almost immediately that they had killed Tillman by mistake in what they believed was a firefight with enemies on a tight canyon road. The investigation also revealed that soldiers later burned Tillman's uniform and body armor."
Patrick Tillman Sr., the father -- a lawyer, as it happens -- said he blames high-ranking Army officers for presenting "outright lies" to the family and to the public. "After it happened, all the people in positions of authority went out of their way to script this," he told the Post. "They purposely interfered with the investigation, they covered it up. I think they thought they could control it, and they realized that their recruiting efforts were going to go to hell in a handbasket if the truth about his death got out. They blew up their poster boy."
"Maybe lying's not a big deal anymore," he said. "Pat's dead, and this isn't going to bring him back. But these guys should have been held up to scrutiny, right up the chain of command, and no one has." - mediainfo
If these people can invent heroes,
then surely they can invent villains...
think about it...
How dumb do you need to be to have to be told the following?
"Tune in to cable and independent TV stations late at night. They look like TV shows. They sound like TV shows. They often feature celebrities, but they aren't regular TV shows. Infomercials are simply a new type of TV commercial.
They look real because they copy the format of TV entertainment shows. Because these shows look and sound like real shows -- usually featuring guests, a regular host and a studio audience -- many people believe that they are legitimate, unbiased shows. In reality, they are simply paid advertisements featuring compensated actors endorsing products or services."
How to Protect Yourself:
The Ford foundations media empire...from questions questions.net
"A group of antiwar advocates is accusing Clear Channel Communications, one of the nation's largest media companies, with close ties to national Republicans, of preventing the group from displaying a Times Square billboard critical of the war in Iraq.
The billboard - an image of a red, white and blue bomb with the words "Democracy Is Best Taught by Example, Not by War" - was supposed to go up next month, the antiwar group said, and it was to be in place when Republicans from across the country gathered in New York City to nominate President Bush for a second term.
But members of the group, Project Billboard, contend that Clear Channel backed out of a leasing agreement last month that the two had reached in December for the billboard site, on the Marriott Marquis Hotel at Broadway and 45th Street."
More Media manipulation...by the NY police
Dennis Kyne put up such a fight at a political protest last summer, the arresting officer recalled, it took four police officers to haul him down the steps of the New York Public Library and across Fifth Avenue.
"We picked him up and we carried him while he squirmed and screamed," the officer, Matthew Wohl, testified in December. "I had one of his legs because he was kicking and refusing to walk on his own."
Accused of inciting a riot and resisting arrest, Mr. Kyne was the first of the 1,806 people arrested in New York last summer during the Republican National Convention to take his case to a jury. But one day after Officer Wohl testified, and before the defense called a single witness, the prosecutor abruptly dropped all charges.
During a recess, the defense had brought new information to the prosecutor. A videotape shot by a documentary filmmaker showed Mr. Kyne agitated but plainly walking under his own power down the library steps, contradicting the vivid account of Officer Wohl, who was nowhere to be seen in the pictures. Nor was the officer seen taking part in the arrests of four other people at the library against whom he signed complaints. ...
For Mr. Kyne and 400 others arrested that week, video recordings provided evidence that they had not committed a crime or that the charges against them could not be proved, according to defense lawyers and prosecutors.
Among them was Alexander Dunlop, who said he was arrested while going to pick up sushi.
Last week, he discovered that there were two versions of the same police tape: the one that was to be used as evidence in his trial had been edited at two spots, removing images that showed Mr. Dunlop behaving peacefully. ...
Paul J. Browne, a police spokesman, said that videotapes often do not show the full sequence of events, and that the public should not rush to criticize officers simply because their recollections of events are not consistent with a single videotape.
-found on situation room blog from SubIntSoc originally from The New York Times
US government faked Bush news reports
TV news reports in America that showed President George Bush getting a standing ovation from potential voters have been exposed as fake, it has emerged.
The US government admitted it paid actors to pose as journalists in video news releases sent to TV stations intending to convey support for new laws about health benefits.
Investigators are examining the film segments, in which actors pretending to be journalists praise the benefits of the new law passed last year by President Bush, to see if they could be construed as propaganda.
Two of the films are signed off by "Karen Ryan", who was an actor hired to read a script prepared by the government, according to production company Home Front Communications
One segment shows a pharmacist telling an elderly customer the new law "helps you better afford your medications".
"It sounds like a good idea," the customer says, to which the pharmacist replies, "A very good idea."
And in some scenes President Bush is shown receiving a standing ovation from a crowd cheering him as he signed the Medicare law, which is designed to help elderly people with prescriptions.
The government also prepared scripts to be used by news anchors. "In December, President Bush signed into law the first-ever prescription drug benefit for people with Medicare," the script reads.
Gannongate: Fake whitehouse press dupe linked to DC-Pedo-ring / assasintation of Hunter S Thompson
The following article is a classic example of
Psyops covering Psyops...
The BBC's 'handlers' do not want you to think that an agency with a vested interest
could possibly write in nefarious content into WESTERN MEDIA...
The sub-text is: This only happens in wartime & in foreign lands...it's a LIE
US army to produce Mid-East comic
The US military is planning to win the hearts of young people in the Middle East by publishing a new comic.
The army comic may encounter competition from Arab superheroes created by an Egyptian publisher
An advertisement on the US government's Federal Business Opportunities website is inviting applications for someone to develop an "original comic book series".
"In order to achieve long-term peace and stability in the Middle East, the youth need to be reached," the ad says.
"A series of comic books provides the opportunity for youth to learn lessons, develop role models and improve their education."
The comic is to be a collaborative effort with the US Army, which says it has already done initial character and plot development.
It will be based on "the security forces, military and police, in the near future in the Middle East" and is being produced by US Special Operations Command at Fort Bragg in North Carolina.
Fort Bragg is home to the army's 4th Psychological Operations Group, known as "psy-op warriors", whose weaponry includes radio transmitters, loudspeakers and leaflets.
The unit, whose slogans include Win the Mind - Win the Day and Verbum Vincet (The Word Conquers), is schooled in marketing and advertising techniques.
In the past few years, its soldiers have been deployed during conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan dropping leaflets and cartoons urging surrender and broadcasting pro-American messages via radio and television.
A spokesman at Fort Bragg told BBC News website that the initiative for the comic-book project came from the US Department of Defense's Central Command, which is responsible for US security interests in 25 Middle Eastern and Arab nations.
According to the advertisement, the successful applicant will ideally need to have experience of law enforcement and "small unit military operations" - along with a knowledge of Arab language and cultures.
The aim is to involve the ministries of interior of some of Middle East countries.
The army is aiming to test initial comics on focus groups and based on their success or otherwise, will either be developed further or dropped completely.
The US army's comic could see competition from a new Egyptian publishing venture which has created what it bills as the first Arab superheroes: Zein aka the Last Pharaoh, Rakan, a hairy medieval warrior in Mesopotamia, Jalila, a brainy Levantine scientist and fighter for justice and Aya, a North African described as a "vixen who roams the region on her supercharged motorbike confronting crime wherever it rears its ugly head".
AK Comics says its goal is "to fill the cultural gap created over the years by providing essentially Arab role models, in our case, Arab superheroes to become a source of pride to our young generations."
Bush's Conversation With U.S. Soldiers Was Rehearsed
10.14.2005 8:34 AM EDT - White House denies allegations that teleconference was scripted.
It was billed as a candid chat between President Bush and American troops in Iraq about the upcoming constitutional referendum and the progress of the war. But critics are calling it a carefully scripted media play that was preceded by a dress
The teleconference took place on Thursday when 10 hand-picked soldiers from the Army's 42nd Infantry Division were assembled in class-photo-style seating in a building in Tikrit — the birthplace of former Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein — to speak to the president, who was in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building in Washington. According to The Associated Press, the questions asked during the call were carefully choreographed to match the president's goals for the war in Iraq and Saturday's crucial vote on the nation's new constitution.
"This is an important time," deputy assistant defense secretary Allison Barber told the troops before Bush arrived, according to the AP. "The president is looking forward to having just a conversation with you." Barber said the president wanted to cover three topics: the overall security situation in Iraq, security preparations for the weekend vote and efforts to train Iraqi troops (see "U.S. Sending 1,500 More Troops To Iraq This Fall").
After asking for some water bottles to be removed from the shot, Barber then staged what was described as a brief rehearsal, in which she asked the soldiers to act out the order of their answers and which topics each would cover.
"If the question comes up about partnering — how often do we train with the Iraqi military — who does he go to?" Barber asked.
"That's going to go to Captain Pratt," one of the soldiers said.
"And then if we're going to talk a little bit about the folks in Tikrit — the hometown — and how they're handling the political process, who are we going to give that to?" she asked. Barber later said the soldiers were coached on general themes the president wanted to discuss, not specific questions.
Once Bush got on the line, he thanked the soldiers and told them that the American people were behind them. "You've got tremendous support here at home," Bush said. A recent AP-Ipsos poll showed less than 40 percent of Americans approved of the way the president is handling the war in Iraq and that just over 50 percent now believe the war was a mistake.
White House press secretary Scott McClellan denied that the event was staged and said the troops were expressing their own feelings. He explained that "coordination" is often needed to overcome such technological challenges as delays in transmission in the satellite feed.
"I think all they were doing was talking to the troops and letting them know what to expect," McClellan said, explaining that the president wanted to talk with troops on the ground who have firsthand knowledge about the situation.
"The troops can ask the president whatever they want," McClellan said. "They've always been free to do that." According to the Los Angeles Times, Bush did not invite the soldiers to ask any questions and none of them elected to do so.
Time magazine reporter Tim Allen told CNN that the White House has said the exchange was "rehearsed, but not scripted," and that it's not unusual for lower level officers to be briefed before speaking to the commander in chief. What's unusual, Allen said, was for the typically buttoned-down Bush White House to allow the reporting pool to see this type of prepping.
"It bolsters the perception that this administration relies too much on spin," Allen said.
According to the AP, the soldiers all gave the president an upbeat assessment of the situation in Iraq.
1st Lt. Gregg Murphy of Tennessee told the president that preparations for the vote were on track. "Sir, we are prepared to do whatever it takes to make this thing a success. ... Back in January, when we were preparing for that election, we had to lead the way. We set up the coordination, we made the plan. We're really happy to see, during the preparation for this one, sir, they're doing everything."
Master Sgt. Corine Lombardo from Scotia, N.Y., told the president that the training of Iraqi troops was going well. "I can tell you over the past 10 months, we've seen a tremendous increase in the capabilities and the confidences of our Iraqi security force partners," she said. "Over the next month, we anticipate seeing at least one-third of those Iraqi forces conducting independent operations."
That assessment came on the same day that a Pentagon report to Congress made public revealed that Iraqi security forces are at least a year away from being able to take over responsibility from U.S. troops in fighting the increasingly deadly insurgency in the country. Several weeks ago, U.S. commanders in Iraq gave a sobering account to Congress about the readiness of Iraqi troops, in which they said the number of 800-men battalions that were ready to operate independently had actually dropped, from three to one.
In another nod to one of the president's recurring themes, Lombardo then told the president that she was in New York on November 11, 2001, when Bush attended an event honoring soldiers for their rescue efforts at Ground Zero. She said that the troops began fighting terrorism following the September 11 attacks and that they were "proud" to continue that fight in Iraq.
"I thought you looked familiar," Bush said, joking, "I probably look familiar to you, too."
An anonymous senior member of the military told the Los Angeles Times that, "Officers are upset that military people would be coached as to how to talk to the president. ... It's against everything that people in uniform stand for." The AP reported that half the troops involved were officers, and the leader of an advocacy group for Iraq war veterans said, "If he wants the real opinions of the troops, he can't do it in a nationally televised teleconference. ... He needs to be talking to the boots on the ground, and that's not a bunch of captains."
Gil Kaufman on MTV [?]
Pentagon doles out up to $300 million for 'psyops'
WP/The Olympian 8.19.2005 WASHINGTON -- The Pentagon awarded three contracts last week, potentially worth up to $300 million over five years, to companies it hopes will inject more creativity into its psychological operations efforts to improve foreign public opinion about the United States, particularly the military.
"We would like to be able to use cutting-edge types of media," said Col. James Treadwell, director of the Joint Psychological Operations Support Element, a part of Tampa-based U.S. Special Operations Command. "If you want to influence someone, you have to touch their emotions."
He said SYColeman Inc. of Arlington, Va., Lincoln Group of Washington, D.C., and Science Applications International Corp. will help develop ideas and prototypes for radio and television spots, documentaries, or even text messages, pop-up ads on the Internet, podcasting, billboards or novelty items.
Treadwell's group was established last year and includes a graphic artist and videographer, he said. It assists "psyops" personnel stationed at military headquarters overseas.
Col. Sam Taylor, a spokesman for the Special Operations Command, which runs the Army's Special Forces, Navy SEALs and other elite combat units, said the contractors might help the military develop commercials in Iraq, for example, illustrating how roadside bombs meant for soldiers also harm children and other innocent civilians.
The companies declined to comment.
The contracts come as the Bush administration has been criticized for its uncoordinated efforts to repair the United States' post-Iraq image problems abroad, particularly in the Muslim world. The State Department, for instance, has been slow to mount a new public diplomacy program headed by former White House aide Karen Hughes. Vice President Dick Cheney said in March that public diplomacy "has been a very weak part of our arsenal."
A Government Accountability Office report in April noted that the Pentagon had been pressing initiatives on "strategic communications" to fill "the planning void left by the lack of strategic direction from the White House." A September 2004 Defense Science Board report concluded that the "U.S. strategic communication must be transformed."
"The department is always looking for ways to improve our communication efforts, and we are working closely with the State Department to support their public diplomacy initiatives where appropriate," Pentagon spokesman Bryan Whitman said in response to questions about how the new psyops program fits into an administration plan.
Some previous Defense Department efforts in the field have been controversial. In 2002, the Pentagon abandoned its Office of Strategic Influence after reports surfaced, which the Pentagon denied, that it would disseminate inaccurate information to foreign media.
After other agencies were criticized for hiring journalists to promote their policies, the Pentagon asked its inspector general to review its use of Fairfax, Va.-based Anteon International Corp. to run Web sites aimed at audiences in the Balkans and North Africa. The Web sites, known as the Southeast European Times and Magharebia, include articles from journalists paid by the Pentagon through the company, as well as articles translated from U.S. newspapers. That review is ongoing.
Treadwell said there is no connection between the Office of Strategic Influence and the Joint Psychological Operations Support Element, adding: "I have never approved a product that was a lie, (or) that was intended to deceive."
SYColeman, a unit of L-3 Communications, is a government-services company with about 1,100 employees, most in the Washington region. According to its Web site, Lincoln Group provides communications services and strategic planning. San Diego-based SAIC, which has 16,000 employees in the Washington region, is among the Pentagon's largest contractors. Its work includes playing a major role in the Army's $100 billion modernization effort and a failed program to create a computerized case-management system for the FBI. - WP/The Olympian Via Free press international
Pentagon rolls out stealth PR
By Matt Kelley, USA TODAY Wed Dec 14, 6:43 AM ET
A $300 million Pentagon psychological warfare operation includes plans for placing pro-American messages in foreign media outlets without disclosing the U.S. government as the source, one of the military officials in charge of the program says.
Run by psychological warfare experts at the U.S. Special Operations Command, the media campaign is being designed to counter terrorist ideology and sway foreign audiences to support American policies. The military wants to fight the information war against al-Qaeda through newspapers, websites, radio, television and "novelty items" such as T-shirts and bumper stickers.
The program will operate throughout the world, including in allied nations and in countries where the United States is not involved in armed conflict.
The description of the program by Mike Furlong, deputy director of the Joint Psychological Operations Support Element, provides the most detailed look to date at the Pentagon's global campaign. The three companies handling the campaign include the Lincoln Group, the company being investigated by the Pentagon for paying Iraqi newspapers to run pro-U.S. stories. (Related story: Contracts for pro-U.S. propaganda)
Military officials involved with the campaign say they're not planning to place false stories in foreign news outlets clandestinely. But the military won't always reveal its role in distributing pro-American messages, Furlong says. "While the product may not carry the label, 'Made in the USA,' we will respond truthfully if asked" by journalists, Furlong told USA TODAY in a videoconference interview.
He declined to give examples of specific "products," which he said would include articles, advertisements and public-service announcements. The military's communications work in Iraq has recently drawn controversy with disclosures that Lincoln Group and the U.S. military secretly paid journalists and news outlets to run pro-American stories.
White House officials have expressed concern about the practice, even when the stories are true. National security adviser Stephen Hadley said President Bush was "very troubled" by activities in Iraq and would stop them if they hurt efforts to build independent news media in Iraq. The military started its own probe.
It's legal for the government to plant propaganda in other countries but not in the USA. The White House referred requests for comment about the contracts to the Pentagon, where officials did not respond. Special Operations Command awarded three contracts worth up to $100 million each for the media campaign in June. Besides the Lincoln Group, the contractors are Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC) of San Diego and SYColeman of Washington. SAIC and Lincoln Group spokesmen declined to comment on the contract. Rick Kiernan, a spokesman for SYColeman, says its work for Special Operations Command is "more in the world of advertising."
Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld has emphasized that Washington must promote its message better. "The worst about America and our military seems to so quickly be taken as truth by the press and reported and spread around the world," he said last week.
The Iraq example may cause Arabs to doubt any pro-American messages, says Jumana al-Tamimi, an editor for the Gulf News, an English-language newspaper published in the United Arab Emirates.
Placing pro-U.S. content in foreign media "makes people suspicious of the open press," says Ken Bacon, a Clinton administration Pentagon spokesman who heads the non-profit group Refugees International. No contractor for the global program has made a final product, Furlong says. Approval will come from Rumsfeld's office and regional commanders. Some of the development work is classified.
"Sometimes it's not good to signal ... what your plans are," he says. - USA Today
framed within the following context
What are they capable of?
Real time live broadcast manipulation?|
"The combination of real-time, virtual insertion with existing and emerging post-production techniques opens up a world of manipulative opportunity. Consider Video Rewrite technology, which its developers at the Interval Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley first demonstrated publicly three years ago. With just a few minutes of video of someone talking, their system captures and stores a set of video snapshots of the way that a person's mouth-area looks and moves when saying different sets of sounds. Drawing from the resulting library of "visemes" makes it possible to depict the person seeming to say anything the producers dream up-including utterances that the subject wouldn't be caught dead saying. " -
Article: Lying with pixelsdigital video manipulation in real time
Total control - Managed Human resources
"An Opcentre puts influence, control and power back into the hands of the government and military, giving them greater power to influence the enemy in time of conflict and enhanced access to their citizens during a crisis. For instance, an Opcentre can be designed to override all national radio and TV broadcasts, allowing the government and military to communicate with the public as the need arises. "
PSYOPs by Strategic communications labs
Must read: You Can't Handle the Truth
Psy-ops propaganda goes mainstream.
America's war on the web
sunday herald 02 April 2006
While the US remains committed to hunting down al-Qaeda operatives, it is now taking the battle to new fronts. Deep within the Pentagon, technologies are being deployed to wage the war on terror on the internet, in newspapers and even through mobile phones. Investigations editor Neil Mackay reports
IMAGINE a world where wars are fought over the internet; where TV broadcasts and newspaper reports are designed by the military to confuse the population; and where a foreign armed power can shut down your computer, phone, radio or TV at will.
In 2006, we are just about to enter such a world. This is the age of information warfare, and details of how this new military doctrine will affect everyone on the planet are contained in a report, entitled The Information Operations Roadmap, commissioned and approved by US secretary of defence Donald Rumsfeld and seen by the Sunday Herald.
The Pentagon has already signed off $383 million to force through the document's recommendations by 2009. Military and intelligence sources in the US talk of "a revolution in the concept of warfare". The report orders three new developments in America's approach to warfare:
Firstly, the Pentagon says it will wage war against the internet in order to dominate the realm of communications, prevent digital attacks on the US and its allies, and to have the upper hand when launching cyber-attacks against enemies.
Secondly, psychological military operations, known as psyops, will be at the heart of future military action. Psyops involve using any media – from newspapers, books and posters to the internet, music, Blackberrys and personal digital assistants (PDAs) – to put out black propaganda to assist government and military strategy. Psyops involve the dissemination of lies and fake stories and releasing information to wrong-foot the enemy.
Thirdly, the US wants to take control of the Earth's electromagnetic spectrum, allowing US war planners to dominate mobile phones, PDAs, the web, radio, TV and other forms of modern communication. That could see entire countries denied access to telecommunications at the flick of a switch by America.
Freedom of speech advocates are horrified at this new doctrine, but military planners and members of the intelligence community embrace the idea as a necessary development in modern combat.
Human rights lawyer John Scott, who chairs the Scottish Centre for Human Rights, said: "This is an unwelcome but natural development of what we have seen. I find what is said in this document to be frightening, and it needs serious parliamentary scrutiny."
Crispin Black – who has worked for the Joint Intelligence Committee, and has been an Army lieutenant colonel, a military intelligence officer, a member of the Defence Intelligence Staff and a Cabinet Office intelligence analyst who briefed Number 10 – said he broadly supported the report as it tallied with the Pentagon's over-arching vision for "full spectrum dominance" in all military matters.
"I'm all for taking down al-Qaeda websites. Shutting down enemy propaganda is a reasonable course of action. Al-Qaeda is very good at [information warfare on the internet], so we need to catch up. The US needs to lift its game," he said.
This revolution in information warfare is merely an extension of the politics of the "neoconservative" Bush White House. Even before getting into power, key players in Team Bush were planning total military and political domination of the globe. In September 2000, the now notorious document Rebuilding America's Defences – written by the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), a think-tank staffed by some of the Bush presidency's leading lights – said that America needed a "blueprint for maintaining US global pre-eminence, precluding the rise of a great power-rival, and shaping the international security order in line with American principles and interests".
The PNAC was founded by Dick Cheney, the vice-president; Donald Rumsfeld, the defence secretary; Bush's younger brother, Jeb; Paul Wolfowitz, once Rumsfeld's deputy and now head of the World Bank; and Lewis Libby, Cheney's former chief of staff, now indicted for perjury in America.
Rebuilding America's Defences also spoke of taking control of the internet. A heavily censored version of the document was released under Freedom of Information legislation to the National Security Archive at George Washington University in the US.
The report admits the US is vulnerable to electronic warfare. "Networks are growing faster than we can defend them," the report notes. "The sophistication and capability of … nation states to degrade system and network operations are rapidly increasing."
T he report says the US military's first priority is that the "department [of defence] must be prepared to ‘fight the net'". The internet is seen in much the same way as an enemy state by the Pentagon because of the way it can be used to propagandise, organise and mount electronic attacks on crucial US targets. Under the heading "offensive cyber operations", two pages outlining possible operations are blacked out.
Next, the Pentagon focuses on electronic warfare, saying it must be elevated to the heart of US military war planning. It will "provide maximum control of the electromagnetic spectrum, denying, degrading, disrupting or destroying the full spectrum of communications equipment … it is increasingly important that our forces dominate the electromagnetic spectrum with attack capabilities". Put simply, this means US forces having the power to knock out any or all forms of telecommunications on the planet.
After electronic warfare, the US war planners turn their attention to psychological operations: "Military forces must be better prepared to use psyops in support of military operations." The State Department, which carries out US diplomatic functions, is known to be worried that the rise of such operations could undermine American diplomacy if uncovered by foreign states. Other examples of information war listed in the report include the creation of "Truth Squads" to provide public information when negative publicity, such as the Abu Ghraib torture scandal, hits US operations, and the establishment of "Humanitarian Road Shows", which will talk up American support for democracy and freedom.
The Pentagon also wants to target a "broader set of select foreign media and audiences", with $161m set aside to help place pro-US articles in overseas media.
Bush 'planted fake news stories on American TV'
By Andrew Buncombe in Washington - Published: 29 May 2006 --independent.co.uk
Federal authorities are actively investigating dozens of American television stations for broadcasting items produced by the Bush administration and major corporations, and passing them off as normal news. Some of the fake news segments talked up success in the war in Iraq, or promoted the companies' products.
Investigators from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) are seeking information about stations across the country after a report produced by a campaign group detailed the extraordinary extent of the use of such items.
The report, by the non-profit group Centre for Media and Democracy, found that over a 10-month period at least 77 television stations were making use of the faux news broadcasts, known as Video News Releases (VNRs). Not one told viewers who had produced the items.
"We know we only had partial access to these VNRs and yet we found 77 stations using them," said Diana Farsetta, one of the group's researchers. "I would say it's pretty extraordinary. The picture we found was much worse than we expected going into the investigation in terms of just how widely these get played and how frequently these pre-packaged segments are put on the air."
Ms Farsetta said the public relations companies commissioned to produce these segments by corporations had become increasingly sophisticated in their techniques in order to get the VNRs broadcast. "They have got very good at mimicking what a real, independently produced television report would look like," she said.
The FCC has declined to comment on the investigation but investigators from the commission's enforcement unit recently approached Ms Farsetta for a copy of her group's report.
The range of VNR is wide. Among items provided by the Bush administration to news stations was one in which an Iraqi-American in Kansas City was seen saying "Thank you Bush. Thank you USA" in response to the 2003 fall of Baghdad. The footage was actually produced by the State Department, one of 20 federal agencies that have produced and distributed such items.
Many of the corporate reports, produced by drugs manufacturers such as Pfizer, focus on health issues and promote the manufacturer's product. One example cited by the report was a Hallowe'en segment produced by the confectionery giant Mars, which featured Snickers, M&Ms and other company brands. While the original VNR disclosed that it was produced by Mars, such information was removed when it was broadcast by the television channel - in this case a Fox-owned station in St Louis, Missouri.
Bloomberg news service said that other companies that sponsored the promotions included General Motors, the world's largest car maker, and Intel, the biggest maker of semi-conductors. All of the companies said they included full disclosure of their involvement in the VNRs. "We in no way attempt to hide that we are providing the video," said Chuck Mulloy, a spokesman for Intel. "In fact, we bend over backward to make this disclosure."
The FCC was urged to act by a lobbying campaign organised by Free Press, another non-profit group that focuses on media policy. Spokesman Craig Aaron said more than 25,000 people had written to the FCC about the VNRs. "Essentially it's corporate advertising or propaganda masquerading as news," he said. "The public obviously expects their news reports are going to be based on real reporting and real information. If they are watching an advertisement for a company or a government policy, they need to be told."
The controversy over the use of VNRs by television stations first erupted last spring. At the time the FCC issued a public notice warning broadcasters that they were obliged to inform viewers if items were sponsored. The maximum fine for each violation is $32,500 (£17,500).
Fake TV News: Findings
Video News Releases
From June 2005 to March 2006, the Center for Media and Democracy documented television newsrooms' use of selected video news releases (VNRs) and satellite media tour (SMT) "interviews." While these 36 examples represent less than one percent of VNRs offered to newsrooms each year, this report provides the most comprehensive survey of fake TV news to date.
Click on the links below to read more about each VNR or SMT, including the client(s) that funded it, the TV stations that aired it, and the deceptive techniques that newsrooms used to disguise it as genuine journalism. You can also compare Quicktime videos of the original VNRs with selected newscasts that incorporated them.
||A Fake News Report About Fake E-Mail
|A software company VNR is nationally syndicated through the Tribune network.
||Safety Information Sold Separately
|A pharmaceutical company dodges federal regulations through fake TV news.
||Work Woes at WBFS-33
|A Florida newscast uses a station reporter to disguise a VNR as journalism.
||"Is Your Child Constantly Sick?"
|An L.A. station drops a two-minute medical commercial into their newscast.
||Shopping Advice from a Store-Bought Expert
Panasonic, Namco, Techno Source
|A seemingly-impartial consumer advocate shills for three corporations.
||A Planted Story on Ethanol Plants
|Five stations run an optimistic news feature that's secretly fueled by profit.
||Prescription-Strength Spin at WCBS-2
Leiner Health Products
|A top-market station turns a corporate VNR into an imbalanced medical feature.
||A Spitting Image of Genuine News
American Dental Association
|The Fox Network adopts a dental industry VNR and distributes it nationally.
||Changing the Past, One Newscast At a Time
|Three stations help GM stake a false claim in Internet history.
||The "Internet Mom" Strikes Again
Texas Instruments, Motorola, Nokia, Swiffer
|A TV tech expert is secretly paid to promote consumer electronic products.
||Steering Wheel Spin On Three Newscasts
|A fake report on state-of-the-art car mechatronics is purely corporate-driven.
||Journalistic Malpractice at WSYR-9
|A Clear Channel station inflicts fake and misleading health news on their viewers.
||Pharma Deception in San Francisco
|Half of a station's "medical breakthrough" story comes from a drug company VNR.
||What's In Your Newscast?
|An NBC station scams its viewers with an anti-scam VNR from a national bank.
||At Halloween Time, the Candy Ads Dress Up as News
|A St. Louis TV reporter does a word-for-word re-voice on a publicist VNR.
||A Few Good Wrenches
|Three stations run a VNR designed to help GM recruit young mechanics.
||Bad Business in Beantown
Toshiba, Fisher Price, Scholastic Media
|A New England NBC affiliate serves viewers a Christmas sham.
||Technology Report Secretly Has Intel Inside
|A Sinclair-owned station keeps deceiving their viewers with fake journalism.
||VNR Gets Extra Mileage Out of Car Commercial
|A news report about a Cadillac ad is actually a Cadillac ad itself.
||A Press Push for Pancakes
|Four newscasts deceive their viewers with a stealth ad for Bisquick.
||Sandwich Spin, Served Up Fresh
|Local stations make a cold cut combo out of a Subway VNR and SMT.
||Dodge is My Co-Pilot
|Three stations air a VNR that promotes child safety (and Chrysler-brand vehicles).
||Spinning the Other Way at KYW-3
|A Philadelphia station runs an unlabeled VNR but reverses the story's context.
||Coverage They Can Count On
|A Michigan newscast delivers an uncut VNR about GM's corporate HQ.
||"Accidental Housewife" Intentionally Hides Her Sponsor Ties
Knowledge Adventure, Brother, Build-A-Bear, Tide-to-Go, Drugstore.com
|A TV homemaking expert just happens to love all her clients' products.
||Unfiltered Spin from an Internet Porn-Blocker
|L.A. station adapts a promotional news release about a child-safe search engine.
||Culinary Advice Served From a Can
Hass Avocado Board, Heinz, Canned Food Alliance, Circuit City
|On two newscasts, a pair of clowning chefs dish out the paid product promotion.
|The nation's "#1 paying-for-college" company also pays for favorable news coverage.
||Valarie D'Elia: Frequent Flying Flack
Sandals, Viking River Cruises, Air Tahiti Nui
|A travel expert stars in corporate VNRs, then smuggles them into her own TV reports.
||Nashville Station Cheats on Tax Report
|A local ABC news story is secretly filed by a national tax preparation franchise.
||The Buzz Gets a Rush
|A morning show that delivers "news with personality" also delivers VNRs with T&A.
||Pay No Attention to the Man Behind the SmartScreen™
|A CBS station runs fake report on high-tech mall displays.
||No Accounting for Ethics
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
|A Southern ABC station runs a rock & roll news story secretly planted by CPAs.
||A Fresh-Cut Front For the Flower Flacks
Flower Promotion Organization
|A planted Valentine's Day report secretly stems from rose peddlers.
||Inorganic Chemistry at KOKH-25
|Oklahoma City station runs a fake news feature from an online-dating service.
||A Ruse By Any Other Name...
|An NBC station tries to turn a brand-name VNR into a generic news report.
Papers by Lieutenant Colonel Timothy L. Thomas, US Army, Retired:
PsyOps & Public Policy General Articles from IWar.Org
Building U.S.- Muslim Understanding and Dialog: Public Diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim Worlds, Ambassador William Rugh (retired),
Foreign Press Center Briefing, Washington, DC, March 16, 2005
Deception 101--Primer on Deception, by Dr. Joseph Caddell. Deception is a traditional component of political and military conflict. This monograph defines terms, examines historical examples, and discusses problems associated with deception. It provides a general overview and may serve as a useful reminder of the basic assumptions and methods concerning the subject, December 2004.
MB], Defense Science Board, September 2004
Broadcasting Board of Governors: Finding the
Right Media for the Message in the Middle
East, the Subcommittee on International Operations
and Terrorism, Senate Committee on Foreign
Relations, April 2004
Launches Arabic Satellite Television Broadcasts
Feb. 14 Alhurra aims to deliver "accuracy" and "free
and open debate", February 2004
Public Diplomacy: State Department and Broadcasting
Board of Governors Expand Efforts
in the Middle East but Face Significant Challenges,
by Jess T. Ford, director, international affairs
and trade, before the Subcommittee on National
Security, Emerging Threats, and International
Relations, House Committee on Government Reform.
GAO-04-435T, February 10, 2004.
Diplomacy Programs Hearing: The Recommendations
of the Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy
for the Arab and Muslim World Hearing, Committee
on Appropriations: Commerce, Justice, and State, the
Judiciary, and Related Agencies, February 2004
- in the Wake of Iraq, Lieutenant-Colonel
Steven Collins assesses the Coalition's perception-management
during and after Operation Iraqi Freedom and their
implications for NATO. Reprinted with permission from
the NATO Review,
NATO Copyright 2003
New Strategic Direction Urged for Public Diplomacy, United
States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy, October
Army and Embedded Media, Lieutenant Colonel
Tammy L. Miracle, U.S. Army, Military Review
2003 English Edition. In Operation Iraqi Freedom,
approximately 500 journalists, photographers,
and news crews ensure that the media receives
to observe actual combat operations. Pros and
cons surround the program, but the bottom line
embedding journalists provides an opportunity
for the world to see the American soldier's dedication
to his mission.
Public Diplomacy: State Department Expands
Efforts but Faces Significant Challenges,
GAO-03-951, September 2003
New Diplomacy: Utilizing Innovative Communication
Concepts That Recognize Resource Constraints,
A Report from the United States Advisory Commission
on Public Diplomacy
International Broadcasting: New Strategic Approach
Focuses on Reaching
Large Audiences but Lacks Measurable Program
Objectives, GAO-03-772, July 2003
developments in Chinese strategic psychological
warfare by Timothy L Thomas. Special Warfare.
Fort Bragg: Apr 2003. Vol. 16, Iss. 1; pg. 9
Solo II: Weapon of Mass Persuasion, March
Public Diplomacy and Islam -- U.S. Senate Committee
on Foreign Relations, Thursday, February 27, 2003
soldiers aim to win hearts, minds - Third United
States Army Kuwait, February 2003
Delivers Arab and American Popular Music, April 2002
Information War on Terrorism: Winning Hearts and
Minds in the Muslim World [2.4 MB] by McClanahan,
Jack R, Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College,
2002. 46 p. (USAWC strategy research project)
U.S. Commando Solo II Takes Over Afghan Airwaves by
Jim Garamone American Forces Press Service, Oct. 29,
Message to the People of Afghanistan... (Text of a
message broadcast by Commando Solo) during Operation
Enduring Freedom. October 2001
US 4th Psychological
Operations Group to get new commander Media
Advisory August 2, 2001
Gulf War 10 years later: Winning the war by convincing
the enemy to go home by Al Zdon. Reprinted with
permission from The
Minnesota American Legion and Auxiliary Legionnaire
, Winning the war by convincing the enemy to go home
by Al Zdon, 2001.
CNN Effect: Strategic Enabler or Operational Risk?
by AUTHOR: Margaret
H. Belknap, Strategy Research Project, March
The Internet and Psychological Operations, by
Angela Maria Lungu , Major US Army, Naval War College,
Operations in the 21st century by
Gary L. Whitley, USAWC Strategy Research
Project, US Army War College, 2000
Units Encouraged to Modernize Their Equipment
by Harold Kennedy. Reprinted
with permission from National
Defense Magazine , Psyops Units Encouraged to
Modernize Their Equipment by Harold Kennedy, February
C2W Information Operations in Bosnia by MAJ Arthur
Tulak, Military Analyst, CALL , June 1999
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas K. Adams, US Army, Retired,
Military Review, Headquarters, Department of the Army
Prepared by US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE
VOLUME LXXVIII - December 1998-February 1999, NO 6
Professional Bulletin 100-98-12
Psychological Operations by Commander Randall
G. Bowdish, US Navy, Military
Review, Headquarters, Department of the Army Prepared
by US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE VOLUME
LXXVIII - December 1998-February 1999, NO 6 Professional
for Psychological Operations: A Proposal US
Air Force Student Research Papers 1998 (Air
University at Maxwell Air Base)
Solo Fact Sheet 193d Special Operations Wing Pennsylvania
Air National Guard
Warfare: An Air Force Policy for the Role of Public
Affairs by Robin K. Crumm, June 1996
Warfare and Psychological Operations:
Rethinking the US Approach [14
MB] by Barnett,
Frank R., and Carnes Lord, NDU, 1989,
dropped Over Iraq 2002
-2003, US Central Command
Leaflets dropped over Afghanistan during Operation
Enduring Freedom October 2001
Leaflets dropped by NATO airplanes above Kosovo and
the Korean War