The Cold war - Fallout in the Middle East?
or Corporate synarchy in action?
Is this guy Russian?|
Massoud Barzani was born the same day that the KDP was founded: on August 16, 1946.
In his words I was born in the shadow of Kurdish flag in Mahabad and I am ready to serve and die for the same
Massoud Barzani was born in Mahabad when his father, the late General Mustafa Barzani, was Chief of the
military of the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad declared in Iranian Kurdistan. When the Republic fell, Mustafa
Barzani went to USSR with five hundred of his devoted followers. Massoud Barzani with the rest of the family
and thousands of Barzani clan members returned to Iraq. They were promptly deported to the southern parts
of the country.
An avid pupil, Massoud Barzani began his primary education in Arabic. Prior to the overthrow of Iraqi
monarch in 1958, he and his family were moved to Baghdad. The new Republic of General Abdulkerim
Qasim welcomed Mustafa Barzani and his followers back to Iraq. -
1961 - Mustafa Barzani, the son of Ahmad Barzani, launches a new round of armed resistance against Iraqi rule that continues for 14 years, mostly with Iranian support.
1963 - American diplomats encourage Kurdish leaders to support the new Ba'ath government in Baghdad, following a U.S.-supported coup. (See interviews with
Jalal Talabani and James Akins) The Ba'ath Party leadership issues a statement saying it "recognized the rights of the Kurdish people."
1970 - The main Kurdish group in Iraq, the Kurdish Democratic Party, negotiates a power-sharing agreement with Vice President Saddam Hussein, believing he is a man they can do business with. Afterwards, four Kurdish leaders become Cabinet Ministers in the Iraqi government.
1971 - Iraqi agents try to assassinate Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani, head of the Kurdish Democratic Party. They hide explosives on a visiting cleric and blow the cleric up via remote control when he sits next to Barzani. (See interview with Mahkmoud Othman who was in the room when the cleric exploded. Also read interview with Abdul-Rahman who talks about repercussions after this assassination attempt, when the Kurds realized they could no longer trust Saddam.)
1972 - Saddam Hussein visits Moscow and signs a "Friendship and Cooperation" treaty with the USSR the following year.
1973 - Richard Nixon makes a secret agreement with Shah of Iran to begin covert action against Saddam's government. The U.S. and Iran then begin funding the Kurds in their battle against the Iraqi regime for an autonomous Kurdistan.
Chronology: Kurdish History [strange timeline with no mention of Iran/Iraq Wars effect on the Kurds
Is this guy American?
While many have thought that Saddam first became involved with U.S. intelligence agencies at the start
of the September 1980 Iran-Iraq war, his first contacts with U.S. officials date back to 1959, when he
was part of a CIA-authorized six-man squad tasked with assassinating then Iraqi Prime Minister Gen.
Abd al-Karim Qasim.
In July 1958, Qasim had overthrown the Iraqi monarchy in what one former U.S. diplomat, who asked not to
be identified, described as "a horrible orgy of bloodshed."
According to current and former U.S. officials, who spoke on condition of anonymity, Iraq was then regarded
as a key buffer and strategic asset in the Cold War with the Soviet Union. For example, in the mid-1950s,
Iraq was quick to join the anti-Soviet Baghdad Pact which was to defend the region and whose members included
Turkey, Britain, Iran and Pakistan.
Little attention was paid to Qasim's bloody and conspiratorial regime until his sudden decision to withdraw
from the pact in 1959, an act that "freaked everybody out" according to a former senior U.S. State Department
Washington watched in marked dismay as Qasim began to buy arms from the Soviet Union and put his own domestic
communists into ministry positions of "real power," according to this official. The domestic instability of
the country prompted CIA Director Allan Dulles to say publicly that Iraq was "the most dangerous spot in
the world." - UPI
Iran - Iraq War 1980-1988
Secretly fostered by Cold war opponents?
The war began on September 22, 1980, when Iraqi troops launched a full-scale invasion of Iran.
Prior to this date there had been subversion by each country inside the other and also major border
clashes. Iraq hoped for a lightning victory against an internationally isolated neighbor in the throes
of revolutionary upheaval. But despite Iraq's initial successes, the Iranians rallied and, using their
much larger population, were able by mid-1982 to push the invaders out. In June 1982, the Iranians
went over to the offensive, but Iraq, with a significant advantage in heavy weaponry, was able to
prevent a decisive Iranian breakthrough. The guns finally fell silent on August 20, 1988. -
THE UNITED STATES AND THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR
When two of the world's leading suppliers of oil go to war, the world has to take sides, but when
the war pits a corrupt dictatorship against a fanatic theocracy, it's hard to know which side to
take. As a purely practical matter, however, it's best to line up with corrupt dictatorships because
they're usually more willing to work a deal. During the Iran-Iraq War, the world as a whole tossed
in with Iraq. The two superpowers openly assisted the Iraqis, as did most centrist Moslem states
such as Egypt, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.
There were exceptions, however. Most of the diplomatically isolated nations of the world, such as Israel, South Africa, Taiwan, Libya and Argentina, supported their fellow outcast, Iran, if only to score one more rare ally and trading partner. Although the Soviets openly supported their traditional client state, Iraq, they covertly assisted Iran in exchange for not meddling in Afghanistan. The United States supplied the Iraqis with intelligence, and committed the US Navy to safeguarding the flow of oil out of (and the flow of money and arms into) Iraq, but secretly sold arms to Iran in order to fund anti-Communist rebels in Nicaragua, and gain influence with hostage-holding Muslim militias in Lebanon. -
Iran vs. Iraq: 1980-1988
The aftermath - US-Isreali Secret Arms trafficking Iran Contra
In October and November 1986, two secret U.S. Government operations were publicly exposed, potentially
implicating Reagan Administration officials in illegal activities. These operations were the provision
of assistance to the military activities of the Nicaraguan contra rebels during an October 1984 to October
1986 prohibition on such aid, and the sale of U.S. arms to Iran in contravention of stated U.S. policy and
in possible violation of arms-export controls. In late November 1986, Reagan Administration officials
announced that some of the proceeds from the sale of U.S. arms to Iran had been diverted to the contras.
In serious hot water...Tipping the kettle
In 1983, DCI Casey asked Secretary of Defense Weinberger if the Department of Defense ("DoD")
could obtain infantry weapons that Israel had confiscated from PLO forces. Following discussions
between Major General Meron of Israel and Retired Major General Richard Secord of the United States
government ("USG"), Israel secretly provided several hundred tons of weapons to the DoD on a grant
basis in May 1983. This was known as Operation TIPPED KETTLE.
In February 1984, the CIA again asked
DoD if it could obtain additional PLO weapons from Israel at little or no cost for CIA operational use.
After negotiations between March 1984 and July 1984, Israel secretly provided the additional weapons
to DoD in Operation TIPPED KETTLE II. The DoD then transferred the weapons to the CIA. Although CIA
advised Congress that the weapons would be used for various purposes, in fact many of them were provided
to the Nicaraguan Resistance as appropriated funds ran out. (The effort to funnel materiel to the
Contras at a time when there were limits on the amount of funds the USG could spend to support the
Resistance also found expression in 1984 in Project ELEPHANT HERD, under which the CIA was to stockpile
weapons and materiel provided by DoD at the lowest possible cost under the Economy Act.) DoD assured
Israel that, in exchange for the weapons, the U.S. Government would be as flexible as possible in
its approach to Israeli military and economic needs, and that it would find a way to compensate
Israel for its assistance within the restraints of the law and U.S. policy. -
A war in Iran? The Caucases?
PowerMongers: Flashback - The October Suprise
On November 4, 1979, Iranian militants stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive. This terrorist act triggered the most profound crisis of the Carter presidency and began a personal ordeal for Jimmy Carter and the American people that lasted 444 days.
On Jan. 20, 1981, the day of President Reagan's inauguration, the United States released almost $8 billion in Iranian assets and the hostages were freed after 444 days in Iranian detention; the agreement gave Iran immunity from lawsuits arising from the incident.
David Rockefeller & October Surprise Case By Robert Parry
The Iran Contra Affair
In July 1985 the Israeli government approached the Reagan Administration with a proposal to get hostages held by Iranian-backed terrorists released.
The Israelis wanted the United States to act as an intermediary by shipping 508 American-made TOW anti-tank missiles to Iran in exchange for the release of the Reverend Benjamin Weir, an American hostage being held by Hezbollah, Iranian backed terrorists in Lebanon. This was done with the understanding that the United States would then ship replacement missiles to Israel. Robert McFarlane, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, approached Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and arranged the details. The transfer took place over the next two months. The first American hostage was released in mid-September.
In November 1985, there was another round of negotiations, where the Israelis proposed to ship Iran 500 HAWK surface-to-air missiles in exchange for the release of all remaining American hostages being held in Lebanon. General Colin Powell attempted to procure the missiles, but realized that the deal would require Congressional notification as its overall value exceeded $14 million. McFarlane responded to Powell that the President had decided to conduct the sale anyway. Israel sent an initial shipment of 18 missiles to Iran in late November, 1985, but the Iranians didn't approve of the missiles, and further shipments were halted. Negotiations continued with the Israelis and Iranians over the next few months.
In December 1985, President Reagan signed a secret presidential "finding" describing the deal as "arms-for-hostages."
In January of 1986, the Administration approved a plan proposed by McFarlane employee Michael Ledeen, whereby an intermediary, rather than Israel, would sell arms to Iran in exchange for the release of the hostages, with proceeds made available to the Contras. At first, the Iranians had refused the weapons from Manucher Ghorbanifar, the Iranian intermediary, when both Oliver North and Ghorbanifar created a 370% markup (WALSH, Lawrence E. "Firewall"). With the marked-up income of $10 million from the $3.7 million before, and the Iranian backed militants capturing new hostages when they released old ones, this was the end of the arms-for-hostages deal. In February, 1,000 TOW missiles were shipped to Iran. From May to November, there were additional shipments of miscellaneous weapons and parts.
Funding the Contras
Proceeds from the arms sales were made available, in an arrangement instituted by Colonel Oliver North, aide to the U.S. National Security Advisor John Poindexter, to purchase arms for the Nicaraguan Contras (from Spanish contrarrevolucionario, trans. "counter-revolutionary"). The Contras were waging an insurgency against the Marxist Sandanista government, but, under the Boland Amendment, the U.S. Congress barred American funding to the Contras. Thus, the Reagan administration illegally provided covert financial assistance to the Contras in order to circumvent Congress, made possible by the North's diversion of profits from weapons sales to Iran. In addition, the Contras received weapons and training from the Central Intelligence Agency.
The economy of Nicaragua deteriorated under the continuing contra attacks on the country's infrastructure and the inability of the government to obtain financing from Western institutions such as the World Bank due to U.S. opposition. The devastation of Hurricane Joan in 1988, called by then-US Ambassador to Honduras John Negroponte "a contra victory," was another serious blow. In the 1990 elections, President Daniel Ortega lost to former Sandanista Violeta Chamorro, who ran with open US support on an anti-Sandanista coalition platform.
Discovery and scandal
The Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa exposed the arrangement on 3 November 1986. This was the first public reporting of the weapons-for-hostages deal. The operation was discovered only after an airlift of guns was downed over Nicaragua. The scandal was compounded when on November 21, Oliver North and his secretary Fawn Hall shredded pertinent documents. US Attorney General Edwin Meese on November 25 admitted that profits from weapons sales to Iran were made available to assist the anti-communist Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
On November 26 President Reagan, faced with mounting pressure from Congressional Democrats and the media, announced that as of December 1 former Senator John Tower, former Secretary of State Edmund Muskie, and former National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft would serve as members of a Special Review Board looking into the matter; this Presidential Commission became known as the Tower Commission. At this point, President Reagan said he had not been informed of the operation. The Tower Commission, implicated North, Poindexter, and Weinberger, amongst others. It did not determine that the President had knowledge, although it argued that the President ought to have had better control of the National Security Council staff.
The U.S. Congress then on 18 November 1987 issued its final report on the affair, which stated that the President bore "ultimate responsibility" for wrongdoing by his aides and his administration exhibited "secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law." Oliver North and John Poindexter were indicted on multiple charges on March 16, 1988. North, indicted on nine counts, was initially convicted of three minor counts although the conviction was later vacated upon appeal on the grounds that North's Fifth Amendment rights may have been violated by indirect use of his testimony to Congress which had been given under a grant of immunity. Poindexter was convicted on several felony counts of lying to Congress, obstruction of justice, conspiracy, and altering and destroying documents pertinent to the investigation. His convictions were also overturned on appeal on similar grounds as North's. The Independent Counsel chose not to re-try North or Poindexter.
On June 27, 1986, the International Court of Justice (or World Court) ruled in favor of Nicaragua in the case of Nicaragua v. United States . The U.S. refused to acknowledge the court's jurisdiction, and subsequently vetoed a United Nations Security Council Resolution calling on all states to obey international law. The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution in order to pressure the U.S. to pay the fine.
The Sandinistas lost power in February 1990 after losing much of their initial popularity due to economic woes and the continuining aid provided by the US government to anti-Sandinista elements. -
Getting a feeling of Deja Vu?
Russian President Vladimir Putin, left, and his Iranian counterpart
Mohammad Khatami exchange signed documents during their
meeting in the Moscow Kremlin
U.S. warns Russia, Iran over arms sales
March 13, 2001
The State Department warned Tuesday of "serious ramifications" if Russia sold sensitive military
technology and advanced conventional weapons to Iran.
Moscow had refrained from selling such weapons technology under a secret agreement negotiated in 1995
during the Clinton and Yeltsin administrations. But last year Russian President Vladimir Putin said
he planned to stop honoring the agreement.
Russia's leaders defended plans to increase trade with Iran, accusing critics of misjudging attempts
to reinforce stability in the region. The Kremlin says it is pursuing closer ties for economic and
political reasons. - More from CNN
Russia's arms for Iran
Iran: Bear Hugs
Flashback 2002; UK 'sells' bomb material to Iran
UK 'sells' bomb material to Iran
DTI is accused of approving controversial exports
Monday, 23 September, 2002 -
British officials have approved the export of key components needed to make nuclear weapons to Iran and other countries known to be developing such weapons.
An investigation by BBC Radio 4 programme File on Four will disclose that the Department of Trade and Industry allowed a quantity of the metal, Beryllium, to be sold to Iran last year.
That metal is needed to make nuclear bombs.
Britain has had an arms embargo to Iran since 1993 and has signed up to an international protocol which bans the sale of Beryllium to named countries, including Iran.
Liberal Democrat foreign affairs spokesman, Menzies Campbell, who has been alerted to the BBC programme's material, is said to be extremely alarmed.
Beryllium is a metal with a limited number of high-tech uses in civilian industry, but is mostly used in defence applications and is a vital component in a nuclear bomb.
The programme has also interviewed a leading nuclear weapons expert in the UK who says that the Beryllium and other items which the DTI has licensed to Iran add up to a shopping list for a nuclear weapons programme.
The UK has an arms embargo against Iran, but not a trade embargo.
Export control weaknesses
The programme highlights the weaknesses in the UK's new export control system, which was set up to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
It will reveal that Iranian procurement agents have been working in the UK to get sensitive material back to Iran, and that Pakistan has also been successful in procuring material for its nuclear programme from here.
It is also likely to cause concern among Britain's allies. President Bush named Iran as part of an "axis of evil" accusing the Iranian regime of sponsoring terrorism.
|HERE WE GO AGAIN!!!
Officials: 9/11 report to link Iran, al-Qaida
The final report of the commission investigating the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks will offer new evidence of cooperative ties between Iran and al-Qaida, including information that Iran provided several of the hijackers with safe passage in the year before the attacks, government officials said Saturday.
The officials emphasized that the commission had no evidence to suggest that Iranian officials knew of the Sept. 11 plot. But they said that the evidence raised new questions about why the Bush administration focused on the possibility of Iraqi ties to Osama bin Laden's terror network after Sept. 11, when there might have been far more extensive evidence of an Iranian connection. - Indystar
subtle HUH?...Put 911 in the same headline as Iran and that proves it!!!
CIA's Acting Director Opposed To New Intelligence Post
John McLaughlin, [acting director of the Central Intelligence Agency], said his agency sees no link between Iran and al-Qaida, although he said that reports that many of the Sept. 11 hijackers got passage through Iran is not surprising.
McLaughlin said there is "no evidence that there is some sort of official connection" between Tehran and the terrorist network behind the attacks.
He also disputed critics who said the U.S. has given up the hunt for al-Qaida leader Osama bin-Laden, saying it is difficult to catch a single individual.
McLaughlin noted that it took four years to catch Aimal Kahn Kasi, who killed two CIA employees in front of the agency's headquarters in 1993. It also took seven years to catch Sept. 11 architect Kahlid Sheik Mohammed. source
Now America accuses Iran of complicity in World Trade Center attack
By Julian Coman in Washington - (Filed: 18/07/2004)
Iran gave free passage to up to 10 of the September 11 hijackers just months before the 2001 attacks and offered to co-operate with al-Qa'eda against the US, an American report will say this week.
The all-party report by the 9/11 Commission, set up by Congress in 2002, will state that Iran, not Iraq, fostered relations with the al-Qa'eda network in the years leading up to the world's most devastating terrorist attack.
The bipartisan commission has established that between eight and 10 of the September 11 hijackers, who had been based in Afghanistan, travelled through Iran between October 2000 and February 2001. The terrorists in question are believed to have been the "muscle" - hired to storm the aircraft cockpits and overpower crew and passengers.
Iranian officials were instructed not to harrass al-Qa'eda personnel as they crossed the border and, in some cases, not to stamp their passports.
According to testimony received by the commission - based on information from prisoners at Guantanamo Bay and about 100 electronic intercepts by the National Security Agency - an alliance of convenience was established between the Shia Muslim Iranian leadership and the Sunni terrorist organisation, well before September 11, 2001.
The report is expected to confirm the claim by Thomas Kean, its chairman, last month that "there were a lot more active [al-Qa'eda] contacts, frankly, with Iran and Pakistan, than there were with Iraq".
It will further inflame tensions between Washington and Teheran, where hardliners are threatening to restart its uranium enrichment programme, a key step towards building nuclear weapons.
A commission official, quoted in the latest edition of Time magazine, alleges that Iranian officials approached Osama bin Laden after the bombing of the USS Cole in 1999, proposing a joint strategy of attacks on US interests.
A preliminary report from commission staff, released last month, stated: "Bin Laden's representatives and Iranian officials discussed putting aside Shia-Sunni divisions to co-operate against the common enemy."
The offer is said to have been turned down by bin Laden, who was reluctant to alienate Sunni supporters in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, in the wake of September 11, Iran sheltered al-Qaeda militants fleeing Afghanistan.
The full report by the commission is also expected to endorse initial conclusions that al-Qa'eda may have been involved in the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers complex in Saudi Arabia, when 19 American servicemen were killed. The attack has long been blamed solely on Hizbollah, a Lebanese terrorist group backed by Iran.
Iran was declared part of an "axis of evil", along with Iraq and North Korea, by President George W. Bush in 2002. The report will add to pressure for Iran's theocratic rulers to be the first target of a re-elected Bush administration. Hawks within the administration want a concerted effort to overturn the regime by peaceful means.
Some Bush officials are privately contemplating a possible military strike against Iran's nuclear facilities before Russian fuel rods are delivered next year.
Teheran said yesterday that it had arrested an unspecified number of Iranian al-Qa'eda supporters. - telegraph.co.uk