Turkey's "COINTELPRO" Scandal

Part 1

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|| * --  SPECIAL - * -- December 26, 1996 -- * - EDITION -- * ||
                         SPECIAL EDITION
                             PART  1
                         By Tom Burghardt
                   Editor, Antifa Info-Bulletin
     Even when the military forces of the host country are not
     organized in accord with the United States military system,
     the doctrine developed and tested by United States agencies
     can prove useful in many of the world's nations.  The Chiefs
     of Mission and brigade commanders should encourage the
     military chiefs of the host countries to adopt organizations
     similar to those that have proven to be efficient in
     countering guerrilla forces.
     -- U.S. Army School of the Americas, _Operaciones de
     Contraguerrilla_, Field Manual 31-16, Fort Gulick, Panama,
     June 1968; cited in, Michael McClintock, _Instruments of
     Statecraft: U.S. Guerrilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency,
     Counterterrorism, 1940-1990_, 1992, Pantheon Press, New York
     . . . Generalized threats do not delineate behavior or
     specify demands and consequences; these are left to the
     imagination of the threatened individual.  Uncertain threats
     are used to create terror among the populace . . . The
     threatener captures attention at a point when persons under
     stress are desperately searching to eliminate uncertainty
     and ambiguity.  He may suggest escape routes and
     alternatives, and make compliance demands which are readily
     accepted in order to eliminate the uncertainty of the threat
     and reduce terror.  
     -- Department of the Army, _Human Factors Considerations of
     Undergrounds in Insurgencies_, Army Pamphlet 550-104,
     Washington, D.C., GPO, September 1966; ibid.
     (SAN FRANCISCO)  This "Special Edition" of Antifa Info-
Bulletin is courtesy of the Revolutionary People's Liberation
Front (DHKC), a radical socialist organization engaged in
militant struggle against Turkey's version of "genocidal
democracy."  The article below is from the weekly newspaper of
the radical left, _Kurtulus_; AFIB will post the second part of
this important series tomorrow.
     The use of fascist and/or far-right operatives to wage
counterrevolutionary warfare is standard U.S. doctrine. 
Recruited from elements aligned with ideological fascism, wealthy
landowning and corporate elites, drug lords and various criminal
syndicates, "third force" operatives, acting in concert with
military and police bureaucracies, employ widespread terror as a
principle means to smash insurgent movements as well as the legal
     The historical origins of modern U.S. counterinsurgency
doctrine can be traced to the recruitment of ex-Nazis by the U.S.
intelligence and military apparatus at the end of World War II. 
The initial counterinsurgency model and subsequent doctrinal
revisions were derived from _Nazi_ experiences in waging anti-
partisan warfare in France, Greece, Italy, Yugoslavia and the
Soviet Union during the war and _American_ experiences battling
insurgents in the Philippines, Central America and the Caribbean.
     On November 3, 1996 a car accident revealed the intimate
connections among fascist organizations such as the Turkish
Action Party (MHP), their terrorist arm, the Grey Wolves,
"mainstream" bourgeois" parties, state security agencies,
military intelligence and drug-trafficking mafiosi.  
     In light of recent revelations regarding the use of drug
traffickers and fascist operatives by the CIA as the agency waged
clandestine war against the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua,
the scandal rocking the Turkish state over similar revelations
should not be viewed as an isolated phenomenon.  Indeed, such
patterns of complicity among state security agencies, fascist
thugs and drug gangs is the _norm_ not the exception.
     Similar to earlier models (Argentina, Chile, Greece, El
Salvador) the employment of strategic and tactical terror against
dissidents, "false flag" bombings and murders to discredit the
left, torture, "disappearances," Turkey's scorched earth campaign
in South Kurdistan, conform to standard doctrine taught by
imperialism at institutions such as the U.S. Army's School of the
     North America readers would be well-advised to re-examine
the FBI's domestic operations against radical organizations of
color (Black Panther Party, American Indian Movement, Puerto
Rican _independistas_) and radical leftist groups in terms of a
broader _counterinsurgency_ strategy pursued by the capitalist
state.  After all, what was COINTELPRO, if not a "dirty war"
waged by the state against all who challenged the prerogatives of
imperialist empire -- at home and abroad?
                Date: Wed, 25 Dec 96 23:48 MET
 From: DHKC Informationbureau Amsterdam 

        taken from the revolutionary weekly from Turkey: 
                           * KURTULUS *
     Nothing has changed in the past decades. It has become a
regular item in the news reports. No day passes without it. We're
talking about the "traffic monster". Normally the news reader
says: "We have sad news for you again, the traffic monster
demanded another victim." Most of the times, the deceased are
unknown to us. But we damn the traffic monster: "God damn it, it
demands thousands of victims each year." It hurts, we are
saddened because most victims are part of us, part of the people.
     The traffic accident on November 3 initially seemed like
just another accident.  But the news programs opened with it, it
was not at the end as usual because the people involved were not
just people like that.
     The accident occurred in Susurluk. Police chief Huseyin
Kocadag died when a brand new Mercedes crashed into a lorry,
member of parliament Sedat Bucak was seriously injured. There
were two more victims inside the car, one of them was a woman. At
first not much attention was paid to these two, because they were
not as known as the others. But this all changed within half an
hour. It was Abdullah Catli who changed everything and who
brought the naked truth into the open. It was the "state" who
crashed. The passengers in the car immediately became symbols,
the representatives of the present Turkish state, maintaining the
system and the ruling powers.
     The discussions in the bourgeois media partly revealed the
truth about the filth the state is in, showing its decay,
revealing that it is the state itself which produces this filth.
The discussions about the drug trafficking, murders,
disappearances, the contacts between the Mafia, the police,
members of parliament and civic fascists revealed the existence
of "secret focal points" within the state, in other words: the
existence of the contra-guerrilla. The truth, spoken by
revolutionaries from several sides, is now apparent for the
people. Of course the discussions are just about a part of the
truth, and while the discussions go on, the state tries to
improve its image again.
     The existence of the contra-guerrilla and its activities can
no longer be denied. But they try to pretend this organisation
and its activities are just about a tiny group within the state.
In this way they try to create a base for covering up this issue,
before it all escalates. All take part in this game, all
bourgeois parties, from the CHP till the DSP, to begin with Mesut
Yilmaz, presented as the most radical of the opposition.
     At this point it is the task of the revolutionaries,
patriots and democrats to not allow that the truth, coming into
the open because of Susurluk, is covered up again. We must make
the people conscious about this case, leading them into the
direction of the struggle.
     The contra-guerrilla organisations in Europe, becoming
public in 1990, originate from the CIA and were planned "against
a communist government, against the danger of a communist
     The responsibles, who acknowledged the existence of the
contra-guerrilla organisations, said the secret organisations
were set up to fight behind the enemy lines like a guerrilla
force in case of such a threat, organising the people against the
enemy. The necessary weapons, ammunition and equipment were kept
in depots in several parts of the country. Contra-guerrilla
organisations were set up in all NATO-countries and also in
European countries which were no members of NATO. All these
organisations were joined under the name "Super-NATO" and a
central council was established. But why did imperialism, or the
USA, think this organisation necessary?
     The USA, emerged from the 2nd Imperialist War of
distribution of 1939-1945 as the strongest state which gained the
most. The USA used this opportunity to impose itself as the world
police force of all imperialist systems. Its goal was achieving
world domination. "The communist danger" was supposed to be the
largest obstacle. They wanted to cut of the path for communism,
giving it not an inch of land. Therefore the strategy of the
"Cold War" was developed. Truman presented the framework of this
strategy in a speech before Congress on March 12, 1947, giving
the signal for the "Cold War". According to the decided
strategies, the "free" states were given economical as well as
military support and it was "not allowed that these states walk
into the trap of communism". But the USA declared as well that
the aid depended on "the enlargement of the human liberty and
democratic organisations and the securing of a liberal economy
and governments, parties and groups which oppose the plan of the
USA will be confronted with counter-measures by the USA." The USA
wanted, according to its strategy for achieving world domination,
to install collaborating governments in all countries. The
economical side of this strategy was to find accomplices which
were prepared to co-operate with the USA, controlling the economy
of these countries with the support of these collaborators. In
this way they wanted to decide the economies of the countries and
gaining influence upon the governments.
     In the military field a joint military organisation, NATO,
was formed "against the communist block". But this was not enough
for the USA and in the `50's they began to set up
contra-guerrilla organisations in all NATO-states, using the CIA
as a model. Not even the parliaments in these countries knew
anything about the existence of these organisations. These secret
contra-guerrilla organisations were not just set up against the
external threat of "a communist occupation", they were also
supposed to oppress all revolutionary and democratic movements
which opposed the interests of the USA. This means the contra-
guerrilla was supposed to fight the own people in the countries
where it was set up.
     "Our security is not only threatened by open attacks.
Besides these open attacks there are even more dangerous threats
of another nature, not looking to be attacks. These dangers are
changes which are wanted in the interior of the countries. Such
masked attacks sometimes appear as civil wars, sometimes as a
revolutionary movement, and sometimes as a democratic or reform
movement. It's our goal to prevent these, and similar,
movements." (Report of the Rockefeller Foundation, American War
Doctrine, p. 297)
     The CIA trained the members of several contra-guerrilla
organisation in training camps in the USA and other states. At
the International Police Academy, near Washington, contra-
guerrilla tactics of interrogation and torture are taught.
Seminars are held about the social problems in different
countries, about the destructivity and the agressivity of
communism, attacks with explosives are with the help of films,
near the Mexican border, in the vicinity of Matamaros, technics
of silently killing people, like stabbing and strangulation, are
taught under supervision of the Green Berets. At the US-base in
Panama, officers were trained how to conduct a military coup.
Until 1975, 30.000-40.000 people were trained here. In 1963
alone, 82 generals were trained. Around 1.400 officers were
trained there annually. The coup leaders of Chile and Argentina
followed courses there. The prime-minister of Mexico, Luis
Echeveria, was a CIA-agent at the same time. He is mentioned in
the CIA-archives under code-name Litempo-14.  One of the former
government leaders in Costa Rica, Jose Figures, stated he had
served the CIA for 30 years, and the same was true for many
government leaders in Latin-America.
     Investigations have shown the CIA used wanted Nazi's and
fascists to set up the contra-guerrilla and to improve its
tactics. The expert of psychological warfare Henry Kissinger had
close relations with old Nazi's. He told them about his
experiences with the US-government and he made them a
proposition: "In Germany there is a great hate against the Soviet
Union, especially in Eastern Germany.  However, this feeling is
expressed nowhere because there is no organisation, no focal
point. To steer this feeling, the Germans must be organised.
[...] When America does not use these groups, the communists will
use them."
     The contra-guerrilla organisation, initially set up "against
the danger of a communist occupation" in reality served to give
the USA control over the countries in question and to hand them
over the neo-colonialised countries.
     In 1990 the contra-guerrilla organisation, known as GLADIO,
was discovered.  After this, all over Europe the existence of
contra-guerrilla organisations was revealed.
     "To discover one is the only person, except for the members
of this organisation, who knows about the existence of Gladio,
and thinking about it that they could kill you any moment, is a
terrible feeling", said state prosecutor Felice Casson who
tracked Gladio.
     After a long investigation the Italian Gladio was
discovered. A bomb attack near Triest in 1972 in which 3 people
were killed was brought to court in 1989 by state prosecutor
Felice Casson. The more his investigations progressed, the closer
he came to Gladio, but the solving of the case was prevented by
the secret service and prime minister Andreotti. Despite the
attempts to cover up the events, the state had top acknowledge
the existence of Gladio. The investigations revealed 622 members,
138 secret arms depots and a training camp in Sardinia. An arms
depot was discovered in Northern Italy in 1988, containing 127
weapons and explosives. This depot was controlled by the Italian
intelligence service SISMI.
     State prosecutor Felice Casson concluded that Gladio was
founded in October 1956 by the USA and the Italian intelligence
service SISMI. Furthermore he discovered links between the
organisation and president Cossiga, the lodge P-2 and freemasons,
as well as prime minister Andreotti who was prosecuted in 1993
for his contacts with the Mafia.
     A car bomb attack on May 3, 1988, in Northern Italy which
killed 3 gendarmes. A bomb explosion in the station of Bologna in
1980, killing 33 people.* Four people were murdered in May 1973
by a bomb in front of the police station in Milano.  This attack
was carried out by a certain Bertoli, a fascist who was trained
by Gladio.
     After the discovery of Gladio, it became obvious the contra-
guerrilla had international dimensions. Contra-guerrilla
organisations were discovered in all NATO-countries and in some
non-NATO member countries as well. A Belgium government officials
stated the contra-guerrilla was founded in the `50s in 16 NATO-
countries, thus releasing an avalanche of revelations.
     The French contra-guerrilla organisation was called
"Windrose". Defence minister Jean Pierre Chevenement stated the
contra-guerrilla was founded in the `50s and that the
organisation had been dissolved by president Mitterand. However,
an Italian source revealed the French contra-guerrilla
organisation had been present at a meeting of representatives
from all contra-guerrilla organisations, the so-called "Super-
NATO" in Brussels as late as October 1990.
     The socialist government of Felipe Gonzales, coming to power
in 1984, at first denied the existence of a contra-guerrilla
organisation in Spain. But defence minister Narcis Serra ordered
a investigation committee, without participation of the military.
It was known that contra-guerrilla organisations existed during
the junta of Franco and that Franco participated in talks with
fascist politicians and European military leaders. A Italian
member of Gladio stated on television that Gladio, together with
Spanish contra-guerrilla's, had been trained on the Canary
Islands by the American army. Later there had been training
centres and contra-guerrilla sections in Spain itself as well,
supported by the Spanish military. The official denials were
exposed as lies.
     The activities of the Spanish contra-guerrilla were even
more disclosed after a statement by a policeman in 1994. The
policeman stated the bookkeeper Galey, accused of being a member
of ETA, had never had any relations with ETA in the first place,
and that he had been kidnapped by the Spanish contra-guerrilla
organisation GAL. After these revelations, a new investigation
was ordered and a trial was opened. The investigation revealed
that between 1983 and 1987 at least 23 people, accused of being
ETA-members, had been kidnapped and murdered by the GAL.
     The Belgium contra-guerrilla organisation "Glaive" was
established in 1949 in co-operation between England and a
subdivision of the Belgium military intelligence service SGR, the
SDRAB. The core of this contra-guerrilla organisation was
constituted by 8 officers in active duty and 10 pensioned
     1990 the Dutch prime-minister Ruud Lubbers denied in a
written statement to parliament that a contra-guerrilla
organisation existed. This was a lie.  Subsequent investigations
revealed the existence of the secret contra-guerrilla
organisation "Operaties en Inlichtingen" (Operations and
Intelligence). This organisation receives 1.5-3 million dollars
each year from a secret fund of the defence department. Several
secret arms depots were discovered like the one in Velp in 1983.
     The Greek contra-guerrilla organisation is called
"Sheepskin". At first the Greek government denied the existence
of a contra-guerrilla organisation as well. Prime-minister
Papandreou did acknowledge the existence of the Greek contra-
guerrilla in a statement in October 1990, but he claimed to have
ordered its dissolvement after he had come to power in 1984.
Greece became NATO-member in 1952. That same year, the Greek
"Central Information Service KYB" was established. On March 25,
1955, the Greek chief of staff Davos and the CIA officer Trascott
signed the papers for the establishment of the Greek contra-
guerrilla organisation which was later known as "Sheepskin". The
document was counter-signed by the then prime-minister Papagos.
The organisation had 1.500 members, a number which could be
increased to 3.500 in case of emergency. There were 800 depots to
its disposal, filled with weapons, munition and explosives.  On
April 21, 1967, KYB officers used a plan dating from 1950, drawn
up in case of a communist occupation, to carry out a military
coup. Within 20 minutes, the putchists controlled all major
objects. When the CIA, who backed the coup, convinced the junta
of the possibility of a similar coup to seize power on Cyprus,
the way was opened for a military intervention by Turkey on
     The chief of the German contra-guerrilla organisation
"Antikommunistische Angriffstruppe" (Anti-communist Attack
Force), the retired general Reinhard Gehlen,+ was also chief of
the federal intelligence service BND from 1945-1968.  The German
contra-guerrilla organisation is also known as "Gehlen-Bewegung"
(Gehlen Movement), "Stay Behind" and "Sword". The "Bund Deutscher
Jugend" (German Youth Federation), founded in 1950, is in the
same tradition. A former agent of this organisation, Dieter von
Glahn, stated for the press that the BDJ was one of the many
organisations which were financed by the CIA.
     One of the organisations in Germany, set up by the CIA, was
"Peters Organisation", later known as "Technischer Dienst TD"
(Technical Service). The best agents of these organisations had
the disposal of high-tech radio equipment "Harbuna", manufactured
by AEG/TST, especially for BND-agents. Germany supplies the
contra-guerrilla organisations in other countries with "training
and requisites". Near Munich, the US 20. Special Forces had its
headquarters, and the "School for Counter-Insurgency" was
situated in Ober-Ammergau. Contra-guerrilla members from many
countries, not just from NATO-countries, were trained in camps in
Bayern/Bad Toelz and Schoengau.
     The contra-guerrilla organisation in Switzerland was set up
in 1950 as "Geheime Abwehr Organisation" (Secret Resistence
Organisation). Investigations showed the organisation kept files
on about 1/6 of all Swiss, that is more than 900.000 Swiss.  The
GAO belonged to the Intelligence and Counter-intelligence Service
(UNA), directed by the chiefs of staff. Although not a NATO-
country, the chiefs of the Swiss contra-guerrilla participated in
the meetings of "Super-NATO" in Belgium.  An investigation by a
parliamentary committee revealed the existence of the
organisation "Project-26" (P-26), as well as several arms and
explosives depots in Switzerland. The members of P-26 were
trained in a country which name wasnot disclosed, and they
possessed radio equipment which was used by secret NATO
organisations and which the Swiss army did not dispose of. This
equipment was supplied by the German BND. Furthermore, a special
service ("Spez. D") was set up to facilitate the exchange of
information between Switzerland and NATO. This organisation had
links with the German organisation "Schwarze Hand" (Black Hand).
     In October 1950, the Austrian minister of the Interior,
Franz Olah, ordered an attack against a workers' strike in which
communist workers participated as well. After the strike was
crushed, the scabs were brought together in a organisation, the
"OeWSGV" (Austrian Defence Sports and Friendship Association). 
Franz Olah described the organisation as a "special project"
which was to be activated in case a communist government was to
be formed. The OeWSGV was equipped with a central headquarters,
special radio equipment, as well as arms and explosives depots in
several places.
     The contra-guerrilla organisations in the Scandinavian
countries like Denmark, Norway and the non-NATO countries Sweden
and Finland were set up between 1951 and 1953 by William Colby
who later became director of the CIA.
     William Colby wrote in his memoirs that he received support
of governments in Norway and Denmark to set up the contra-
guerrilla. In Sweden and Finland the contra-guerrilla was
organised in an illegal way with the help of right-wing parties.
In 1978, a large arms depot was discovered in Norway. The
government stated this depot was to be used in case of war. The
roots of the contra-guerrilla in Sweden can be traced back to the
"Sveaborg Brothers in Arms". The people who were contacted, all
belonged to independent contra-guerrilla groups.
     The scandalous developments, suddenly becoming visible, and
the existence of secret organisations for some 40 years, revealed
at roughly the same time in all European countries and NATO-
countries, except Turkey, as well as the fact that this happened
immediately after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, show this
has not been a natural development. The European countries did no
longer need these organisations, set up against the "communist
threat" after the Soviet Union split up. There is no longer a
threat that Europe will be occupied by the Soviet Union. In their
view the danger of a revolution does no exist, at least not for
the near future. And even if such a threat would exist, without
support by the Soviet Union, such a threat could easily be
suppressed. The organisations, costing billions of dollars each
year, became too much of a burden for the European imperialists,
and they wanted to get rid of this burden.  By keeping the
contra-guerrilla organisations a secret, they proved that these
organisations carried out illegal actions, massacres and
provocations. Were similar organisations set up after these were
dissolved? That is not known. But it would be easy to imagine how
these organisations would look like and what kind of activities
they would carry out.
     The contra-guerrilla first let itself be known during the
May 12-Junta during the tortures in the Ziverbey villa. The
torturers sometimes openly admitted to the tortured to belong to
the contra-guerrilla. The discussions about whether or not such
an organisation existed, started in those days, some 25 years
ago. The discussions kept on. Something else did never end: the
denials of the existence of the contra-guerrilla by all
subsequent governments. It would probably be natural for the
military and the police in a country to deny the existence of a
contra-guerrilla, but it is not for a delegate, chosen into
parliament to represent the people.
     Some remain silent because they never opposed it, some
because they co-operated with them, or they supported them, and
some remained silent when the people were murdered under torture,
just not to harm the state. They kept silent, and they
participated in all the crimes against the people.
     The revelation of the existence of the contra-guerrilla
organisations and similar organisations in the European countries
caused a closer look at the contra-guerrilla in Turkey as well.
The statement by the prime minister of Luxemburg, Jacques Santes
on November 13, 1990: "The secret organisation in Turkey is
called contra-guerrilla", forced the then officials to react.
     Demirel, in those days in the opposition, stated:
     There is no room for such kind of organisations in a state
     of law. It has become a task of parliament to combat these
     secret organisations which constitute a threat to the
     people. The Turkish state can not step to the Turkish people
     with a murderous image. Where are the state prosecutors?
     The SODEP (Social-democratic Party) chairman, Erdal Inonu,
in the opposition benches as well:
     We expect a solution in this case about the contra-
     guerrilla, but we're not in the government now.
     Three years later. Demirel and Inonu are now part of the
same government coalition, and they speak about the contra-
guerrilla quite differently.
     Discussions about the contra-guerrilla just whips up things.
     An ideology which tries to harm the state, which hides
     behind these events, must be finished.
     The discussions about the contra-guerrilla endanger our
     government coalition.
[End, Part 1]
                Classwar in Turkey and Kurdistan: 
                Turkey a Contra-guerrilla State:                 
                       Mailinglist Mirror: 
* The August 2, 1980 bombing of the Bologna train station killed
85 people and injured more than 200.  Subsequent investigations
revealed that the probable architect of the deadly attack was
Stefano Delle Chiaie, a neofascist terrorist with ties to the
Italian state security bureau, SISMI, and a network of
international fascist operatives.  Included among the latter
were:  Cuban-American Bay of Pigs veterans linked to the Comando
de Organizaciones Revolucionarias Unidas (CORU); Aginter Press;
the French Secret Army Organization (OAS); the Chilean Patria y
Libertad (PL); the Argentine Anti-Communist Alliance ("Triple A")
and Nazi groups in the USA, Austria and Germany.  At least some
of Delle Chiaie's financial support came from Licio Gelli's
(fascist) Masonic lodge, P-2 or "Propaganda Due," an
international banking/financial empire mired in scandal.  Through
his connections to the Italian state and the CIA, Delle Chiaie
was the quintessential "plausibly deniable" operative.  The
founder of the neofascist terror group, Avanguardia Nazionale,
Delle Chiaie however, was not a "loose cannon."  "The Rose of the
Winds," "Plan Solo", and similar operations, were an inextricable
component of the CIA, SISMI and fascism's "Strategy of Tension." 
Because of the size and strength of Italy's Communist Party (PCI)
and the autonomous radical left, the "strategy of tension" became
a cornerstone of a plan to provoke a coup d'etat in Italy along
the lines of the military takeover by Greece's fascist Colonel's
in 1967.  The _fascist_ component of "Super-NATO" operations in
Italy, as throughout the rest of world, was a critical element of
imperialism's "roll-back" strategy to destroy the USSR, and the
organized left.  Terrorist bombings, assassinations, frame-ups of
leftists, as well as "disappearances" were initiated by SISMI's
"Gladio" operatives.  After the CIA-orchestrated 1973 coup by
General Pinochet against the reformist Allende government in
Chile, Delle Chiaie and other "Gladio" operatives, became key
components of the Chilean dictatorship's "Operation Condor" -- an
international "third force" that linked fascist terrorists in the
USA, Latin America, the Caribbean and Europe to the security
bureau's of Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil.  In
Turkey, the fascist National Action Party (MHP) and their
operational arm, the Grey Wolves, are an essential component of
Turkey's ongoing "dirty war" against the left in South Kurdistan
and throughout the country.  But the MHP and the Gray Wolves, as
with other "Super-NATO" (fascist) operatives, have a dual
strategy:  collaborate with the state when it is in their
interests to do so, especially when such collaboration leads to
the liquidation of the left and, advance a political agenda for
the creation of a fascist state.  The role of the CIA in Turkey's
"Contra-guerrilla" operations against Kurdish liberation forces
and the Turkish radical left and trade unions, are not
aberrations; indeed, the creation of a counterinsurgency "third
force," is _central_ to imperialism's waging of "dirty war"
throughout the world.  
For further background on "Gladio," "Super-NATO" and Delle
Chiaie, see:  
Stuart Christie, _Stefano Delle Chiaie: Portrait of a Black
Terrorist_, 1984, Anarchy/Refract, London 
Statewatch, _Operation Gladio_, -- type "Operation
Gladio" at the search menu prompt 
Serdar Celik, "Turkey's Killing Machine: The Contra-Guerrilla
Force," _Kurdistan Report #17_, February/March 1994, available
from Arm The Spirit, 
WWW: gopher:// 
Arthur E. Rowse, "Gladio: The Secret U.S. War to Subvert Italian
Democracy," _Covert Action Quarterly_, Washington, D.C., Number
49, Summer 1994
John Dinges and Saul Landau, _Assassination On Embassy Row_,
1980, Pantheon Books, New York
William Blum, _Killing Hope:  U.S. Military and CIA Interventions
Since World War II_, 1995, Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine 
Martin Edward Andersen, _Dossier Secreto:  Argentina's
Desaparecidos and the Myth of the "Dirty War"_, 1993, Westview
Press, Boulder, Colorado
Stella Calloni, "The Horror Archives of Operation Condor,"
_Covert Action Quarterly_, Washington, D.C., Number 50, Fall 1994
+ General Reinhard Gehlen was the head of the Wehrmacht's
Military Intelligence on the Eastern Front.  Recruited by the
U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS -- forerunner of the CIA),
Gehlen and other Nazis (including SS General Karl Wolff and SS
_Sturmbannfuhrer_ Otto Skorzeny, dubbed "Hitler's favorite
commando" by the Nazi press) were instrumental in setting-up the
CIA's "stay behind" networks throughout Europe.  During this
critical period at the dawn of the Cold War (1945-1953) tens of
thousands of Nazi war criminals and their fascist collaborators
were spirited out of Europe along "ratlines" financed, staffed
and created by the Vatican's Confraternity of San Girolamo.  The
brainchild of the OSS and British MI5-MI6, the leadership of Nazi
organizations, including Adolf Eichmann, Klaus Barbie, Joseph
Mengele, Ante Pavelic's Croatian Ustashi movement, the fascist
"Slovene Home Guard," the infamous Ukrainian SS Galician
Division, the fascist Ukrainian Insurgent Army (OUN), and General
Vlasov's army of Russian (Nazi) collaborator's, among others,
became the nucleus of a world-wide anticommunist "third force." 
Gehlen's network became the basis for the creation of "Super-
NATO" network throughout Europe.
For further background on Gehlen, "Super-NATO" and the links
among Nazis' and Western intelligence agencies, see:
Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, _Inside the League: The
Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American
Death Squads Have Infiltrated the World Anti-Communist League_,
1986, Dodd, Mead & Co., New York
Christopher Simpson, _Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis
and Its Effects on the Cold War, 1988, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, New
-- _The Splendid Blond Beast: Money, Law and Genocide in the
Twentieth Century_, 1995, Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine
Mark Aarons and John Loftus, _Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The
Nazis and Soviet Intelligence_, 1991, St. Martin's Press, New
Peter Dale Scott, "How Allen Dulles and the SS preserved Each
Other," _Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB)_, Washington,
D.C., Number 25, Winter 1986
Kai Hermann, "Klaus Barbie's Bolivian Coup," CAIB, see above
Francoise Hervet, "Knights of Malta Examined," CAIB, see above
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