Wake up Dopey! 21st century Psycho-Pharmacotherapy

Capt wardrobe Dec 2020

Apparently on Planet earth in the 21st Century -

you have to be happy in order to be healthy,

and you have to be healthy in order
to be productive for the nation,

and to ensure the health of the nation.

United nations meeting 2012 -
Wellbeing and Happiness: Defining a New Economic Paradigm

On 2nd april, 2012, the Royal Government of Bhutan convened the High-level Meeting on Wellbeing and Happiness: Defining a New Economic Paradigm.

More than 800 participants including political and government leaders, representatives of governments, international organizations, civil society organizations, media, and business, as well as leading economists, scholars, academics, and spiritual leaders from the world’s major faiths participated in the proceedings. The full programme is attached as annex Vi.

The High-level Meeting included an inaugural session that was chaired by H.E. Ms. Helen Clark, administrator, United Nations Development Programme and former Prime Minister of New Zealand. The Prime Minister of Bhutan, H.E. Mr. Jigmi Y. Thinley, delivered the opening address on the mission and purpose of the meeting.

UN Secretary-General, H.E. Mr. Ban Ki-moon delivered the inaugural address, and supportive statements were delivered by the President of the 66th Session of the UN General assembly, H.E. Mr. Nassir abdulaziz al-Nasser, and the President of the Economic and Social Council, H.E. Mr. Miloš Koterec. H.E. Ms. laura Chinchilla, President of the Republic of Costa Rica, delivered the keynote address.

UN Sustainable development

see more here; Costa Rica?

United Nations NEP calls on all people and all nations to adopt 'HAPPYTALISM' over Capitalism/Socialism on occasion of July 4 US Independence Day 2019

News provided by United Nations New Economic Paradigm Project

Jul 04, 2019, 20:28 ET

NEW YORK, July 4, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Marking the 2019 July 4 US Independence Day in America, and around the world, the United Nations New Economic Paradigm (NEP) Project is calling on all people, and all nations to adopt 'HAPPYTALISM' over capitalism/socialism, to set humanity free once and for all, achieve the UN's 17 global goals by 2030, and ultimately, the UN's 2012 call for a new economic paradigm which achieves the global happiness and well-being of all life on earth by 2050.

Today, the citizens and people of the United States of America, and billions around the world, celebrate one of the most important milestones in the history of all of humankind: the unanimous US Declaration Of Independence on July 4th, 1776, of the first states and citizens of America, from a monarchical, abusive, destructive, despotic, and obsolete system of economic, political, and social rule and governance.

The US Declaration of Independence, and the founding states and citizens of America, recognized for the first time in history, that certain Natural Laws and "self evident truths" exist that all human beings are created equal, and have natural, inalienable human rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," the right to democracy and governance by the people over rule by king or inheritance, and the right to revolution.

The US Declaration of Independence states further that it is the duty of the people to abolish and replace any system of government that is destructive, abusive, despotic and obsolete, with a totally new system that is most likely "to effect their safety and happiness."

It is the spirit of this natural and fundamental right and duty of all human beings to implement a new, more effective, and just system of governance, where necessary and appropriate that on this July 4 US Independence Day, the United Nations New Economic Paradigm is calling on all people, and all nations, to adopt and implement 'HAPPYTALISM' as a new economic genus and human development paradigm, to replace obsolete, old world and and inadequate systems such as capitalism, socialism, communism, mercantilism, feudalism, among others.

The United Nations New Economic Paradigm Project and HAPPYTALISM were founded in 2009 in the wake of the 2007-2009 Global Financial Crisis. "The crisis doesn't only make us free to imagine other models, another future, another world. It obliges us to do so," said former French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who convened the first "Happiness Commission" led by Nobel Economists Joseph Stiglitz and Amartya Sen.

In 2011 the United Nations New Economic Paradigm Project successfully gained the support of then-UN Secretary General Ban Ki moon, and all 193 UN Member States to adopt UN resolution 66/281 "The International Day of Happiness" in support of UN resolution 65/309 "Happiness: Towards a Holistic Approach to Development" and the principles, values, articles, and spirit of the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the US Declaration of Independence.

HAPPYTALISM is supra and pan systemic, solving siloed crises and issues, such as poverty, inequality, the mental health crisis, climate change, discrimination, freedom and slavery, gender inequality, sustainable economic growth, among others.

HAPPYTALISM answers the broader need for a bold new economic and human development system and paradigm that addresses systemic and legacy issues, which exist as a result of the tyranny of the status quo and obsolete mindsets and ways of thinking, and envisions a totally new world where all human beings thrive and are free to live happy and fulfilling lives.

HAPPYTALISM uniquely goes above and beyond old world and obsolete economic and political systems, such as capitalism and socialism, by proposing and advancing a philosophy that responds directly to the root causes of global crises, and the confluence of perplexing challenges and opportunities facing all of humankind, with new approaches and solutions.

"The time has come for the people around the world to pursue their unalienable right to liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and to adopt and implement HAPPYTALISM replacing the ineffective, and obsolete ways of old such as capitalism and socialism," said Jayme Illien, founder and CEO of the UN New Economic Paradigm Project.

"There have been only a few occasions in the history of the world when the citizens of a nation and the world have been called upon to turn the page anew toward a more advanced, sustainable and just system of governance and way of life. One occasion of course was when the founding citizens of America declared independence from the British Monarchy in 1776, which is celebrated today in the US and around the world. Another was when my grandfather, and former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, initiated and led the revolution and movement that ended Apartheid in South Africa, and gave birth to a new nation, a new political party, and a new era of democratic governance in South Africa, and the African Continent. Today is yet another as we at the United Nations New Economic Paradigm Project, call on all people, and all nations, to look to the future and shift toward a new economic genus and global development paradigm that promotes and advances solutions to the great challenges and opportunities facing all of us," said Ndaba Mandela, co founder of the United Nations New Economic Paradigm Project and author of Going to the Mountain, the first ever book to tell President Nelson Mandela's life through the eyes of his grandson.

"The world needs new lenses to approach growth and how humans and societies can thrive. HAPPYTALISM presents a totally new, optimal, and comprehensive economic genus and human development paradigm to promote and advance the human condition, ensuring the achievement of the UN's Global Goals for Development, and the UN's 2012 call for a new economic paradigm that achieves the 'Global Happiness and Wellbeing of all life on earth' by 2050," said Luis Gallardo, Founder of the Gross Global Happiness Executive Education program held at United Nations University for Peace, Founder of the World Happiness Agora & Fest, and former Global CMO at Deloitte, the world's largest professional services and management consulting firm specializing in advising global CEOs and political leaders, and solving some of the most complex business and worldwide challenges.

PR release

"In the UK the LSE's Centre for Economic Performance (CEP) took the lead in organising pilots of the University of Pennsylvania's Resilience Programme for all the 11 year olds in secondary schools. This is an 18 hour programme which teaches the children to observe and manage their own thoughts and feelings, and to understand and respond to the thoughts and feelings of others. The largest effects (compared with controls) were on the children who started off in the most depressed 40% of the class. For them their degree of depression was reduced by 0.2 standard deviations, but by three years later the effect had gone."

"One encouraging exception is the so-called Good Behaviour Game piloted in Baltimore. Each beginning primary school class is divided into 3 teams and each team is scored according to the number of times a member of the team breaks one of the be-haviour rules. If there are fewer than 5 infringements all members of the team get a re-ward. Children in the treatment and control groups were followed up right up to age 19-21 and those in the treatment group had significantly lower use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco and significantly lower frequency of anti-social personality disorder.There is one obvious feature of this programme: the amount of time when the game was played totalled around 200 hours. Aristotle was right–habit is central to the de-velopment of character and we shall only produce a more mentally healthy school population if we spend more time on it. "


But in the end what happens will depend ultimately on individuals- what they do themselves and what they get their governments to do. That is why a year ago a social movement was launched called Action for Happiness whose members pledge to try to create the most happiness they can in the world around them and the least misery. That is how we should lead our own lives. But we should also expect our policy-makers to adopt policies which have the same effect. Foremost among them is much more attention to mental health


This objective is unlikely to be achieved unless each country has a separate cabinet minister for "mental health and social care".

This could include mental health promotion and treatment from the cradle to the grave.

Within the healthcare system it would establishparity of treatment for mental illness and physical illness. It would also cover non-therapeutic services of care for children and old people. And it would pressurise otherministries, like the ministry of education, to make wellbeing a major objective of policy.For social services the lesson is clear. One of its central purposes should be to un-cover the determinants of human wellbeing. Likewise mental health should routinelybe considered as an influence on any other important outcome, be it earnings, crime,or family stability. And every survey should include questions about mental health. If we want to improve the wellbeing of our society, we need a change of tack.

Economic growth is not the magic bullet and happiness depends more on the quality of our rela-tionships and our own inner peace. Mental health is vital for both of these. Improvingit could be the most important single step forwards in the 21st Century.


Gross National happiness?

The symbiotic relationship between personal well-being and a Gross National Happiness paradigm is a great example of the circular nature of happiness, though I'm pretty sure Donovan didn't have that in mind in the 1960s. I also suspect that Donovan wasn't talking about the interdependence of happiness and sadness, though that connection is also necessary for good emotional health. source

TechnofascistHappyWorld [TM]

The app is like having a little personal action coach in your pocket who:

Gives you friendly 'nudges' with an action idea each day

Sends you inspiring messages to give you a boost

Helps you connect & share ideas with like-minded people

People are finding it really helpful and inspiring; for example, Jane said:

"I love it. The fact I get daily messages prompting me with the day's happiness challenge and reminding me of good things is perfect"

The Action for Happiness app is based on the themes and actions from our popular monthly calendars and aims to give users a couple of friendly "nudges" each day - firstly that day's action in the morning and secondly an inspiring message towards the end of the day.

The app was developed in partnership with Disciple Media, using their innovative app platform which helps communities to thrive.



London School of Economics = Tavistock

Those who read THE TAVISTOCK INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN RELATIONS as a first introduction to the New World Order inside a One World Government will be skeptical; but consider that no less a personage than Sir Halford Mackinder did not hide his beliefs about its coming. More than that, he gave notice that it might be a dictatorship. Mackinder had an impressive resume (CV) having been Professor of Geography at the University of London; a director of the London School of Economics from 1903-1908 and a Member of Parliament from 1910-1922.

He was also a close associate of Arnold Toynbee one of the leading lights at Wellington House and had correctly predicted a core of startling geopolitical events, many of them actually coming to pass. One such "prophecy" was the founding of two Germany-s, the Social Democratic Republic of Germany and the Federal Republic of Germany. Critics suggested that he got the information from Toynbee; that it was merely the long range planning of the Committee of 300 that Toynbee knew about.


After Wellington House, Toynbee moved to the Royal Institute for International Affairs (RIIA), and then to London University where he held the chair for International History. In his book, America and World Revolution he said:

"If we are to avoid mass-suicide, we must have our worldstate quickly and this probably means that we must have it in a non-democratic form to begin with. We will have to start building a world-state now on the best design that is practicable at the moment."

Toynbee went on in a forthright manner saying this "world dictatorship" would have to supplant "the local national states which litter the present political map." The new world-state was to be brought about on the basis of mass mind control and propaganda that would make it acceptable. Self-preservation, ambition, pride, hunger, love of family and children, patriotism, imitativeness, the desire to be a leader, love of play -these and other drives are the psychological raw materials which every leader must take into account in his endeavor to win the public to his point of view. To maintain their self-assurance, most people need to feel certain that whatever they believe about anything is true.

Maier files

Drug induced masses for a Happytalist new world order


Can the active ingredient in magic mushrooms help treat anxiety? Researchers want to know

"The largest of the studies will investigate whether a synthetic version of magic mushrooms can safely and effectively treat generalised anxiety disorder, a condition thought to affect about 6 per cent of Australians at some point in their lives. Symptoms include prolonged, disproportionate, sometimes debilitating worry that can affect relationships and jobs, as well as causing ongoing distress."

The Age

see that?

The symptoms cause breakdowns in individuals & their private situations.

Apparently none of these 'breakdowns' in personal life are caused by the pressures put on by the policies of Governments, but only by those suffering the effect of these tactics.

That's nice isn't it?

another quote from the same article

"The anxiety disorder trial will include more than 70 patients who will receive about three months of tailored psychotherapy sessions interspersed with several psilocybin "dosing sessions" - essentially controlled psychedelic trips that alter consciousness, thought patterns and perception and can elicit intense sensations, imagery, emotions and insights."

I know these are only trials but;

Can't visit your Mum over Christmas in the care home?

Worried? depressed? Got Cancer & can't face death?


"It opened up my spirituality and helped me to start facing things
like death - that is the kind of healing I found,"

Former cancer patient finds deep healing in psilocybin trip

Cindy E. Harnet - Times Colonist - December 13, 2020 06:00 AM

Metchosin's Mona Strelaeff took a psychedelic trip from deep distress to serenity last month using psilocybin.

Psilocybin, the naturally occurring ingredient in "magic mushrooms," works on serotonin receptors of the brain to produce mind-altering psychedelic effects for several hours - a sense of euphoria and spirituality, hallucinations and a distorted sense of time. But it can have adverse effects such as nausea and panic.

Although it has not been legal to grow, possess or sell in Canada since 1974, this summer, Health Canada approved exemptions under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.

Terminal patients were granted an exemption in August, followed by approval in November for Strelaeff, who was the first non-palliative patient.

On Tuesday, 17 therapists, including doctors, nurses and psychiatrists, received federal approval to try the drug.

Bruce Tobin, a clinical psychologist in Victoria and founder of TheraPsil, a non-profit coalition that advocates for access to psilocybin therapy, said the Canadian government has become a world leader in allowing patients access to psilocybin to treat end-of-life distress. "Health Canada now rightfully acknowledges that clinician experience with psychedelic medicines is an important part of their training."

Strelaeff, 67, is a great grandmother who was born in Helsinki, Finland. She ran an accounting firm that her youngest daughter has since taken over. Life for her has been at once generous - "so much joy and happiness" - and cruel.

Strelaeff survived breast cancer with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation in 2002, but psychologically never got past a followup diagnosis that it was metastatic and terminal, which was later viewed as either a miraculous recovery or a misdiagnosis.

Her first year in remission, Strelaeff lived with the abundant gratitude of a survivor brought back from the brink of death. She volunteered for the B.C. Cancer Foundation for years.

But that elation plummeted.

Strelaeff took a "terrible journey," treating her subsequent depression with alcohol when medications and therapy failed.

She recovered, but two years ago, her 46-year-old daughter - a university dean - was killed in a car crash and that brought back her original pain.

On Nov. 4, she had her first federally approved psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy session. In her home, she mixed a psilocybin concoction and drank it. After about 20 minutes, therapists blindfolded her to limit outside stimulation. While music played, she began to dive into her mind.

Strelaeff said she explored an even deeper pain from childhood, yet she emerged with a deeply satisfying sense of spirituality and peace.

"I just felt like the space was filled with everybody and we were all free and I was able to let go of my daughter because I know she was safe in that space, that was the spiritual experience that opened up the healing part of my journey."

Spencer Hawkswell, CEO of TheraPsil, said therapists wanted access to psilocybin for training, so that they could have an altered state of consciousness and understand their patients' experience.

In psycho-pharmacology, a doctor doesn't need to take an anti-depressant to understand how it works, and if one day, doctors are allowed to prescribe it, they wouldn't need to try psilocybin, said Hawkswell.

But to use it in psychotherapy, like cognitive behavioural therapy or hypnotherapy, the therapist must become a master of it to understand how it works, said Hawkswell. "That's just the way it's done since Freud's time." The exception would be a psychotherapist experienced in other altered states of consciousness.

Hawkswell hopes Canada will one day follow the lead of Oregon, the first U.S. state to legalize psilocybin for therapeutic use.

"My hope is that Canada is moving in that same direction, that we're finding options for people who are failing with normal treatments for depression or anxiety," said Hawkswell.

For now, the inclusion criteria in the original application from TheraPsil to Health Canada was patients who are terminal or palliative, or in remission from a palliative condition.

Hawkswell said Strelaeff was the first non-palliative patient treated for distress and it was "hugely successful."

There is no plan, however, to expand the inclusion criteria to depression or post-traumatic stress disorder, said Hawkswell.

Strelaeff doesn't expect she will use psilocybin again - "not for a very long time."

She recently had a CT scan where a "small shadow" was seen on her lung. She went for a PET scan on Friday.

"I'm in this space not knowing what's happening," she said. "I usually feel extreme anxiety with these tests, because they are pretty scary, but I'm feeling totally calm and I'm not afraid. I feel absolute peace. I am feeling the lasting benefits of the therapy." Times Colonist

FutureShock - Soylent Green & Euthanasia;

When people can no longer take the heat of dystopia there is a nice available option in Soylent Green: 'Home' --a chance to stop out of the claustrophobic grim and into a giant white (air-conditioned!) edifice, a kind of fusion of airport and hospital, that draws the shambling elderly in like the clean white light at the end of a very long and filthy tunnel.

It's no coincidence that once one decides to shuffle off one's mortal coil everything becomes suddenly magical and precious. It's just like when you're tripping and have been having a terrible time, clawing at your tombstone in a third ghost Scrooge miasma, and then you finally realize--in a moment of glorious Xmas morning Scrooge awakening--that you're not actually dead --you're alive! But you're not afraid of dying anymore, either. You get the full picture at last: it's only by relinquishing that which you most love that you yourself become that love. As Glinda says at the end of OZ, "that's all there is" to "home." Thus suddenly, for the first time, it seems, in decades of this old man's life, there is air conditioning, and cleanliness, and nice people, and room to swing a cat.

Seems like heaven. Upon entrance to your special room in "Home," which is just a cool rounded white room with a comfy bed and a rounded full wall screen on all sides of the room, a man and a woman in white flowing robes let you pick the color of the blazing light you want to subsume you, and you get a full 20 minute film to bask in, all around fields of flowers and flowing blue skies, orange sunsets, and all the wonderful things earth used to have. You lie in bed while the drugs drain the last gasps from your lips and then are free... your now useless corpse gently whisked off to the soylent plant.


Run an entertainment venue? going out of business?



This Psycho-Pharmacotherapy aims to go even deeper. Treating depression with DMT? Really?

"Psychedelic assisted therapy will revolutionise the treatment of depression because it gets right to the root cause of the illness," Carol Routledge, chief medical and scientific officer at Small Pharma told The Independent.

She described the DMT psychedelic experience as being "like shaking up a snow globe" in the brain. By disrupting unhealthy patterns of thought, the experience provides opportunity for them to "resettle" in a different way, helping the patient to then benefit much more from the psychotherapy that accompanies the drug's administration."

The UK Independent

All put forward by Imperial college Oxford

One has to ask.

Is depression really what they are trying to cure?

Will this treatment get right to the root cause of the illness?

Will we see huge amounts of formerly depressed people waking up after a trip, to discover their goverments are all tyrannies?

Or are they seeking to create a Huxley-esque prescribed 'normality' of drug induced 'happy culture' which seeks to eliminate the politics of critical thought?

2 more notable quotes; from the Independent article [quoted above]

"Dr Routledge described the regulatory approval as "a truly ground-breaking moment in the race to effectively and safely treat depression, as more and more people suffer as a result of the pandemic"."

"The regulator's approval also follows a report from the neoliberal think tank the Adam Smith Institute in July which urged the government to relax restrictions on psilocybin to allow more research into whether the substance could be used to treat depression."

here's the Adam Smith report









the treatment of disease through the administration of drugs.

see also control of addiction via Pharmaceutical Drugs

In the alcohol and other drug sector, pharmacotherapy is referred to as the use of medications to respond to drug abuse / dependence, including:

as replacement or substitution treatment for opioid (usually heroin) dependence the management of withdrawal from opioids (heroin, morphine, pain medication) the blocking of drug effects from heroin, other opioids or alcohol

The main objectives of using pharmacotherapy as part of treatment are:

to reduce dependence on substances
to reduce the harms and deaths caused by the use of substances or associated with their use; for example, BBVs, alcohol-related violence, liver damage, ABI, cancer
to improve physical and psychological health
to reduce criminal behaviour
to facilitate reintegration into the workforce and education system, and to improve social functioning




As you line up every 3 months for a vaccine - waiting, ANXIOUS, WORRYING to see if your contact trace comes back ok - longing for the all clear from the BIOSECURITY STATE - SO YOU CAN GO BACK TO THE NEW NORMAL -

you'll get your head checked as well - and if you show signs of anxiety & depression [caused by this madness they are rolling out]...

you get DOSED.

And they'll add that little element to your little V-card - to make sure your not having those nasty little thoughts that niggle you.

"Is this a police state?" you think...


But you won't remember a thing...

I'll just leave this here;

They can implant entirely false memories


a commonly prescribed beta-blocker, interferes with the neurochemical pathway thought to be responsible for making emotionally arousing events more memorable - the beta-adrenergic system - and it has already been used experimentally in the treatment of patients with PTSD.

In one study, published in October, Guillaume Vaiva of the University of Lille and colleagues offered prop- ranolol to victims of assault or motor accidents shortly after their traumatic experience, and then invited them back for psychological testing two months later. On their return, almost all the patients exhibited some symptoms associated with PTSD, but they were twice as severe among those who had not taken the drug.

The finding that propranolol can be effective at blocking memory when given after an event as well as before is important because, as Loftus explains, "In the real world you can't be there to exert your manipulations right at the time an event is happening, but you can get on the scene later." It has been proposed that propranolol should be offered to victims of rape as a standard measure to prevent them developing PTSD. But could it also be used to erase false memories - for instance, "recovered" memories of alien abduction - that nevertheless elicit all the physiological responses associated with harrowing, real memories?

"If the formation of false memories depends on beta-adrenergic activation, then it would seem very possible that propranolol administration could affect them," says the UCI neuro- biologist Larry Cahill, who has also investigated the effects of the drug in PTSD patients. But Ray Dolan of UCL, a co-author with Bryan Strange of the study on memory for emotional words, points out that not all false memories have a common basis. If they are interpolations into gaps in memory, such as the gap that opened up before the presentation of an emotionally arousing word, or possibly the gap into which Alan Alda inserted a memory of having over-indulged in eggs, then it is conceivable the drug would work. But, says Dolan, "Other classes of false memory, for example, where the memories are fantasies or out-and-out fabrications, would be immune to propranolol."

The Guardian

backed up here

Propranolol & Ptsd clinical study in behavioral modification

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been described as the only neuropsychiatric disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted individuals.

PTSD is characterized by heightened noradrenergic signaling, as well as a resistance to extinction learning. Research aimed at promoting more effective treatment of PTSD has focused on memory erasure (disrupting reconsolidation) and/or enhancing extinction retention through pharmacological manipulations. Propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has received considerable attention for its therapeutic potential in PTSD, although its impact on patients is not always effective.

In this review, we briefly examine the consequences of β-noradrenergic manipulations on both reconsolidation and extinction learning in rodents and in humans. We suggest that propranolol is effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly preventing or dampening the later development of PTSD.

In individuals who have already suffered from PTSD for a significant period of time, propranolol may be less effective at disrupting reconsolidation of strong fear memories. Also, when PTSD has already developed, chronic treatment with propranolol may be more effective than acute intervention, given that individuals with PTSD tend to experience long-term, elevated noradrenergic hyperarousal.

source NCBI

Propranolol - used as an anti depressant? hmmmm that's odd

Beta blockers vs. SSRIs

Beta-blockers are used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and congestive heart failure, to prevent kidney failure in patients with high blood pressure or diabetes, to reduce the risk of stroke, abnormal heart rhythms, chest pain (angina), tremors, pheochromocytoma, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, and to prevent migraines.

SSRIs (elective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are a type of antidepressant used to treat depression.

One similarity is that some beta-blockers and some SSRIs may be used to treat anxiety.

Examples of beta-blockers include acebutolol (Sectral), atenolol (Tenormin), betaxolol (Kerlone), bisoprolol fumarate (Zebeta), carteolol hydrochloride (Cartrol), metoprolol tartrate (Lopressor), metoprolol succinate (Toprol-XL), nadolol (Corgard) , penbutolol sulfate (Levatol), pindolol (Visken),

propranolol hydrochloride (Inderal),

solotol hydrochloride (Betapace), and timolol maleate (Blocadren).

Examples of SSRIs include citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Symbyax), fluvoxamine (Luvox, Luvox CR), paroxetine (Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva), sertraline (Zoloft), and vilazodone (Viibryd).


Propranolol - relieves the physical signs of anxiety

"Propranolol slows down your heart rate and makes it easier for your heart to pump blood around your body. It is usually prescribed for high blood pressure and other heart problems, but it can also help with the physical signs of anxiety, like sweating and shaking."


Propranolol - long term use causes depression? eh?

The relationship between propranolol and depression is a subject of controversy.

Numerous case reports suggest that propranolol can cause depression, but two small prospective trials have failed to confirm this. The contemporary psychiatric literature is divided as to whether propranolol can cause depression.

This study addresses this issue by re-analyzing side effect data from clinical trials of propranolol as an antihypertensive agent.

A literature review was carried out and the data were analyzed using meta-analytic statistical techniques.

Propranolol was found to cause depression as a side effect with a statistically greater frequency than the control medications used in these trials.

As other side effects of propranolol include fatigue, diminished energy, decreased libido, anorexia and poor concentration, it is suggested that propranolol is a cause of organic mood disorder, depressed type.

Does Inderal [Propranlolol] cause depression?

Quoting Wikipedia - Short term use enables hyper concentration & focus

In a 1987 study by the International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians, it was shown that 27% of interviewed members admitted to using beta blockers such as propranolol for musical performances. For about 10-16% of performers, their degree of stage fright is considered pathological.

Propranolol is used by musicians, actors, and public speakers for its ability to treat anxiety symptoms activated by the sympathetic nervous system.

It has also been used as a performance-enhancing drug in sports where high accuracy is required, including archery, shooting, golf[70] and snooker.

In the 2008 Summer Olympics, 50-metre pistol silver medalist and 10-metre air pistol bronze medalist Kim Jong-su tested positive for propranolol and was stripped of his medals.

Original propranolol was marketed in 1965, under the brand name Inderal and manufactured by ICI Pharmaceuticals (now AstraZeneca,).

Beta-blockers could be used to treat COVID-19, study finds

Beta-blockers could potentially be used to treat COVID-19, according to a new international study by Italian and Australian scientists.

University of South Australia cancer researcher, Dr Nirmal Robinson, working with a team in Naples, has found evidence in animal models that the beta-blocker Propranolol helps suppress the spread of cancer in the lung which has an inflammatory profile very similar to COVID-19.

The scientists have presented their findings in a paper published in Frontiers in Immunology, calling for clinical trials to support their research.

Dr Robinson, Head of the Cellular-Stress and Immune Response Laboratory at the Centre for Cancer Biology, says Propranolol is commonly used to treat heart conditions, anxiety and migraine. Recent clinical trials have shown its effectiveness for other conditions, including cancer.

"Patients with COVID-19 suffer from many abnormalities, including inflammation, because the SARS-CoV-2 virus disrupts the body's immune system. Beta-2 blockers could potentially reduce this inflammation and help rebalance the immune system."

Dr Nirmal Robinson, Cancer Researcher, University of South Australia

Beta-blockers including Propranolol are medicines that work by temporarily stopping or reducing the body's natural 'fight-or-flight' response. In return, they reduce stress on certain parts of the body, such as the heart and blood vessels in the brain.

They have also been suggested as a treatment option for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

"SARS-Cov-2 enters the human cells through the protein ACE2, infecting the lower respiratory tract, causing profound inflammation and multi-organ failure.

Patients with comorbidities, such as high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, are at much higher risk," he says.

Other inflammation suppressors, including Tocilizumab (an immunosuppressive drug prescribed for arthritis) and Ruxolitinib (a drug used to treat the rare bone marrow blood cancer, myelofibrosis) have already been used to treat the more serious COVID-19 cases, the researchers say.

"We believe the beta-2-adrenergic pathway should be more deeply investigated as a possible target to reduce the inflammatory symptoms related to COVID-19. The next step is to perform clinical trials to explore an alternative therapy to treat COVID-19, based on the lessons we have learned from cancer," Dr Robinson says.

The study was led by Dr Antonio Barbieri from the Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS "Fondazione Pascale" and Dr Vincenzo Desiderio, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" in Naples along with Dr Robinson who is second author of the paper.

Medical.net nrews

I would have thought that these beta blockers would be very useful in the
reskilling of Data programmers in coding the A.I. for the 4th Industrial revolution. hmmm?

Scroll down this page on Jeffrey Epstein to the development of performance enhancement...

SSRI's to treat Covid19? Controlling the "cytokine storm"

A commonly used drug called fluvoxamine was recently tested as a treatment for COVID-19 in the United States. The 152 patients enrolled in the trial had been confirmed to have COVID-19 using a PCR test, and had seen symptoms appear within the past seven days.

Patients who already required COVID-19 hospitalisation, or who had an underlying lung condition, congestive heart failure or other immune conditions, were excluded. The study looked only at those who at the time had a relatively mild form of the disease.

Among these patients, the study found that taking fluvoxamine reduced the incidence of developing a serious COVID-19 condition over a 15-day period. None of the 80 patients treated with fluvoxamine deteriorated, whereas six (8.3%) of the 72 patients given a placebo saw their condition get worse. Their symptoms included shortness of breath, pneumonia and reduced blood oxygen.

The second week of COVID-19 infection is when clinical deterioration is normally seen - which suggests fluvoxamine could be a useful tool in stopping mild COVID-19 from getting worse.

But what's unusual is that fluvoxamine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or SSRI. SSRIs are the first-line medicine of choice for treating depression, not viral infections. Fluvoxamine is also commonly used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder. So why might it work in a respiratory disease?

A not so selective SSRI

SSRIs work to treat depression by blocking a protein found on brain cells called the serotonin transporter. When the serotonin transporter is blocked, the amount of serotonin floating around in the brain is increased, which is the important first step as a antidepressant mechanism.

Treatment with an SSRI for a few weeks markedly reduces symptoms of depression in about half of patients. These drugs are very safe, with the most common side-effects being sexual dysfunction, constipation, headache, sleep disturbance and tiredness.

Despite their name (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), some of these drugs are not entirely selective. In fact, fluvoxamine also binds to another brain cell protein called the σ-1 receptor (S1R). Fluvoxamine potently activates this protein, which has various functions, including inhibition of the production of cytokines - small signalling molecules that help direct the actions of immune cells. Cytokines are one of the most important chemical mediators of the immune response.

Thus, it is likely that the effect seen with fluvoxamine in COVID-19 patients has nothing to do with serotonin but everything to do with inhibiting the inflammatory response through the S1R. We know from studies in mice that fluvoxamine can decrease a sepsis-induced inflammatory response and the toxicity that comes with it.

A patient in a Brazilian hospital with severe COVID-19 In some patients with severe COVID-19 is it the body's overzealous response to the virus that is most damaging. Photocarioca/Shutterstock

And it's becoming increasingly clear that the serious complications seen with COVID-19 are primarily down to an out-of-control inflammatory response to the virus, the so-called "cytokine storm". Here, the body's defence mechanism goes into a dangerous state, where the overactive immune system leads to a toxic inflammatory response, which can lead to death.


The new paradigm; Neutraceuticals

Vaccines will become a thing of the past

you will gain 'immunity' status via

neutraceuticals in your LAB MADE FOOD

"Speculation on who the winners of the nutraceutical venture will be is becoming a popular topic in papers discussing the pharmaceutical industry. Because new medicines are harder to find and more expensive and risky to develop than ever before, many companies, for example, Du Pont, Abbott Laboratories and Warner Lambert, which have produced conventional pharmaceuticals in the past are now merging to survive, or are turning to nutraceuticals.

This offers them a chance of a very large market. Datamonitor, a website that follows market trends, estimates the nutraceutical market at $17bn, and Dr Felice himself, speaking at a conference in 1998, put the figure at $250bn in America alone.3 Although these estimates vary widely, the nutraceuticals market is undoubtably very large and growing. As companies increase in size, more jobs may be created for industrial pharmacists, but the real impact of nutraceuticals on pharmacy will be in the community."

Pharmaceutical Journal - 8 JUL 2000

looks benign doesn't it?


Dozens of firms are developing cultivated chicken, beef and pork, with a view to slashing the impact of industrial livestock production on the climate and nature crises, as well as providing cleaner, drug-free and cruelty-free meat. Currently, about 130 million chickens are slaughtered every day for meat, and 4 million pigs. By weight, 60% of the mammals on earth are livestock, 36% are humans and only 4% are wild. Revealed: UK supermarket and fast food chicken linked to deforestation in Brazil Read more

The cells for Eat Just's product are grown in a 1,200-litre bioreactor and then combined with plant-based ingredients. Initial availability would be limited, the company said, and the bites would be sold in a restaurant in Singapore. The product would be significantly more expensive than conventional chicken until production was scaled up, but Eat Just said it would ultimately be cheaper.

The Guardian

The lab-grown meat space just got a big boost from Big Pharma, potentially speeding up adoption of the new products as companies work to bring them to market. The earliest any company plans to introduce so-called "clean meat" items is the end of 2018.

Germany-based Merck makes cell culture media, so having business interests in the process of producing lab-grown meat is not a stretch. The company could gain Mosa Meat both as a customer and a beneficiary of its cell culture technology, plus the financial stake gives Merck an insider's role in the trendy segment of lab-grown meat.

Should this investment in Mosa Meat work out, Merck could make other investments in the rapidly growing lab-grown meat business. Cargill and Tyson have invested in Memphis Meats, a Silicon Valley lab-grown meat and poultry startup, and Tyson Ventures, the venture capital arm of Tyson Foods, recently co-led a $2.2-million investment round for Israel-based Future Meat Technologies.

Mosa Meat isn't the only food company with a pharmaceutical firm behind it. Daiya, which makes vegan and soy-free cheese, was purchased last year by Japanese neutraceutical company Otsuka. The deal was seen as providing the plant-based food company with access to expertise and advanced pharmaceutical-grade equipment from its new parent.

Despite the potential benefits, though, financial backing from a pharmaceutical company could add to the impression that lab-grown meat is more of a lab experiment than actual food. U.S. consumers don't seem entirely sure about the products, although 40% of participants in an online survey earlier this year said they would be willing to try lab-grown meat in stores or restaurants.

As research and development goes on, questions remain about when cost-effective lab-grown products will hit the market and how the government is going to regulate and label them. A recent phone survey by Consumer Reports found that most consumers think lab-grown meat should be labeled differently than conventionally raised meat from slaughtered animals. Farm and ranch groups couldn't agree more and have asked the U.S. Department of Agriculture to keep lab-grown products from using the word "meat" or "beef" on labels unless what's inside the package is derived from slaughtered animals.

Producers of lab-grown meat, poultry or fish may have to engage in a coordinated educational campaign to explain what their products are and how they're made. They stress that the process doesn't kill animals and uses much less water and land — and produces far less greenhouse gas emissions — than conventional animal agriculture, so a sustainability factor is on their side.

Food Dive

Artificial meat and edible packaging: a taste of future food - Paris Innovation Review

Otsuka homepage

Merck moves into Vaccine Pills?

Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the company is discontinuing development of its SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 vaccine candidates, V590 and V591, and plans to focus its SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 research strategy and production capabilities on advancing two therapeutic candidates, MK-4482 and MK-7110. This decision follows Merck’s review of findings from Phase 1 clinical studies for the vaccines. In these studies, both V590 and V591 were generally well tolerated, but the immune responses were inferior to those seen following natural infection and those reported for other SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 vaccines. Merck continues to advance clinical programs and to scale-up manufacturing for two investigational medicines, MK-7110 and MK-4482 (molnupiravir); molnupiravir is being developed in collaboration with Ridgeback Bio.



German chemists originally synthesized MDMA, or ecstasy, for pharmaceutical purposes in 1912. During the Cold War, the CIA experimented with MDMA as a psychological weapon. Ecstasy had become a popular party drug by the late 1980s, and it’s recreational use is often associated with rave culture, dance parties and electronic music festivals. Despite the illicit drug’s legal status, some medical researchers now believe MDMA could have therapeutic benefits, particularly among people with PTSD, depression and other behavioral issues.

German chemists discovered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or MDMA, in 1912 while developing other medicines that could stop bleeding.

The substance, they discovered, had unique psychoactive properties. The pharmaceutical company Merck patented MDMA in 1914 as a compound that could have pharmaceutical value. It would be several decades before further drug development would take place.

During the Cold War both the U.S. Army and the CIA experimented with MDMA and other hallucinogenic drugs as weapons.

MK-Ultra, a CIA project started in the 1950s, worked on the application of psychedelics for mind control. The project became notorious for testing psychoactive drugs on unwitting subjects.

The CIA experimented with MDMA as part of MK-Ultra, but only tested the drug on non-human subjects. These experiments produced the first known toxicology studies of MDMA. The drug’s code name was EA-1475.


Timed release programmable nutrients

"People are looking for a different way to eat, something that is sustainable, healthy and ethical, and marine microalgae can fill in the gaps for people seeking primarily a plant-based diet,"

Professor Wei Zhang said microalgae could be manipulated to become protein dominant and nutrient rich, providing health benefits for the consumer.

Professor Wei Zhang said microalgae's composition can be manipulated, so it can be used in many ways.(ABC News: Michael Clements)

"We have the ability to change its composition and therefore its fit for different food and nutritional applications," Mr Zhang said.

Research engineer Peng Su said their team can even control how it behaves after being eaten.

"I can function how long or how fast I want those nutrients to be released in my body according to my need," Mr Su said.

Mr Su said coffee, for example, could be encapsulated within micro-algae balls and manipulated to be released slowly.

"I can have coffee [in ball-shaped products] and still have the benefits of coffee, but have it slowly released over 24 hours, so I won't get a headache," he said.

source = ABC.Au

UN Sustainable Development

Bytes to Sustain Our Bites:
Leveraging Digital Agriculture for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Food and agriculture systems across the globe are undergoing fast systemic changes. A few key emerging trends in the agriculture sector are going to significantly influence the achievement of many of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets. As food and agriculture systems are becoming more knowledge-intensive, digital technologies will play a more prominent role in the future so that farmers can achieve higher total factor productivity (comprising all of the land, labour, capital, and material resources employed in farm production vis-à- visthe total amount of crop and livestock output of farms) with lesser negative impact to the environment.

Mobile telephony, hyperconnectivity and 5G, artificial intelligence and machine learning, Internet of Things (IoT), remote sensing, big data analytics and blockchain are just some of the emerging digital technologies that are expected to transform the food and agriculture systems into Agriculture 4.0 (the Fourth Agriculture Revolution).

In order to make the best of technology advancement in the agriculture sector, it is important to understand how technologies evolve, function and flourish in the real world, in tandem with other factors such as infrastructure, policies and legislations and human skills, termed as "Digital Pathways" in this paper.Analysing and understanding these digital pathways will help to strategize, prioritize and actualize the benefits of digital technologies so that they can address the challenges faced by the agriculture and food systems, while at the same time help in gaining better insights about the possible consequences of the digitalization of the agriculture sector in order to identify, avoid or mitigate the associated risks and challenges that technologies might bring in.

source - Sept - 2020

The inevitable Bill Gates link

America's Biggest Owner Of Farmland Is Now Bill Gates

Ariel Shapiro - Jan 14, 2021

Bill Gates, the fourth richest person in the world and a self-described nerd who is known for his early programming skills rather than his love of the outdoors, has been quietly snatching up 242,000 acres of farmland across the U.S. — enough to make him the top private farmland owner in America.

After years of reports that he was purchasing agricultural land in places like Florida and Washington, The Land Report revealed that Gates, who has a net worth of nearly $121 billion according to Forbes, has built up a massive farmland portfolio spanning 18 states. His largest holdings are in Louisiana (69,071 acres), Arkansas (47,927 acres) and Nebraska (20,588 acres). Additionally, he has a stake in 25,750 acres of transitional land on the west side of Phoenix, Arizona, which is being developed as a new suburb.

According to The Land Report's research, the land is held directly and through third-party entities by Cascade Investments, Gates' personal investment vehicle. Cascade's other investments include food-safety company Ecolab, used-car retailer Vroom and Canadian National Railway.

While it may be surprising that a tech billionaire would also be the biggest farmland owner in the country, this is not Gates' only foray into agriculture. In 2008, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation announced $306 million in grants to promote high-yield, sustainable agriculture among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The foundation has further invested in the development and proliferation of "super crops" resistant to climate change and higher-yield dairy cows. Last year, the organization announced Gates Ag One, a nonprofit to advance those efforts.

It is not entirely clear how Gates' farmland is being used, or whether any of the land is being set aside for conservation. (Cascade did not return Forbes' request for comment.) However, there is some indication that the land could be used in a way that aligns with the foundation's values. Cottonwood Ag Management, a subsidiary of Cascade, is a member of Leading Harvest, a nonprofit that promotes sustainable agriculture standards that prioritize protections of crops, soil and water resources.

Gates is not the only billionaire on The Land Report's list of top private farmland owners. Wonderful Company cofounders Stewart and Lynda Resnick (net worth: $7.1 billion) ranked number three with 190,000 acres. Their farmland produces the goods for their brands including POM Wonderful, Wonderful Pistachios and Wonderful Halos mandarins.

While Gates may be the country's biggest farmland owner, he by no means is the largest individual landowner. In its list of 100 top American landowners, The Land Report gives the top spot to Liberty Media Chair John Malone, who owns 2.2 million acres of ranches and forests. CNN founder Ted Turner ranked number three with 2 million acres of ranch land across eight states. Even Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos is investing in land on a large scale, landing the 25th spot with his ownership of 420,000 acres, mainly in west Texas.


Yup ...Gates is Backing Timed released Medicine

A meeting between Bill Gates and Boston researchers four years ago has led to the development of a multi-dose capsule that, researchers said, could solve one of medicine's more vexing problems: delivering oral drugs over an extended period of time with one dose.

[snip] The capsule, once swallowed, expands into a star-shaped form that prevents it from passing into the small intestine, but allows other food to pass. It releases medicine over the course of days, then, after releasing the final dose, breaks apart and passes through the digestive tract without being absorbed.

The capsule represents the latest effort to solve a major flaw in drug delivery: Because the human stomach clears its contents multiple times daily, pill takers must dose themselves frequently.


NHS & Nutraceuticals

Due to open in 2018, the Quadram Institute (QI) will integrate research teams from Institute of Food Research (IFR); the University of East Anglia (UEA)'s Faculty of Science; Norwich Medical School; and the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals (NNUH) National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust gastrointestinal endoscopy facility. There is a strong microbiome focus in the institute's science vision going forward. The initial multimillion-pound investment for the Quadram Institute is being provided by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) together with IFR, NNUH and UEA.

Given the wide range of conditions and diseases affected by the functioning of the gut microbiome, the industry is cognisant of the huge potential to be unleashed with fresh understanding of microbiomes and how they function.

Interest ranges from food ingredient producers, consumer goods companies, pharmaceutical industry and medical device companies to biotech and technology service providers.Consumer healthcare offers promising growth opportunities for which pharmaceutical companies are starting to compete with consumer good companies for market share.

The importance of food forhealth was already underlined in ancient Greece, Hippocrates: "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." And in many other traditional cultures, the food is seen as a key to better health and a trusted approach against certain conditions.

Since the microbiome can play a critical role determining health, disease and wellness, a whole new spectrum of health-enhancing foods and transformative treatments are on the horizon.


The Quadram Institute

The Quadram Institute is at the forefront of food and health research. Our findings will lead to a better understanding of how what we eat affects our health, and how dietary advice can be improved, personalised and extended based on this. Our extensive expertise in microbiological food safety is also targeting both a reduction in existing causes of foodborne illness, and the safe development of novel foods.

As part of our mission, we are also looking at strategies to improve health through food innovation - developing future foods based on our science with a verified ability to improve health - in particular age-related chronic diseases including gut inflammatory syndromes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline.

We are working with partners in the UK and internationally to exploit advances in crop genomics to develop new varieties with enhanced nutritional qualities. A collaboration with the John Innes Centre is developing new breeds of wheat with higher levels of resistant starch. With our expertise in food science and the QI Clinical Research Facility, we are fully characterising and verifying the health benefits from this wheat, and products derived from it, and developing novel foods targeting obesity-related conditions such as Type II diabetes.

Other projects are taking a similar approach focusing on bioactives, including polyphenols and sulphur-containing metabolites, where we have or are developing new varieties enriched in these compounds that are believed to promote health. These products derive from our long term, detailed studies into the fundamental underlying biological mechanisms and processes by which these bioactive compounds alter metabolic processes in the body that ameliorate the effects of age and diet related chronic disease.

As well as delivering nutritionally-enhanced future foods, we are also looking at how the structure of food affects its health promoting abilities. The chemical composition and physical structures of foods determine the rate of digestion and passage through the digestive tract, and the absorption of nutrient within the small and large intestine. This in turn determines the release of gut-derived signalling compounds that are important in satiety.

We are developing future foods, such as starch based foods that have controlled glucose release profiles, to understand the factors that influence digestive processes and gut-brain signalling. Using our knowledge of food structure, combined with experiments and clinical trials, we are helping in the development of foods to modify the rates of digestion to prolong, moderate glycaemic response, and also optimise the bioavailability of essential micro-nutrients.

In response to consumer demand, we have been helping the food industry to develop a wider range of products, for example more "fresh-like" foods, based on a deeper understanding of microbial lifestyles in the food chain. This is also allowing us to extend the shelf-life of chilled food products, reduce salt, sugar and other preservatives, and contribute to better sustainability of the food chain.

To reach consumers and be able to contribute to reducing the burden of diet-related disease, we work with commercial partners to develop future foods. These will be based on the best available evidence for health benefits derived from the expertise and facilities at the Quadram Institute.

Quadram Institute

I'm guessing the plan is to track
all of these therapeutics on blockchain EHR apps.
So much money in engineering the microbiome.
Internet of Bio-Nano-Things"
- Alison MacDowell

Blockchain Solution in the Health Care Sector - Microbiome

Henk Duinkerken, Director of the Microbiome Center NL, opted for the blockchain solution from Ledger Leopard. In 2017 Duinkerken started a network between patients, scientists, doctors, pharmacists, and laboratories to improve intestinal health by enabling personalized microbiome treatment.

"A growing body of evidence from rodent studies further supports
a role of the gut microbiome in modulating emotional behavior."

Biomes as Mind Control?

The discovery of the size and complexity of the human microbiome has resulted in an ongoing reevaluation of many concepts of health and disease, including diseases affecting the CNS. A growing body of preclinical literature has demonstrated bidirectional signaling between the brain and the gut microbiome, involving multiple neurocrine and endocrine signaling mechanisms. While psychological and physical stressors can affect the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota, experimental changes to the gut microbiome can affect emotional behavior and related brain systems. These findings have resulted in speculation that alterations in the gut microbiome may play a pathophysiological role in human brain diseases, including autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. Ongoing large-scale population-based studies of the gut microbiome and brain imaging studies looking at the effect of gut microbiome modulation on brain responses to emotion-related stimuli are seeking to validate these speculations.


Germ free gut causes anxiety?

Interestingly, recent studies in germ-free animals in the stress-sensitive F344 rat strain showed similar exaggerated neuroendocrine responses but also revealed an increase in anxiety-like behavior (Crumeyrolle-Arias et al., 2014). Moreover, it has recently been shown that short-term colonization of germ-free mice in adulthood reduced anxiety-like behaviors (Nishino et al., 2013). Together, it is clear that studies in germ-free animals clearly show a relationship between gut microbiota and stress and anxiety-related behaviors, the nature of this relationship being influenced by temporal, sex, strain, and species factors that are not yet fully understood.

Studies in germ-free mice can also be expanded to enable research on the "humanization" of the gut microbiota (i.e., transplanting fecal microbiota from specific human conditions or from animal models of disease).

In this regard, intriguing studies have shown that the transplantation of microbiota from a high-anxiety mouse strain to a germ-free low-anxiety recipient in adulthood was sufficient to increase anxiety in the recipient, and the converse was also true. Source